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Game Theory of the Israel Palestine War Essay

… Game theory: How the irrational behavior in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict might be explained by the 'rational' analysis of game theory

Game theory is based upon the presumption that international actors are rational 'black boxes' that carefully calculate their options and move as homogeneous units in the chess game of global politics. The messy, multifaceted nature of Middle Eastern politics would seem to belie such an assumption. However, according to Robert Wright's 2002 Salon.com article "Both sides now" many devoted game theorists steadfastly insist upon the application of game theory to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Game theory, according to its adherents, can be helpful in predicting the complex interplay of state and non-state actors, by demonstrating why seemingly irrational behaviors have a rational basis, depending on the…. [read more]


Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention Term Paper

… ¶ … Flat, Thomas Friedman argues in favor of what he calls "The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention." William Duiker is not so sure about the trend toward globalization, saying that it may be offset by a simultaneous trend toward fragmentation.

The following paper explains which of the two individuals theories mentioned above are correct.

Thomas Friedman and the "The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention."

In his book, the World Is Flat, Friedman proposes that the world will soon cease its violence and strife since we are all part of the same global supply chain, we each impact one another, this impact is all the more visible in the 21st century, and our very connection and inter-dependence will compel us to cease rivalry.

To quote…. [read more]


Social-Conflict and Good Will Hunting Research Paper

… Professor Gerald Lambeau, a world famous award winning mathematician, recognizes Will's genius and provides him with a path to escape his working class life in south Boston.

However, because of Will's issues with anger and violence he is in trouble with the law and must attend court ordered counseling. His counselor, Sean McGuire, is also from south Boston and sees Will as a kindred spirit, becoming a father figure and referring to him as "son" by the end of the film. Sean points Will in another direction and encourages him to follow his heart to find his destiny.

On a larger scale this film is about class differences. In an early scene in a Harvard bar Will confronts a pedantic, presumably upper class, first year…. [read more]


Ethnic Conflict II How Does Mertus Research Paper

… Ethnic Conflict II

How does Mertus explain ethnic conflict in Kosovo/a? Identify the bones of contention in ethnic conflict. What is the KLA? Discuss why its role was significant in Kosovo/a during the 1990s.

The conflict in Kosovo in the 1990s is still mired in mysteries, as scholars continue to debate the root causes of the conflict. Julie Mertus spent years covering the conflict in Kosovo and found out, as she says in an article she wrote for OpenDemocracy (2006), that the conflict was based on nationalism, more specifically myths. "To explain the ethnic animosities in Kosovo required exposure not of truth, but, rather, truth as myth," she says. "Serbs and Albanians based their behavior on what they believed to be true, not on what…. [read more]


Communication and Conflict Management Research Paper

… This pattern is common among managers of different departments but within the same organization who may want to inform each other of an event or a change hence one manager will inform the other manager, who will in turn pass the information to yet another manager and the information goes in circle among the managers (Science Netlinks, 2012).

When an individual's preferred pattern f communication differs from that of a colleague, there is bound to be conflict emerging between the two. There are different people within an organization or even within the society hence there are the assertive ones in the communication and the adaptive kind. As the assertive type of people will want to have their preferred patters of communication used in a given…. [read more]


Negotiation and Conflict Management Term Paper

… As Loughry and Elms point out, "Professionals tend to resist organizations' attempts to exert control over them or in any way limit their freedom to make important decisions independently" (2006, p. 548). In power struggles involving the determination of best practices for the care of patients, for example, administrators will likely be more willing to concede to the will of physicians because of their training and expertise. Likewise, power struggles involving scarce resources can frequently be resolved when the realities of the situation are made known to all of the parties who are affected. Every health care setting is unique, though, and power struggles that are easily resolved in one setting might become full-blown crises in others, making the need for effective conflict resolution techniques…. [read more]


Managing Conflicts in Business Relationships Research Paper

… Managing Conflicts

Executive Summary the question of whether conflict is good for organizations divides academic researchers and real world practitioners. While conflict is acknowledged to have some benefits, real world managers are hesitant to make use of conflict and take steps to avoid it. This divide comes from an information divide. Managers deal with the full scope of externalities and long-term consequences of conflict compared to researchers and this drives their hesitation -- they understand the full costs of conflict in organizations and therefore choose to limit their use of it. Both managers and researchers recognize the benefits of conflict, but managers better understand the full costs.

The purpose of this report is to examine the idea that not all conflict in business is bad.…. [read more]


Learning Theories Play a Large Term Paper

… It would be advantageous of 21st century schools to incorporate observational learning software into school curriculums because it will allow students to acquire computer skills while they are also acquiring skills related to reading or math.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to discuss how a selected learning theory influences curriculum. For the purposes of this discussion, we focused on Social (observational) learning theory. Our research contained a discussion of the learning theory, a description of how it affects curriculum design, and thoughts on the use of the theory in the 21st century schools. We found that the social learning theory was established by Albert Bandura. We also found that observational learning theory argues that behaviors modeled by others are often duplicated. This theory…. [read more]


Counseling Therapy Theories Solution Focused Essay

… The Narrative Therapy has a peculiar way of concentrating on the 'unique outcomes' also referred to as the exceptions to the problem by Ervin Goffman. These are the outcomes that could not have been predicted by the narrative but may work towards the positive ending for the client (The Conflict Resolution Information Source, 2010). On the other hand, there is tendency by the SFBT to concentrate on the definite future and the inevitable solution that the client is helped to draw and there is little room for unforeseen eventualities.

The narrative therapy is a response to personal failures, on the other hand SFBT is responding to personal successes and the quest for a brighter and better future with achievable ad practical means of attaining this…. [read more]


Ethnic Conflict Why Is Nationalism Relevant Research Paper

… Ethnic Conflict

Why is nationalism relevant to the experience of ethnic conflict? What are the main points Perlmutter highlights about nationalism and ethnic conflict? Which emotions does Moisi identify with specific regions of the world in his clash of emotions analysis?

There are mainly two forms of nationalism that states throughout the world have adopted. The first is civic nationalism that refers to viewing all citizens of a state as members of one nation. The United States is a prime example of a country that exhibits civic nationalism. The second is ethnic nationalism that is based on ethnicity. An example of a country exhibiting ethnic nationalism would be Turkey where the state has identified ethnic Kurds as Turks for the last eighty years, and this…. [read more]


Political Science Foreign Policy Theory the Matter Research Paper

… ¶ … Political Science Foreign Policy

Theory

The matter of personal and national security has been a long lasting one throughout history. Leaders were selected and favored due to their ability to safeguard the interests and well-being of the peoples. States with lower levels of security would be attacked and conquered by larger and better developed countries.

While we would like to think that armed conflict is no longer applicable as a means of resolving disputes and that the references to national insecurity refer the times of the Roman or Ottoman empires, fact remains that international disputes continue to be present through today. Just remember Vietnam, the Gulf War, the ongoing wars in the Middle East or the most recent War on Terrorism, as forwarded…. [read more]


Counseling Theories Thesis

… Counseling Theories

"…There is no single, definitive, unchanging, final narrative that can qualify as the correct understanding of the patient's psychic life"

Schafer (as cited in Wolitzky, 2007, Definitions of…section, ¶ 2).

In 1896, at the age of 40, Sigmund Freud, Austrian physician who lived from 1856-1939, perceived to be the founder of psychoanalysis, coined this term, still used today. Freud's fundamental idea asserts "that all humans are endowed with an unconscious in which potent sexual and aggressive drives, and defenses against them, struggle for supremacy, as it were, behind a person's back" (Gay, 2009, ¶ 2). Some, however, historically and even today, challenge Freud's theory and mark his reported insight to constitute a romantic, scientifically unproven notion. Many perceived Freud's contention that the catalog…. [read more]


Children, Grief, and Attachment Theory Term Paper

… Children, Grief, And Attachment Theory

When a child, age 7 to 11, experiences the death of a nuclear or extended family member, the experi-ence generates subsequent grief reaction/s. During the mixed methods study, the researcher investigates ways attachment theory may positively compliment grief reaction/s and concerns challenging the grieving child that may include feelings which include, but not limited to anger, confusion, fear, and self-blame. When not addressed, these reactions may link to the child experiencing ensuing health and/or mental health problems in his/her later life. The study also relates a number of ways to help to confront bereavement issues that children experience.

Relating to Death

Addressing "Something Else"

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of Study

Significance of Study

Scope of Study

Rationale of Study…. [read more]


Argyris and Schon's Theories for Action Essay

… ¶ … Argyris and Schon's Theories for Action

Over the last ten years, the amounts of leadership in business have been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because many managers and administrators have been lacking the ability to effectively lead their organization. Where, many managers and executives will often pay lip services to having effective leadership, yet in practice they are not demonstrating the necessary characteristics to motivate employees. A good example of this can be seen with a study, which showed that 73% of businesses say that their employees are their greatest asset. However, when you look at where employees rank in the priorities of the business, 98% have them ranked in sixth place. (Chitwood, 2004) This is…. [read more]


Agency Theory in the Light Term Paper

… 1%, nearly double the annual rate of return of the company. This establishes that CEO's setup higher wage rates in their own interest against the objectives of the company and the shareholders.

It has been speculated that managers concerned are (supposed to be) aligned with the value of the organization. At the same time, the author discusses that managers enjoy maximum benefits at the company's expense, and are not liable to risks involved in investment. [Lecture Notes 2003a]. This establishes that manager's attitudes can be insensitive towards stockholder's investment.

Arguments exist against providing the management with compensation as it is believed that the compensation entitles the management to greater financial gain, introducing a great inconsistency in the organizational wage equality. [Jensen and Murphy 1994] argue…. [read more]


Leaders Handling Anger and Conflict Term Paper

… Leaders Handling Anger and Conflict

Anger Management and Conflict in the Workplace

Anger and conflict in the workplace have always been problematic, as even the best of companies sometimes find that they have strong disagreements between employees, or between employees and management. These anger management issues can lead to incivility and personal insults, which are a losing situation for all parties involved. Because of this, managers must find a way to recognize these problems before they cause too much difficulty, find ways of correcting them if they have already begun, and look for ways that they can use to prevent them from recurring. This is much easier said than done, however, because of the different and complex personalities that are brought to many workplaces.

The…. [read more]


Social Disorganization Theory and Restorative Justice Research Paper

… These laws that many Texas school districts enforce were originally written in the 19th century, and have absolutely no place in today's public schools. But notwithstanding the archaic punishment meted out in Texas schools, the good news is that high schools and communities around the nation and around the world are embracing restorative justice and family group conferences -- as a way, in many instances, to come to terms with things that occur due to social disorganization. Restorative justice may be considered too soft for some states and some school districts, but it is working for many others, and the beneficiaries are the students themselves, who learn that "justice" doesn't always include punishment and certainly shouldn't include incarceration for truancy.

Works Cited

Bearden, T. (2012).…. [read more]


Management Theories as the Supervisor Thesis

… Management Theories

As the supervisor of a team of six employees, my responsibility was to ensure the highest levels of customer service were delivered to each customer, regardless of their request for service over the telephone, Internet or via e-mail. My team of six customer service representatives had varying degrees of ability and empathy, in addition to perspectives of their jobs. For a few they saw the ability to drive up the metrics of performance as a means to further their careers in the company. Their approach to mastery and the strength of the causality of performance, modeled by performance awards and recognition for exceptional performance, made these employees the easiest to manage. The more troublesome employees looked at the job as a necessary evil,…. [read more]


Psychotherapy Theories and Practice Essay

… One of the more common uses of counseling is to address depression in both children and adults. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIH), mental disorders are common in the United States and internationally at an estimated rate of 26.2% of Americans ages 18 and older -- about one in four adults -- suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year (NIH, N.d.). There are a multitude of different methods and techniques that are used to treat depression. The most common methods in most advanced countries include psychotherapy, counseling and medication or some combination of the three. The rates of depression among the population have expanded quite rapidly in the last couple of decades; especially in industrialized countries. The lifetime risk…. [read more]


Nursing Theory: Hildegard E. Peplau Essay

… There is an expanding body of nursing knowledge and a debate is taking place regarding the different between models and theories." (Jones, 1996) Hildegard Peplau is stated to have a scope of influence that "transcended her psychiatric nursing practice." (Jones, 1996)

In addition, Peplau is reported as having "…played a leadership role by influencing and emphasizing the advancement of professional educational, and practice standards, and the importance of professional self-regulation through credentialing. She made a major contribution to nursing science, professional nursing and, of course, to the psychiatric nursing specialty through development of the Interpersonal Relations paradigm, a mid-range theory that has influenced the importance with which the nurse-patient relationship is regarded." (Jones, 1996)

The work of Haber (2000 ) states of Peplau as follows:…. [read more]


Sociology and Feminist Theories Term Paper

… Of particular interest to the casual observer are the differences in relational dynamics and social interaction and perception between African-Americans and white Americans. African-American societies are by far one of the most dominant societies in the U.S., and have also been subject to different stereotypes and stigmas that have been existing for many years.

In fact, racial and gender differences are the most common forms of stratification that society tends to look in an individual. In the case of the American experience, African-American males are perceived differently by society as compared to white American males and females, as well as African-American females. In Myra and David Sadker's article entitled, "The Miseducation of Boys: Changing the Script," the authors discuss the significance of race and gender…. [read more]


Realist Theory of International Relations Term Paper

… ¶ … realist theory of international relations is considered to be one of the most important paradigms of international politics. Developed under the pressure of the idealist conceptions on politics and foreign affairs, the realist beliefs represented the cornerstone of the political analysis of the Cold War period. It has been argued however that the lack of flexibility that describes its paradigms has made it incapable of foreseeing the end of the bipolar world and the demise of the Soviet Union. Nonetheless, despite its limitation, it can be argued that its perceptions maintain their validity in describing the world today. Although there are particular elements that are inconsistent with the nature of today's politics, the general framework it presents points out the most important aspects…. [read more]


Sources and Causes of Conflicts in Sudan Term Paper

… Sudan Conflict brief history of Sudan as a nation includes aspects of colonialism that are evident in the histories of many other nations. Outside interests from both Britain and Egypt dominated Sudan's early modern history, with emphasis on exterior rather than internal gain. The resolution of enduring conflicts, such as those of the north of Sudan and its southern interests and ideologies were frequently ignored in the interest of Egyptian and British profit and political gain rather than Sudanese unification.

These enduring regional differences paved the way for modern conflicts of ideology, faith, centralization, nationalism and even in some cases the enduring idea of a desire for a unified pan-Islamic nation. Economic developments of Sudan were ignored in the interests of external desires, for nearly…. [read more]


Just War Theory Term Paper

… Just War Theory is based on the ideal that war should be "restrained, made more humane, and ultimately directed towards the aim of establishing lasting peace and justice." Adherents may believe that war is inevitable and therefore should be regulated so as to allow as little damage as possible; they may also believe that war is a barbaric tradition that should be contained as soon as possible via mutually agreed upon codes of conduct, then phased out.

While humanizing war efforts is effective in minimizing cost, trade damage, and loss of life, it also has another significant advantage: by agreeing upon certain conventions for war, the two enemies have established that the war is between two rational parties that, despite their irresolvable conflict or conflicts,…. [read more]


Social Problem Resolution Essay

… The second way that National Organization for Victim Assistance deals with this social problem is through programs that focus on victims of crisis. Similar to crime victim initiative, programs for victims of crisis addresses the psychological trauma emanating from experiencing such situation. During this process, the organization tries to identify common reactions and uncommon reactions to the situation. Once the type of reaction has been identified, appropriate measures are developed and established to focus on coping with physical health and abilities, spiritual connections, emotional and mental ability, and family and community support. In cases where the trauma reaction persists to an extent that it hinders coping and functioning, the organization refers the victim to mental health institutions and professionals.

The sociological concept used by National…. [read more]


Accounting Policy Setting Using Ex-Ante Term Paper

… The team likes this form of efficiency, especially if they are from a small market, because it gives them some cost control with players who may cost too much to retain if they wait too long to sign a contract.

For any type of contract there are going to be transaction costs. With the example above, the player will possibly lose some money in the long-term and the team could pay the price of a permanently injured player. Artz and Norman (2002) say that "transaction costs' can include both the ex-ante costs of initially establishing the contract, and the ex-post costs of periodically renegotiating and adjusting existing contracts" (Artz & Norman). For the example mentioned above, the ex-post transaction costs are minimized if the team…. [read more]


Leadership Path Goal Theory Essay

… According to Bolman, and Deal (2011) the effective leaders should have following characteristics and traits in common. The leadership should possess a strong vision about their roles and expectations from other. The vision is important in deriving the organization towards a desired state. The clarity in their vision and objectives is also necessary in order to present their ideas and vision of the objectives. The leader's role in creating a synergy through motivation and offering rewards is also vital in an organization's success.

The effective leaders are open for communications and receiving feedback about their vision, objectives, and goals. The strategy formulation is also a notable trait of effective leaders. The degree to which they rely on the feedback and inclusion of their subordinates for…. [read more]


Motivation and Employee Engagement Research Paper

… Bassford, Offermann, & Wirtz (2012) have discussed the varying effects on motivation levels of employees of the support demonstrated by direct supervisors and senior management. Their studies show that employees tend to experience higher levels of motivation when positive support is demonstrated by senior managers. Increase in motivational levels is also experienced by the support shown by direct supervisors, but the magnitude is smaller than that resulting from senior management supportive behavior. The likely explanation for this is that interaction with senior managers is rare as compared with interaction with direct supervisors. This creates an increased perceived value for support from senior managers. Moreover, the effect of motivation from these two sources is independent of the effect of one another so that motivation derived through…. [read more]


Negotiation Overview: Theories Applied the Negotiations Term Paper

… Negotiation Overview: Theories Applied

The negotiations that took place between the group representing the city and the union representing ZAPO progressed far more favorably than had been anticipated early on. A deal that was amenable to both parties was achieved after only three meetings, with specific terms, actions, and responsibilities for all parties clearly defined and a contract presented for signing. This does not mean, however, that the negotiations went without any hitches and that all agreements were reached rapidly or easily. In fact, had negotiations actually progressed with this degree of ease they would necessarily have been somewhat suspect, as it would have implied that one if not both groups was truly aggressively advocating for their constituents. The degree of advocacy might have been…. [read more]


Learning Theory Several Theories Term Paper

… Learning Theory

Several theories are suggested for the best way to help students learn in a classroom setting, such as constructivism, brain-based learning, attribution theory, emotional intelligence and multiple intelligences. There is also the concept of "learned helplessness" that places a barrier on learning. It is important for teachers to consider each one of these methods and how if fits into their own educational gestalt. The students need to be motivated to gain as much knowledge as possible, yet the teacher has to feel comfortable about that style of learning to attain the maximum results.

The theory of constructivism (Piaget, 1950) is based on observation and scientific research and the way that people learn. It recognizes that individuals construct or build their own understanding and…. [read more]

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