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Middle East Has the Presence Essay

… If the Assad regime falls, however, civil war could well begin again, leading to a partition of the country. For the time being, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf monarchies have been least affected by the revolutions, and it is by no means certain that regime change there would result in governments any more tolerant of minority groups.

Contrary to its current situation, Islamic civilization in the golden age of the Ottomans experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements, and the result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements. At the height of its power and glory, the Ottoman Empire controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa, with borders as far east…. [read more]


Middle East Comprises a Diverse Research Paper

… 1999. "The Frame Drum in the Middle East: Women, Musical Instruments and Power." Ethnomusicology 43(1). (PDF)

Dunne, Bruce. "Power and Sexuality in the Middle East." Middle East Report. No. 206.

Massad, Joseph, "Re-Orienting Desire: The Gay International and the Arab World" in Public Culture, 14(2), 2002, pp 361-385 (PDF)

Moghadam, Valentine, "Islamic Feminism and Its Discontent: Toward a Resolution of the Debate," Signs, 27(4), 2002, pp 1135-1171. (PDF)

Film "Dishing Democracy- Kalam Nawaeem"

IX. Economic Issues

The economy of the region has a huge influence on its domestic and foreign policies. This section will address the economies of key countries; discuss the role of oil in Middle Eastern economics and policy; and provide an overview of what economists feel the future of the Middle East…. [read more]


History of the Modern Middle East Term Paper

… ¶ … Middle East

My Enemy's Enemy is My Friend -- Even if that Enemy is Democracy and Economic Progress in the Middle East

According to James L. Gelvin's book The Modern Middle East: A History, the central irony of the post-Cold War "Age of Democratization" and "Age of Globalization," is that while much of the rest of the formerly colonized world has been freeing itself from tyranny and outmoded economic ideas, the Middle Eastern nations of the Islamic world are becoming increasingly tyrannical and economically stagnant. Even nations that were oil-rich, such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait have yet to build extensive economic infrastructures that rely on commodities other than the non-renewable economic resources of oil. Democracy and capitalism have yet to take root…. [read more]


Impact of Imperialism on the Middle East Term Paper

… Imperialism in the Middle East

The Impact of Imperialism in the Middle East

Imperialism and Decolonization:

A Case Study of Egypt and Iraq

In this paper, a discussion will be offered on the consequences of Western imperialism, notably British, that not only impacted on the immediate aftermath of their comportment in previously colonized areas, but also contributed in forming their prospective social, economic and political future, through examining imperialism in Egypt and Iraq. The powerlessness of the Egyptian and Iraqi authorities can be linked to the socio-economic modifications the British enforced and their disinclination to assume a choice to the Western construct of power.

It can be said that historically speaking, the Middle East has not been considered to be charitable to the power of…. [read more]


Future Wars of the Middle East Will Result Over Water Shortages Term Paper

… Water in the Middle East

Governments around the world have a primary concern over water availability and the Middle East and North Africa are no exception. The thesis evaluates the possibility of future wars throughout the Middle East and North Africa due to water scarcity and limited water resources presently being experienced in that region.

The paper starts by revealing the gravity of the situation by showing the present statistics surrounding the problem of water scarcity throughout the world. Thereafter, the paper highlights the importance of water in the national economy. From then on, the paper briefly discusses the present situation of water scarcity in the Middle East by noting down the present available resources of water in the Middle East. Lastly, the paper briefly…. [read more]


Contemporary Middle East History Term Paper

… ¶ … international political economy of the Middle East is complex and derives both from historical factors and economic and political actions of more recent origin. The tensions in the Middle East date back centuries, but they have been made worse by such actions in recent times as the creation of the state of Israel, Israeli actions with regard to the Palestinians, the discovery and development of oil in the Arab countries, and shifts in the world. The state of Israel was created in 1948 with fighting between the newly declared state and her Arab neighbors, and in 1949 the fighting ended with armistice agreements between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. Israel as a state developed out of the Palestinian question. When the…. [read more]


History of the Modern Middle East Term Paper

… History Of the Modern Middle East

As a result of the Industrial Revolution, during the 19th and the 20th centuries, the Western world as grew more dependent upon the advancement of technology, in every facet of daily existence. As an unintentional result of this economic revolution, the major commercial powers grew more dependent upon the non-renewable resource of oil. The state that controlled oil, in the form of trade routes, or oil-producing colonies, could dominate the other major nation-states. Ironically, as a result of technological advancement, the states that had formerly dismissed the Middle East as backward or significant only in terms of its historical role in the development of Christianity grew progressively more dependant upon the region to sustain a modern economy.

Initially, Britain…. [read more]


Analyzing Questions About the Middle East Essay

… Middle East

The Sykes-Picot (Asia Minor) Agreement was a covert agreement, relating to the Ottoman Empire's division among the "Allies," negotiated between the governments of France and Britain in the course of the First World War (WWI). The Soviet Union was privy to these discussions as well. The discussions' initial round was conducted in the British capital, with Georges Picot representing France and Sir Arthur Nicolson leading UK's delegation. The next round saw Sir Mark Sykes representing the British government. Agreement terms were outlined in a 5/9/1916 letter addressed by Paul Cambon -- French ambassador to Britain -- to Sir Edward Grey, Britain's foreign secretary. The terms were approved and returned via a letter bearing the date of 16th May. Notes exchange between the allied…. [read more]


Middle East Fashion Capital: Beirut Lebanon Dissertation

… They also provide funding and in some instances they collaborate with locals to establish creative businesses or industries back home. The country also has a specific association to develop funding for culture-based businesses and initiatives. This organization and the other factors explained for it show that culture is being taken seriously in the country and that there are many stakeholders who are already actively involved in trying to improve the already-amazing culture of the country. It is safe to conclude that the future is looking bright in terms of culture. 

The capital of the Lebanon is Beirut. It is also the largest city and the commercial center of Lebanon. The city has an international airport and road and rail links to all parts of…. [read more]


Middle Eastern Writers Contemporary Term Paper

… Middle Eastern Writers

Contemporary Middle Eastern writers expectedly approach social and political themes in their writings. The writers' consciousness is inevitably influenced by the experience of suffering, hatred and conflict that dominates the Middle East. Some of the best known and appreciated Middle Eastern writers such as the Palestinian poet Taha Muhammad Ali, the Israeli Aharon Shabtai, and the Turkish poet Ozkan Mert give voice to the suffering and protests they feel in their poetry, attempting to redeem the negative sentiments and experiences through language and art.

As I see it, the relationship art and the world's social and political scenes has always been a difficult one. The language of poetry may seem to many a force that, in a way, alienates the reader from…. [read more]


U.S. Policies in the Middle Term Paper

… One example is that of Jordan, which received aid from the U.S.A. despite the widespread repression at the time and also its autocratic rule. It is sometimes stated that the U.S. policies have given rise to the upsurge and rising of Islamic governments as well as Islamic movements. The U.S.A. has been showing great concern about the rising of the Islamic movement in the Middle East, and what must be understood is the fact that Islam is a religion that is very much diverse in its interpretations of the teachings of Islam and these teachings can also be applicable to contemporary political issues. Not all of the religion is intolerant of the West; in fact there are some people who believe that believe in an…. [read more]


International Relations of Middle East Term Paper

… Political Science

Iraqi President Saddam Hussein waged war against his neighbors twice. First, against the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1980; second, against Kuwait in 1990.

Both the Iran-Iraq War of 1980 and the Iraq-Kuwait Conflict of 1990 are examples of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's aggression. The military conflicts, which both were identified as the Persian Gulf or Gulf War at one time, involved the president's desire for a natural resource and his turning to violence and aggression in order to get it. A boarder dispute was at the heart of President Saddam Hussein and Iraq's decision to invade neighboring Iran in 1980. Historically, the boarder between the two states had been a source of Middle Eastern conflict, dating back to Iraq's days as…. [read more]


Great War for Civilization the Conquest of the Middle East Book Report

… Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East

Nicole Gomez

International Relations of the Middle East

The Great War for Civilisation

Robert Fisk's book, the Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East is a comprehensive description of the Middle East region and its ongoing struggles. Fisk who is an established correspondent for the Independent newspaper in the United Kingdom has covered the vast region and its conflicts since 1976. Fisk has witnessed firsthand numerous wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Algeria, Israel, Palestine and Lebanon, and as a child, whose father fought the Great War, seems excessively knowledgeable in his historical accounts.

Robert Fisk commences his book March 1997 outside the Spinghar Hotel in Jalalabad, a town in eastern Afghanistan. Outside…. [read more]


History of Rosicrucian Order Thesis

… History Of the Rosicrucian Order

Despite being one of the oldest esoteric societies, the Rosicrucian Order remains one of the most mysterious and least well-known of the various groups that arose in Europe over the course of the second millennium. Although Rosicrucianism was one of the key influences on the development of Freemasonry, and, as will be discussed in the findings chapter of this study, has played an important role in the development of Western culture and society, its history, symbols, and legacy have frequently been overshadowed by more popular alchemical and metaphysical movements. For example, while most Americans know that many of the founding fathers were Freemasons, fewer likely know that the first governor of Connecticut was deeply interested in Rosicrucianism from an early…. [read more]


Histories of the World Essay

… This merely fanned the flames of discontent and the coffeehouse is cited as important gathering-place that motivated opposition to the government, which eventually cumulated in the French Revolution and the overthrow of the monarchy. "It literally began at a cafe" (Standage 170).

'Coke is it:' The cultural power of Coca-Cola

In contrast to the other beverages in Standage's book, Coca-Cola seems something of an outlier, in terms of what it represents as a beverage. Coke is a processed, manufactured food, versus the other beverages which have at least some origin in nature, whether in fermentation of grains or fruits, coffee beans, or tea leaves. But Coca-Cola clearly was one of the most innovative beverages of the 20th century (the 21st century remains an open question,…. [read more]


Creating East and West Nancy Book Review

… To be fair to Bisaha, the book largely achieves her stated goals, which do not actually include an analysis of contemporary events in light of Renaissance developments. Instead, her primary goal seems to be a reevaluation of contemporary understandings of the constructed East-West dichotomy, and as multiple reviewers have noted, she seems particularly interesting in challenging, or at least expanding, Edward Said's notion of Orientalism.

Though the book does not really address Said's theory explicitly, the effect of Bisaha's research is to challenge the notion that an East-West, barbarism-civilization dichotomy arose as a result of colonialism. In this, she succeeds, because her analysis of European humanist writings convincingly demonstrates a marked rhetorical and ideological shift following the fall of Constantinople. Thus, it no wonder that…. [read more]


United States: Mitigate China's Influence in African Continent Research Paper

… China's Influence In Africa

Though the United States remain the sole true global superpower following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, over the subsequent two decades China has risen to fill some of the subsequent power vacuum, particularly in regions where the United States has never maintained a substantial presence. This is nowhere more true than on the African continent, here China has made important economic, diplomatic, and military inroads with numerous governments at the same time that the United States' focus is directed towards the Middle East, and particularly the War on Terror. China's success in Africa and the United States' own difficulties in the region are the result of historical and cultural factors that benefit the…. [read more]


Verdery's Central Observations About Nationalism as a Historical and Cultural Phenomenon Essay

… Verdery's Central Observations About Nationalism as a Historical and Cultural Phenomenon

There is much controversy regarding the concept of nationalism, as it is responsible for uniting and dividing communities on account of their members' personal convictions. It is very difficult for some people to find their cultural identity and to accept their position in society without being influenced by individuals in their group. Individuals in the contemporary society have come to consider nationalism as one of the most important elements in their community, as it makes it possible for them to consider that they are strongly connected with their states. Katherine Verdery emphasizes the fact that people have diverse understandings of the concept of nationalism and the boundary between aggressive nationalism and peaceful nationalism can…. [read more]


History of Discrimination Essay

… The most recent U.S. Census data suggests the current White population represents 72.4% of the total (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010).

The Consequences of White Hegemony

Discrimination by Europeans was so prevalent that its absence would have represented a remarkable event. If we set aside the more obvious examples, such as Native American genocide and the slave trade, we still find ample evidence of discrimination, even between the different White ethnic groups. Immigration policy in 1790 helped set the tone of government policy when it came to race and ethnicity, since citizenship was limited to "free white person[s]" (Spickard, p. 89). African-Americans who were legally free still could not vote, own firearms, serve on juries, or testify in court against a white person and Native Americans…. [read more]


Israel 1948 A2 Coursework

… ¶ … Israel 1948 was one of the key turning points in the political development of the contemporary Middle East. From 1948 on, Israel was an independent state ruled by their own government which brought Israeli organizations together under one rule, liberated from foreign influence. After the creation of the State of Israel, frequent wars in opposition to its existence broke out due to the tremendous antagonism felt towards a Zionist state (e.g. The Arab-Israeli war 1948, the 1956 Suez War, 1967 Six Day War, 1967-1970 War of Attrition and Yom Kippur 1973). It was wars such as these that forced Israel to bolster its own military defense, increase diplomatic ties with the West, and attempt to become a self-sufficient "island" surrounded by enemies. Israel,…. [read more]


Abraham Path Initiative Term Paper

… Furthermore, if it does partner with outside entities it should do so in a manner that is holistic: it should seek out local groups to generate buy-in and support but should do so in all of the nations in which it has a presence, in a broad and inclusive fashion. Within the nations when it partners with local entities, it should also seek out a number of supportive parties. For example, when in Palestine, it created joint ventures with academic and business organizations, including " Bethlehem University, the Palestine Wildlife Society, the Siraj Center (a cultural tourism organization), and Rozana (a cultural heritage society)" (Leary, Sebenius, & Weiss 2009: 13).

Open source v. hierarchy to create the AP's network of volunteers?

Donations and volunteerism are…. [read more]


Are Indian-Israeli Relations Useful for India's National Interests? Thesis

… ¶ … Indian-Israeli Relations Valuable to India's National Interests?

Today, India stands at an important juncture in its historical development. Following its independence from Britain in 1948, the years that followed have been turbulent ones for India, with a relentless series of political, military and economic challenges confronting the country time and again. Despite these challenges, India has emerged in the 21st center as an increasingly important actor within the international community and has enjoyed steady economic growth for the past two decades. Notwithstanding its enormous geographic size and population, though, India continues to perceive a number of external threats, most especially with Pakistan over the Kashmir issue and relations with much of the Arab world that have often been ambivalent or even hostile. In…. [read more]


Middle East in Today's Cinema Research Paper

… ¶ … Edward Said that the West's choice or depiction of biased values to Oriental nations has been backed by a discourse which helps vindicate them. Said is of the view that Orientalizing of the Orient wasn't just because Europeans in the 19th century found it to have Oriental characteristics in every way, but also since it submitted to becoming Oriental (Said, Orientalism 5-6). Said contends that constructed facts about the Orient do not essentially depict the true face of the Orient. He states his concern blatantly that the West's perception of Oriental culture, especially Arab culture, are of no interest to him; general perceptions of the Orient prove to be reductive, discriminating and vague, and Said finds no interest in this representation of the…. [read more]


Middle Eastern Poetry Is Often Peppered Term Paper

… Middle Eastern Poetry is often peppered with honest assessments of the physical and emotional turmoil of conflict. Poetry in the Middle East tends to be a voice of record, in stylistic descriptions of the conflicts of mind, body and spirit that demonstrate a life (or many lives) in the turmoil of conflict and change. Middle Eastern writers tend to write about the conflict they see and feel, much like photo journalists seeking to bring to others the reality that exists outside of the mundane that can be seen in a "peaceful" or warring nation.

We know that in the search for freedom, justice, and peace people are often caught in violence and war. Yet, it is precisely this paradox of war and peace that has…. [read more]


Arab Transnationalism in History Term Paper

… Arab Transnationalism

The Arab World has extended its sphere of influence over other territories from around the world throughout history and there are a series of examples demonstrating this. Many countries today contain evidence concerning Arab influences and much of the political culture in the Arab world has been made possible as a result of transnational movements established by Arabs across time. When taking into account several Arab communities and the connections that one might find with other areas in their vicinity, it becomes clear that there is more to the matter and that Arabs have actually played an important role in shaping thinking in a series of states that they interacted with.

Setting the stage

People are typically inclined to consider that the Persian…. [read more]


Footbinding the Chinese Idea of Footbinding Emerged Essay

… Footbinding

The Chinese idea of footbinding emerged during the 10th century and lasted for approximately one millennium, until 1911. Young girls were generally targeted with the purpose of imposing this custom on them and their social class or background in general were unimportant for the Chinese community. What is even more surprising is that their relatives participated in this process without feeling that they were doing something wrong. Footbinding typically began when girls were between the ages of 4 and 7 and had them turn all of their toes (except for the big toe, as this one was left unaltered with the purpose of making it possible for the girls to maintain balance) against the bottom of the foot. The process was very painful (it…. [read more]


History of Construction Technology Literature Review

… History Of Construction Technology

Time Periods

Tools, materials, innovations

Add (April notes) two subheadings: Construction Techniques and Construction Machines under each one.

Mesopotamia

Ziggurat

Wheel

Ancient Egyptian

Ramp

Ancient Greek

Idea of "Simple Machine"

Crane

Temple

Wheelbarrow

Roman Empire

Works of Vitruvius

Roman Crane

Wheelbarrow

Byzantine Empire

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Byzantine_inventions

Master builders of Byzatine

Islamic Golden Age

Crusade

http://www.muslim-heritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=343

See YC's notes on Crusader Castles -- looks like mostly books

Romanesque (1000-1200)

a. See YC's links

9. Gothic (1200-1400)

a. See YC's links on Gothic architecture

10. Renaissance Period (1400-1600)

11. Baroque Period (1600-1750)

12. Industrial Revolution (1750-1900)

1. Construction Technology of Mesopotamia

1.1. Construction Techniques

The Mesopotamian civilization dates back to c.6000 BC. As one of the first Bronze Age cultures, this civilization was also the…. [read more]


History of Satan Devil Lucifer in Judaism Christianity and Islam Research Paper

… History Of Satan

Since the very dawn of civilization, the battle between good and evil has been part of the mythology and interconnected philosophies of human beings. From the Epic of Gilgamesh to the battles between Egyptian Gods, to the words of the Koran and the Bible, conceptions of the battle of good and evil abound in popular, philosophical, legal, and religious literature. Many theologians and scholars have tried to argue the creation of evil. They question if God created it or if man and his perversion of the good created the absence of "goodness," and therefore the necessity of evil. Add to this the human capacity for a sliding scale of evil (e.g. deception, lust, greed, avarice), and we have an epitome of the…. [read more]


Sources and Causes of Conflicts in Sudan Term Paper

… Sudan Conflict brief history of Sudan as a nation includes aspects of colonialism that are evident in the histories of many other nations. Outside interests from both Britain and Egypt dominated Sudan's early modern history, with emphasis on exterior rather than internal gain. The resolution of enduring conflicts, such as those of the north of Sudan and its southern interests and ideologies were frequently ignored in the interest of Egyptian and British profit and political gain rather than Sudanese unification.

These enduring regional differences paved the way for modern conflicts of ideology, faith, centralization, nationalism and even in some cases the enduring idea of a desire for a unified pan-Islamic nation. Economic developments of Sudan were ignored in the interests of external desires, for nearly…. [read more]


Bubonic Plague: History and an Analysis Research Paper

… "In 1997, WHO developed the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN), which annually identifies and responds to at least 50 outbreaks of various infectious diseases through partner networks in more than 120 countries." (Eastman 14) Scientists, clinicians, and epidemiologists can come together as a result of such programs and can effectively fight pandemics like the plague before they actually become a widespread disease.

Unfortunately, cases involving bubonic plague can still be seen in the contemporary society. What is especially disturbing is that it normally occurs in underprivileged areas, where people are exposed to the elements and where they have lesser chances to access adequate treatment. "In 2003, more than 2,100 human cases and 180 deaths were recorded, nearly all of them in Africa." (Plague…. [read more]

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