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Constructivist Computerized Learning Constructivist Theories Essay

… "E-learning" is a broad appreciation for the use of electronic materials to support and reinforce all parts of the educational experience, from being the student to being the instructor and connecting to the world (Koohang et al., 2009:91). Most of us have accepted that e-learning is part of our life. And even young people already engage in it during their free time when more and more of them are active online. Koohang et al. (2009) have used this awareness to outline in some detail an instructional plan that walks people through what it might be like to use online experiences in constructivist ways. They focus, for example, on having students keep journals based on the types of sites and experiences they have on the Internet…. [read more]

Learning Through Play Essay

… Moreover, as children play, they learn fine motor skills and hand eye coordination that makes it easier for them to absorb skills and learning throughout their lives.

Play also supports learning by enabling children to see for themselves the cause and effect of their actions immediately, catering to their short span of time, and making them remember the impact for a long time. As it is a fun way of doing things, children are more involved in the activities and their concentration for these tends to be more, indicating that the children retain more of what they learn through play.

Take for example the 'Montessori' method that was proposed by Dr. Maria Montessori who developed certain play things such as the red rods and the…. [read more]

Constructivism Is an Important Learning Theory Term Paper

… Constructivism is an important learning theory for the modern classroom. The main idea behind constructivism is that the learner constructs all learning that is accomplished, not that the teacher creates the learning for them. Students are able to memorize, repeat, and regurgitate information without truly understanding it, which is what occurs in most traditional classroom learning situations. In order to truly understand the information, students must actually understand the processes which lead to true construction of understanding. Students must also be able to apply the information to situations removed from the "lesson" setting so that they will actually be able to learn information and develop understanding from learning experiences that take place outside of the classroom, and in the absence of an authoritarian teacher. Children…. [read more]

Learning Theory Several Theories Term Paper

… Learning Theory

Several theories are suggested for the best way to help students learn in a classroom setting, such as constructivism, brain-based learning, attribution theory, emotional intelligence and multiple intelligences. There is also the concept of "learned helplessness" that places a barrier on learning. It is important for teachers to consider each one of these methods and how if fits into their own educational gestalt. The students need to be motivated to gain as much knowledge as possible, yet the teacher has to feel comfortable about that style of learning to attain the maximum results.

The theory of constructivism (Piaget, 1950) is based on observation and scientific research and the way that people learn. It recognizes that individuals construct or build their own understanding and…. [read more]

Learning Theories to Current Education Research Paper

… The students who experienced peer models perform best on a subtraction post-test, as well reported greater confidence in their subtraction ability. The outcome were interpreted as backing up the hypothesis that supposed correspondence of the model to the learner raise in self-efficacy, resulting to more efficient learning of modeled behaviors. It is believed that peer modeling is specifically effective for students who posses low self-efficacy.

Over the decade that has passed, a lot of research activity in educational psychology has concentrated on developing self-regulated learning (SRL) and metacognition theories. These theories operates from the central premise that effectual learners are active agents who create knowledge by setting goals, analyzing duty, planning strategies and keeping eye on their understanding. Research has showed that learners who are…. [read more]

Learning Theories and Models Research Paper

… Also, consistent with developmental theory, he did not regard all learners as blank slates, but believed that past social influences had an impact upon learning. The sociability of individuals had an innately positive effect in most instances, as children could learn a great deal from modeling others in their peer group and elsewhere. This person is known as the more knowledgeable other (MKO) and can help the child learn and move beyond the zone of proximal learning (McLeod 2007). In the workplace, this is often an older, official mentor rather than a teacher.

Humanistic theories of learning, in contrast, stress that learning itself is not necessarily the goal of instruction. Rather, learning itself should be a rewarding process, not the gold stars emphasized by behaviorism.…. [read more]

Learning That Is Imparted Term Paper

… Instructing English in a work-based environment may increase chances of professional growth. The participants of work-based learning programs get a whole new world of resources accessible by learning a language that has noteworthy professional importance. Rosen (1999) reported ESL as being the most taught language surpassing Spanish in all centers of Berlitz in the U.S. English for reading purposes, English for communication within organizations, and English for developing basic writing skills by the secretaries and lower administrative staff will also increase in the industry called English for occupational purposes (EOP). Actionbased (Cunningham, Dawes & Bennett, 2004)and project based (Wrigley, 1998) have become two important methodologies for ESL in work-based environments. Their acceptance from the employers is more as compared to other class room-based methods.

2.1.3-…. [read more]

Constructivism in the Classroom Term Paper

… The Suchman Inquiry Model uses structured inquiry reasoning to facilitate learning. Whereas the Schwab approach is condusive to a laboratory or field research setting, the Suchman approach need not be conducted in a controlled environment, but rather focuses on assimilating and postulating data sets through a series of questions designed to use the process of elimination to isolate known conditions and to identify existing variables. The idea is to simulate the reasoning strategies which a research scientist might be expected to apply to the problem which the teacher has chosen as the focus. While the Schwab approach emphasizes reflective criticism, the Suchman model deals with the use of data, the formulation of questions, and the application of inference. (Eggen, 1979)

In developing a lesson plan…. [read more]

Learning Constructivist and Cognitive Theories Research Paper

… Gradual development of concepts must be enacted through active reinforcement. Constructivists hence believe that creation of a zealous classroom environment abets the learning process better than any other strategy.

The next theory in question happens to be that of cognitivism. Cognitive theory entails that repetitive reinforcement is essential in enhancing the learning process and furthermore, positive feedback is equally important in encouraging the student to repeat correct responses. The cognitive perspective emphasizes imparting knowledge associated with different subject matters. The cognitive theory looks at how information travels from being received at the sensory level to being retained in the long-term memory. This simply means that after initial attention has been gained, constant rehearsal cements the concepts in the learner's mind. The focus is to grasp…. [read more]

Learning Due Primarily Essay

… Under this scenario, unlike the other learning theories, the educator focuses on building intelligence and cognitive development.

Cognitively the student benefits as more information is retained over time which can then be utilized at will. By focusing on the how the individual learns, the cognitive theory relies on the students strengths. The approach is also very holistic as it incorporates many different concepts that will develop over time. Life is constantly changing. Children enter high school, get their first job, date the opposite sex, and marry one another. Each experience is dynamic in that it increases cognition in each respective step. However, in many instances, these experiences are unique to the individual. Specifically, cognitive theory argued that reality involves transformations and states of mind and…. [read more]

Relationship Between Learning Styles Gender and Mathematics Scores Literature Review

… Mathematics

Relationship between Learning Styles, Gender, and Mathematics Scores

Learning is one of the most significant backgrounds in research today and at the same time one of the most complex concepts to portray. A learner who enters the learning environment possesses a set of characteristics that are his fundamentals for learning. These characteristics are called his input behaviors. These characteristics have a cognitive aspect as well as an emotional and a psycho-motor aspect. Emotional characteristics show the motivation for learning or interest for the lesson. Characteristics such as self-concept, self-confidence, preservation, precision, and self-efficacy belief are thought to be emotional input behaviors. One of the influential elements on one's mental worth and his emotional characteristics is how he judges himself and his efficiency level. The…. [read more]

Learning Can Be Categorized Essay

… com)


Brown, B. & Ryoo, K (2008). Teaching Science as a Language: A "Content-First" Approach to Science Teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 45 (5): 529 -- 553.

Charles, C. (2005). Building classroom discipline. USA: Pearson Pub.

Baron, R.A., Byrne, D., & Branscombe, N.R. (2006). Social Psychology (11th Ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.

Benson, N.C. (1998). Introducing Psychology. U.K: Totem Books.

Devine, P.G., Hamilton, D.L., & Ostrom, T.M. (1994). Social cognition: Impact on social psychology. San Diego: Academic Press.

Driver, R.; Asoko, H., Leach, J., Scott, P., Mortimer, E. (1994). Constructing scientific knowledge in the classroom. Educational researcher 23 (7): 5.

Kelly, G.A. (1963). A theory of personality: the psychology of personal constructs. New York: Norton.


Marzano, R. (1991). Fostering thinking…. [read more]

Teaching and Learning Theories Research Proposal

… Learning Theories

The educational field provides access to a variety of learning theories, many of them offshoots or modifications of previously popular stratagems of learning styles. Numerous studies have been conducted to verify, justify or analyze these theories and their potential usage in the U.S. educational system. Many of these studies have provided educators with more than a little knowledge on how to approach their own particular style of pedagogy, instructing and teaching.

Espin, C.A.

One such study was conducted by Espin, Cevasco, van den Broek, Baker and Gersten to determine the quality and nature of a group of student's comprehension of history. Their abstract states; "we explore whether cognitive-psychological theories developed to capture the comprehension of narrative text can be used to capture the…. [read more]

Learning Styles the Theory Essay

… In the Honey and Mumford learning styles, like the pragmatists, to try everything, but they are impatient with long discussions. (McCombs and Vakili, p1582-600) They learn best when they save techniques that will help them to time and if they are able to try new techniques and feedback can be given. Pragmatists do not work well when there are no guidelines or instructions given, or if you do not feel that benefits are going to do it. (Nielsen et al. p124-28)

The immediate focus of learning experiences as the basis of experience-based learning models has as constructivist approaches from. In contrast to behaviorism and cognitivism goes constructivism as a learning paradigm assumes that knowledge can not be taught objectively, but is designed individually by each…. [read more]

Social Nature of Learning for Adults Research Paper

… Social Nature of Learning for Adults

The act of being social means interacting with others. Learning can be a social process and learning for adults is different than the social process of how children learn. Two pioneers of the social nature of learning theory are Albert Bandura and Lev Vygotsky. Bandera's theory on social learning is that environment causes behavior, but behavior also causes environment. Bandura called this theory of his reciprocal determinism. Along with this theory, he felt that the more attentive a person was, the more he learned and how well a person retained information would have an effect on the learning process ( Lev Vygotsy's theory on social learning is based on constructivism. He believed that people use things such as speech…. [read more]

Child Development and Learning Essay

… The theory makes an assumption that children go through the same sequence of development though at different rates Lyon, 1996.

Therefore, teachers must make special efforts to arrange their classroom activities to accommodate the disabled children who may not be able to develop as fast as the others. For example, for the blind child, they should be provided with audio books and given longer time to complete assignments or even given fewer assignments to complete.


Das, J.P. (1999). Some Thoughts on Two Aspects of Vygotsky's Work. Educational Psychologist, 30(2), 93-99.

DeVries, R. (1997). Piaget's Social Theory. Educational Researcher, 26(2), 4-17.

Glidden, L.M. (2000). Adopting Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Long-Term Perspective. Family Relations, 49(4), 397-405.

Holland, D.C., & Valsiner, J. (1988). Cognition, Symbols, and…. [read more]

Theoretical Approaches to Learning Term Paper

… 6. Young adult: 18 to 35

Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation - Love

At this stage, young adults tend to seek deeper relationships and satisfying partnerships and if they have failed relationships or are unable to develop positive social connections, isolation may occur.

7. Middle-aged Adult: 35 to 55 or 65

Generativity vs. Self absorption or Stagnation - Care

There is a sense of responsibility towards family and the greater society and individuals begin to work productively towards a higher goal of generativity and learn to build better families and social lives. Failing this stagnation and self absorption may occur.

8. Late Adult: 55 or 65 to Death

Integrity vs. Despair - Wisdom

Individuals want to reflect on life with a feeling of contentment and…. [read more]

Graduate Certificate Nursing Education Learning Essay

… For this purposes, researches involving adult learning theories were studied. It was established that Typical adult learning theories encompass the basic concepts of behavioral change and experience. From there, complexities begin to diverge specific theories and concepts in an eclectic barrage of inferences. Furthermore, there are "four invariant stages of cognitive development that are age related" (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999, p. 139). According to the authors, Piaget contends that normal children will reach the final stage of development, which is the stage of formal operations, between the age of twelve and fifteen. According to a literature review by Owen (2002), humanism, personal responsibility orientation, behaviorism, neobehaviorism, critical perspectives, and constructivism are all important facets of, and perspectives on, adult learning theory. The most common treatments…. [read more]

Constructivism in TESOL-1 Abreviations EFL Term Paper

… However, it is first important to acknowledge that in Thailand the key or main language is known as the standard Thai, which is also known as Siamese or central Thai and it is the official language that is used by the over 20 million citizens of Thailand in their day-to-day activities. This therefore means that English is referred to as a foreign language in Thailand.

Students who enroll in these classes have different objectives but it can summarily be stated that they want to learn how to write and speak in English so as to broaden their educational background. Secondly, it could be because they plan to travel to a country that uses English as its official language so as to study, work or visit…. [read more]

Learning Theories Term Paper

… A well-balanced measure of environmental and internal stimulus would serve the cognitive learner best, as they would analyze the sum total of experiences and stimulus directed toward learning.

Some learning theorists have referred to this learning style as behavioral modification style learning, as it takes into consideration the manner in which learners can change prior thinking connections to adopt new ways of thinking while gathering new information through learning and accumulation of information from the facilitator and through interactions with the environment and learning activities (Hartley, 1998).

Examples of Teaching Methods for Each Related to Adult Learning

Behavioral approaches would require the environment for the adult learner. The best type of environment for learning would be an environment where activity engaged the learner; where doing…. [read more]

Theory of Reflective Learning Research Paper

… ¶ … Traditional forms of learning do not take into account what learners learn and how they learn it (Peters, 2000). Constructivists, such as Peters look at learning as being built or constructed by individuals, in contrast to information that experts disseminate to passive learners. Constructivist learning provides skills that enhance understanding at the same time as learning. Peters noted that nurses educated with constructivism are more prepared to transition to practice settings. Learning skills sharpened in the constructivist environment offer graduates with metacognitive ability, an essential aspect of active and self-directed learning that is so vital in nursing. According to Osterman (1998), who is known for her work with reflective learning, "Reflective practice is a professional development strategy with roots in the constructivist paradigm."…. [read more]

Behaviorism and Constructivism Term Paper

… ¶ … behaviorism and constructivism using the beliefs of Skinner, Pavlov, and Kohn as a way of explaining behavior and learning. This also includes my personal critique. A comparison and critique of the philosophy undergirding behaviorism and constructivism is also carried out. My own thoughts regarding the employment of these practices in classrooms as well as the critique of authors such as Skinner, Pavlov, and Kohn and the rest is also carried out.

The concept of behaviorism and constructivism has long dominated the domain of learning as well as behavior analysis. This is due to their in-depth and critical viewpoints regarding the reasons as to why people behave in certain ways and also their processes of learning various skills and habits in the course of…. [read more]

Gestalt Theory Principles of Learning Term Paper

… Gestalt Theory

There are many theories and principles of learning. All of which are aimed at facilitating a successful learning experience for both the educator and the learner. Among the initiators of the study of learning is now known as Gestalt Principles of Learning. Even from the very beginning, Gestalt Theory of Learning highlights the very methods of processing learning.

The Beginning of Gestalt Theory

It was the later part of 1890 when Gestalt theory was considered as part of the learning practice. At first, Christian von Ehrenfels, who coined the term Gestalt, used this theory in denoting the "experiences that require more than the basic sensory capacities to be understood" (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2006). It was in 1912 when the term Gestalt was attached…. [read more]

Educational Psychology Constructivist Theory of Learning Constructivist Teaching Essay

… Constructivist Theory

In today's educational context, teachers are faced with many challenges. Not least of these is the fact that children come from so many different cultural and intellectual backgrounds that it can no longer be assumed that even two children in class can be approached in a uniform manner and deliver the same education outcomes. Further complicating the matter is the increasing recognition that each child has a unique set of innate intellectual abilities and needs. Among these is the fact that each child has a specific learning style of which teachers should be aware. To create an environment that optimizes the learning process as far as possible for every child in the classroom is therefore no mean feat. Another challenge is the education…. [read more]

Educational Psychology A) Student Learning: Constructivism Arose Term Paper

… Educational Psychology

a) Student Learning: Constructivism

Constructivism arose from learning theories originally created by Piaget and Vygotsky. At the basis of the theory is the use of prior knowledge or existing cognitive frameworks to use as a basis for acquiring new knowledge and skills (Cakir, 2008, p. 196). Van Glaserfeld (1995) offers a number of principles to describe constructivist knowing. The first of these concerns the way in which knowledge is constructed in an active, rather than passive way. Knowledge is not received, it is constructed from within by means of thinking processes. The second principle concerns social interactions to promote learning and knowledge construction. Third, the focus is on cognition as functional and adaptive. Knowledge adapts itself according to the input received. The fourth…. [read more]

Learning Theories You Selected Term Paper

… The instance of BPD can be extended to numerous other instances. Realizing that personality disorders have cultural histories can help nurses become more emphatic, open-minded, and less rigid in their approach.

Critical pedagogy has connotations that are similar to social constructionism in that it also attempts to make the individual reflect on and critique his learning and come to the assumption that many of his or her ways of thinking are socially formed. The primary difference with critical pedagogy, however, is that it orbits around the concept of 'oppression' arguing that certain powerful individuals in society have placed themselves on top and, by doing so, demoted others to subservient, inferior positons by categlorizingt them with erroneous, humiliating constructs. Instances here extend to social treatment of…. [read more]

Distance Learning Distance Education Review Thesis

… Distance Learning

Distance Education Review

In these brief remarks by Borje Holmberg, the scholar discusses distance education. More specifically, he points out that more research needs to be done in the area of distance education, especially about how distance education affects society and vice versa. Furthermore, the scholar suggests that in this research regarding distance education, researchers are pursuing a goal to find something new and different that can revolutionize the world of distance education. That something new may be in the form of adapting other types of education research to distance education. For example, Holmberg brings up constructivism and its connection with distance education. Finally, the educator remarks that while his theories of distance education so far have been based primarily on methodology, a…. [read more]

Paradigms Positivist or Constructivist Thesis

… Constructivism & Positivism

Defense of Constructivism as Research Paradigm

For educators, the type of research paradigm used for practitioner research is nearly as important of a decision as the research question that one decides to investigate. Two popular types of research design are the positivist and constructivist types. Traditionally, science was dominated by the positivist paradigm, in which scientists believed the purpose of research was to simply document what was observable (Positivism & Post Positivism). The goal of positivism is to try to discover the truths of the world so that it can be "prdict[ed] and control[ed]" (Positivism & Post Positivism). Many, on the other hand, believe research has progressed beyond the realm of positivism, or conventional, research. These believe that other methods, such as…. [read more]

Workplace Learning Term Paper

… Workplace Learning

The subject of behaviorism, being a very complex phenomenon, is still in its infancy. Therefore, the characteristics of human behavior are still being studied and many theses and antitheses are being presented by modern day theorists. Initially, many theorists believe that there are two inescapable disparities and holes in every behavioral explanation: one amid the energizing act of the surroundings and the reaction of the organism and the other one amid repercussions and the consequential transformation in behavior. These theorists believe that these disparities and holes can only be eliminated and filled by the expansion of brain science (Stephen B. Klein and Robert R. Mowrer, 2001).

On the other hand, modern theorists of behaviorism believe that brain science will not be able to…. [read more]

Ili Information Literacy Instruction Essay

… Goals should also be written or highly visible to allow the learner to review and to refer to. Teachers should also emphasize why each goal is important and explain the consequences of completing or not completing each goal. Without very specific and clear-cut goals teachers should not expect any goals to be reached or any significant learning to occur.

ILI can also enact a reinforcement system for reaching goals. The famous behaviorist B.F. Skinner believed that reinforcing positive behaviors was much more effective in obtaining positive behaviors than punishing negative behaviors, thus learning is more successful if reinforcement occurs often. Reinforcement can consist of any number of "rewards" that can serve to motivate students to move forward. According to constructionist theory for many students simply…. [read more]

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