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Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion Notwithstanding Term Paper

… In Virginia the Republican-dominated legislature earlier this year wrote legislation that requires "women to have a transvaginal ultrasound before they may have an abortion," (Glionna, 2012). The idea behind this legislation is apparently that when a woman sees the picture created by the ultrasound she will see a fetus and perhaps feel so guilty she won't want to carry through with the abortion. Or her moral side will kick in, and she will change her mind. Is it ethical for lawmakers to force a woman to have an ultrasound prior to a legal abortion? That in itself is another questions to be pondered; in the case of Virginia, the governor, Republican Bob McDonnell "ultimately rejected the mandatory transvaginal procedure" (Glionna, p. 1).

In Mississippi, a…. [read more]

Contemporary Issues in Bioethics Term Paper

… Bioethics and Morality: An Examination

In this short paper, the author will be dealing with the issues of bioethics (in effect medical ethics) such as justice and autonomy in health care, autonomy rights and medical information, end of life decision-making and eugenics and human genetics. Each of these issues will be examined separately or together as they relate to patient rights and ethics in on more expansive concerns that touches upon the philosophy of science and issues of biotechnology. The implications of the new technology and their impact upon the above issues will be explored as well as the fears and concerns of the author about the slippery slope represented by the eugenics movement and the promise and yet peril of human genetics if it…. [read more]

Bioethics -- Assisted Suicide Three-Step Essay

… That modern capability means that contemporary biomedical ethicists must adapt notions of concepts such as harm much more broadly than Hippocrates could have.

More specifically, if a patient is suffering from great pain that cannot be alleviated by medical treatment, particularly where that pain is caused by an incurable terminal illness, there is a very strong argument that preventing a patient from ending his or her life to escape suffering amounts to more of a "harm" than helping that patient end his or her suffering. The same argument applies where a patient seeks only to avoid dying in a much more painful way when the medical prognosis predicts that with great certainty (Levine, 2008). On balance, the objective comparison of the respective concerns suggests that…. [read more]

Health Policy and Bioethics Term Paper

… Health Policy and Bioethics

The United States was in an uproar in the late twentieth century over whether medical care was or ought to be a business. The prestigious New England Journal of Medicine made the Health Policy Advisory Center's earlier warning about the rise of a "medical-industrial complex" a mainstream concern (Relman, 1980). Political scientist James Morone advised that medicine was suddenly and rapidly becoming a "corporate enterprise organized and run along business principles." (Morone, 1997). Group practices, promoted for decades as progressive reform, took on a new business identity as health maintenance organizations (HMOs) in what sociologist Donald Light called perhaps the "greatest rhetorical reversal in the history of American health care" (Light, pp. 46-63). HMO and other managed care supporters declared that…. [read more]

Cultural Issues in End Term Paper

… (Integrative Workshop on End-of-Life Research )


Bern-Klug, M. (2004). The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome. Health and Social Work, 29(1), 55+. Retrieved October 4, 2004, from Questia database,

Braun, K, Pietsch, J.H. Blanchette, P. (1999) Cultural Issues in End-of-Life Decision Making. SAGE Publications

FIELD, DAVID ( 2004) End-of-life care. Retrieved October 1, 2004 from Department of Epidemiology and Public Health University of Leicester. Web site:,+papers+on+this+%22& hl=en

Frances C. Jackson, Stephanie Schim, and Sonia Duffy. CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON END-OF LIFE DECISION MAKING. Retrieved 1 October, 2004. Web site: hl=en

GOLSWORTHY, R. & COYLE, A. (1999). Spiritual beliefs and the search for meaning among older adults following partner loss. Mortality, 4, 21 -- 40.

Integrative Workshop on End-of-Life Research . Retrieved October 1, 2004. Web…. [read more]

Controversies Over Women's Access Birth Thesis

… Another controversial issue is birth control with minors. In Clemmitt's article, the youth should not be stopped from embracing safety measures even if they are told to abstain from sex. Many schools have adopted the culture of giving birth control to children as young as 11 years old. In the article, Mike Judge argues that instead of giving these contraceptive we could opt for moral guidance and support. Her arguments are because parents giving contraception to, minors and access to abortion undermine parents. This is ironical because the youth do not want support; they are asking for birth control. Clemmitt provides that we should not deny those contraceptives based on age, but instead we should be preparing the youth how to practice safe sex. Many…. [read more]

Philosophy -- Medical Ethics Issues Compare Essay

… Philosophy -- Medical Ethics Issues

Compare and contrast the different types of moral reasoning (moral absolutism, moral objectivism, etc.). What are the benefits and burdens of each? Which is closest to your own view of morality and why?

Moral absolutism is the position that certain acts or forms of choices of conduct are always morally wrong, regardless of any circumstances in which those acts or choices of conduct may occur (Vaughn, 2009). According to moral absolutism, for example, if the act of being dishonest and the choice to end a human life are morally wrong, then there are absolutely no exceptions to that rule. If one subscribes to moral absolutism, it would be morally wrong to tell a lie to a murderer who asked where…. [read more]

Therapeutic Use of Embryonic Stem Term Paper

… The international debate focuses on the definition of the conditions governing the instrumental use of pre-implantation embryo.

The main ethical issues with of concern are the derivation of life in the exploration of the stem cells research. A substantial group of Americans objecting to research on embryonic stem cells in human technology argues of the destruction that occurs with the harvested cells. The embryonic stem cell research is controversial for all who believe that the five-day-old pre-implantation human embryos should be left to live; no matter how valuable the research is to the society (Masters, Palsson & Thomson, 2007). Life is a fundamental gift, and as such, it deserves proper treatment of care and provision. To date, the stem cell scientist succeeded in producing several…. [read more]

Physician-Assisted Suicide and Ethical Issues the Medical Essay

… Physician-Assisted Suicide and Ethical Issues

The medical profession has been governed by the Hippocratic Oath since antiquity, according to which physicians must "do no harm" to their patients. However, toward end of the 20th century, medical science had progressed to the point that the definition of doing harm became much more complex than easily resolved by the types of distinctions and analyses sufficed previously. As medical interventions enabled the treatment of most human disease, that raised bioethical issues such as distinguishing extending life and prolonging suffering (Sharma, 2004). In many respects, it is no longer ethically appropriate to criminalize physician-assisted suicide or to otherwise impose restrictions on decisions that should remain strictly personal, although appropriate ethical and legal guidelines for avoiding mistakes and abuse are…. [read more]

Neonatal Ethics Term Paper

… ¶ … neonatal ethics and have presented my view regarding the topic. I have also managed to integrate philosophical and historical perspectives regarding neonatal care and ethics. In the end, I have given my personal opinion concerning the solution of the issues at stake.

The ethical debate regarding the proper care of severely unwell infants is one of the oldest debates in medical sciences. In the present times, approaches that are extremely unusual have been taken to decide about the care of such newborns. This is the reason why it is exceedingly important to analyze the ethical concepts and arguments about many issues concerning the neonatal medicine. Such ethical debates revolve around "the value of human life; the role of best interests; the deliberate ending…. [read more]

Ileana Final Portfolio Bioethics Essay

… Other examples include the Willowbrook and Tuskeegee experiments in Unit Four, which I had heard about but only in a diffuse anecdotal sense. Now I have a more formal understanding of the justification behind human subjects review and the importance of Institutional Review Board oversight before any experiment no matter how seemingly innocuous the treatment.

Once we had identified and mastered the concepts underlying these theories, we demonstrated their application in modern ethical controversies. The result was the realization that these ethics are each a process toward obtaining answers for sophisticated modern moral problems. Applying these historic perspectives played out through selection of examples that demonstrate how these methods provide a framework and process to evaluate new ethical conundrums Kant, Bentham, Mill or Aquinas likely…. [read more]

Is Genetic Engineering a Solution to the Food Security Problem in Developing Countries? Term Paper

… Genetic Engineering of Food

"Protagonists argue that genetic engineering entails a more controlled transfer of genes because the transfer is limited to a single gene, or just a few selected genes, whereas traditional breeding risks transferring unwanted genes together with the desired ones. Against that advantage, antagonists argue that the side effects in terms of potentially adverse impacts on the environment and human health are unknown…" (Neilsen, et al., 2000)

Genetically Modified food (GM) has been controversial since it first appeared on the agricultural scene several decades ago. While the corporations that produce GM seeds and foods -- notably Monsanto, the giant international corporation -- assert through myriad public relations strategies and studies that these genetically manipulated products are safe, serious questions remain. Monsanto, in…. [read more]

Doctors and Ethics Research Paper

… In a Melbourne, Australia (in 1959) maternity hospital a father refused to consent to blood transfusions for his infant daughter. The article doesn't say if he objected on religious grounds, just that he refused to authorize the doctor to give the child blood transfusions. The child likely would die without the transfusions, the father was informed because she was "severely jaundiced" (Waller, 621). The child did die and the case went to court and the father was successfully prosecuted for manslaughter; subsequently the Parliament of Victoria passed a law that doctors in Australia can administer blood transfusions to save the lives of children no matter what the parents say (Waller, 621). So problems of this kind have gone from medical ethics to ethical law.

Ethical…. [read more]

Ethical Dilemmas Surrounding DNR Research Paper

… It is not easy for physicians to determine when resuscitation might just save a life or when it might just be futile. Physicians have the responsibility of saving lives, but they should also respect the patients' end of life preferences.

These ethical principles also pose serious challenges to the health care providers when handling patients, who are suicidal. These dilemmas come up because of the conflicts among the principles in addition to the legal, economic, and religious standards. The advance directives movement initiated thought and ideologies that it is not appropriate to extend a life without giving a person an accepted quality of life. This has influenced the society to take the autonomy of the patient's decision regarding life as paramount (Cook et al. 10).…. [read more]

Clinical, Ethical and Legal Term Paper

… Fir each of the ethical principles sated above, laws exist to ascertain that medicine and sconce does not cross its boundaries. Aside from which, there are also laws about how to conduct research and experimentation on both human and animal subjects in an ethical, responsible manner. These are complex. Let us take just one such instance to instantiate how complex this is:

In 1997, the Council of Europe established the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine which dealt with developments in modern biology and medicine. The same council also established the Biomedicine Convention (2000), which was a framework treaty establishing certain universal principles relevant to biomedicine. At this moment, only three such Protocols have been opened for signature. Many are still in the making. These…. [read more]

Abortion: Pro-Choice Research Paper

… It is better if abortion remains legal since it ensures that women can undergo abortions in safe environments.

Abortion is unacceptable in many religious organizations. It is deemed wrong and immoral. Religious organizations have joined in the debate against abortion, and they want the practice eliminated. They do not realize that if this is done it would discriminate against all women and not just women within their religion. A person should not thrust their personal or religious belief unto others. If that happens, then it is wrong and obnoxious. People have a right and free will to decide on whether to bear a child. It is only the woman's morals that should affect and influence the choice she makes.

Public health improvement

Legalization of abortion…. [read more]

Controversy With Regard to Genetic Research Paper

… Genetic engineering and cloning are certainly advantageous concepts when considering that they can remove such risks (Brock).

Human cloning can certainly have a great deal of benefits, ranging from parents who can clone a child who was very dear to them to society as a whole cloning individuals who have distinguished themselves through impressive abilities. One of the moral issues most commonly associated with cloning involves the right to a unique identity. Cloning practically leads to people risking the right to have a unique identity, given that they would have someone else look exactly like them. Furthermore, the fact that the clone would be acquainted with how his or her original self went through life would make it impossible for him or her to concentrate…. [read more]

Ethical-Legal Nursing Discussions Research Paper

… Communication must be repeatedly absorbed on moral distress instead of expanding into more general self-exploration; the tradeoff cannot be permitted to go beyond limits that stop relaxed working together between sessions. Also, the individual cannot be a member of the administrative chain of command and must have an honest understanding of the issue. The individual should aid to expand viewpoints and expand doctor-nurse associations. The person must be aware of the continuing condition and, in that way, be able to spot sources and emblems of sudden rises in stress, which may specify moral distress. At the present time, countless hospitals use a comparable concept, known as "Moral Distress Consult Service," where the adviser performs in much the same style as a "Liaison Psychiatrist."

Recommendation 2:…. [read more]

Ethics of Human Cloning Two Essay

… Queries linger as to the enduring physical health and probable premature aging of clones such as the sheep. NBAC concluded in its report that such safety queries necessitated a suspension on experiments involving human cloning.

Premature aging and safety issues surrounding cloning are technical barricades that may or not fail as the intelligence of cloning advances. Numerous people have raised moral objections to human cloning that extend beyond questions of well-being (Dudley, 2001 p. 34).The art of cloning contravenes basic and pertinent religious beliefs and conceptions on how reproduction in humans ought to occur. Some people fear that the art cloning could result in dismantled and unclear family relationships.

Additional ethical queries concentrate on intentions behind human cloning and whether some explanations are acceptable than…. [read more]

Bonnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome Ethically Essay

… Pregnancy genetic testing allows a woman to either terminate pregnancy or continue with it, rather than limits her choice. And not all women found to be with an offspring with a disability will automatically opt to terminate pregnancy.


Disabilities are not a neutral form of variation but a real disadvantage that no one truly wants and wishes can be prevented. They are not only socially constructed and are thus morally right to prevent. Prenatal testing allows a woman to choose from two alternatives rather than limits her to one. And there is no reason to choose between allowing her to keep a defective offspring and preventing it through prenatal testing. Therefore, Bonnie Steinbock correctly argues that the practice of screening for moderate disabilities such…. [read more]

Ethical Problem(s) Relevant Values Stakeholders Research Paper

… He had excellent analytical skills, he focused more on the reformation of justice system e.g. penal system of Britain and English legal code, and he termed it, "Demon of Chicane," rather than facilitating the status quo system. This leads us to the conclusion that Jeremy Bentham was more of a philosopher of his time. He was continuously busy in finding new ways and theories to define the laws he had created. Secularism was popular in Jeremy Bentham's time. Therefore, his ideas and beliefs were highly influenced by it. He looked for conclusions dependant on the material explanation of good and bad, right and wrong. Furthermore, he criticized Christianity and said that it was too much based on institutions. David Hume (1711-1776) and French philosopher Claude-Adrien…. [read more]

Ethical Values and Issues in Organ Transplantation Essay

… Ethical Values and Issues in Organ Transplantation

Organ transplantation was one of the most important goals of physicians around the turn of the 20th century, especially after the first successful transplant of a cornea in 1905. However, it would take until the middle of the century before surgeons understood the principles of blood typing and transplant organ rejection well enough to perform successful organ transplants. Today, organ transplantation is performed thousands of time every year in the United States with high rates of success. Those procedures enable patients who would otherwise die live years or even decades longer than they could have otherwise.

Generally, modern organ transplantation is permitted throughout the world although several major ethical concerns exist. Those issues relate to the manner in…. [read more]

Business Impact of Exxon and Ethical Considerations Term Paper

… Business Impact of Exxon and Ethical Considerations

When discussing business ethics, one corporation, in particular, often comes to mind Exxon.

Since the late 1980s, Exxon has been the poster child for unethical corporate conduct.

The ecological disaster that occurred in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez's running into Bligh Reef and spilling millions of gallons of oil is infamous. The scandal at Grand Bois, Louisiana further exacerbated the organization's poor ethical reputation.

Good people, acting as corporate agents, can make harmful decisions. By understanding the ethical implications of their decisions, senior executives may be able to avoid making these harmful decisions in the future. In addition, presenting the ethical and business implications of the experiences of Exxon can reiterate the importance of raising ethical…. [read more]

Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of the Twentieth Term Paper

… ¶ … foundationally promising research discoveries of the twentieth century is Stem Cell Biology. Only announced as a possible scientific breakthrough in late 1998, significant research has begun on stem cells, yet even the announcement of the potential benefits by the National Academy of Science that comes with the then recent isolation of human stem cells did little to curb potential controversy and conflict.

Shannon 9)

Within the recent elections the issue of stem cell research has come to the forefront of consideration by voters, experts, opponent groups and proponent groups. The most substantial challenge to the recent federal rulings against stem cell research, by the Bush administration, is the passing of proposition 71 in California, which will create, and fund a 3 billion dollar…. [read more]

Family Law Surrogacy Term Paper

… Commercial Surrogacy

The issue of commercial surrogacy cuts straight to the heart of some of the most contentious discussions in bioethics and law, because the sheer range of stakeholders, coupled with deeply-rooted cultural beliefs regarding the sanctity of the body, the mother, and the child, makes it so that any discussion of commercial surrogacy is certain to produce uncomfortable confrontations between tradition, commerce, and best practices. In the past, legislation and the practice of law has attempted to give due deference to the concerns of the stakeholders involved, but it has been difficult as relaxed notions of the body and its relation to commerce and labor confront traditional ideas about motherhood, gestation, and the rights of a parent. In particular, even as advancing humanitarian and…. [read more]

Access to Quality Healthcare Essay

… One of the most important and necessary changes in American society is the recognition that access to healthcare is an ethical right of all individuals that cannot appropriately or ethically be denied in the pursuit of profits by private corporations such as those that currently control the health insurance industry (Kennedy, 2006; Parks & Wike, 2010). That is particularly true to the extent that control is effectuated through the influence of industry lobbyists who corrupt the political system to support their industry profits at the direct expense of human health and welfare. Ultimately, the U.S. must develop a much more equitable, ethical, and fair way to distribute healthcare.


Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.

Parks, J.A. And Wike, V.S. (2010).…. [read more]

Defend or Reject: Buchanan Essay

… The Lee's actions of love seem negligible in light of their failure to keep up with the treatment.

The other query would be whether it is the fault of the parents that they conceptualize the medical issue in an entirely different way from western medical practitioners. It is difficult to devise a straightforward answer. I think it is not their fault, but this does not portray them in a different light when it comes to the issue of incompetence. This is not a relative issue since they are within a bigger system that charges parents with the duty of looking after their child's health, and they should discharge this duty. It is, therefore, logical that there is more weight on the attitude and behavior of…. [read more]

Health Care Reform Term Paper

… This is indicative of a broader conception of healing and health care, but one that still puts the health outcome and the needs of the patient at the forefront. It is the difference between a philosophy of care that aims for a minimal provision of care vs. A more expansive understanding of the medical professional's ability and obligation to cause no harm while treating and preventing illness.

The legal and ethical frames of health care also call to mind the relationships between medical professionals and professional association. One relationship that seems important to strengthen is that between clinicians and public health / social service professionals for the aforementioned purpose of being able to provide a more expansive definition of care to patients in an era…. [read more]

Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide Term Paper

… The authors' article illustrates the sensitivity of the issue of euthanasia, where society, especially people who have strong religious beliefs against euthanasia, often view it as an undesirable process to end a suffering patient's life, equating it to killing. However, Gert et. al. cautions that physicians' moral views must be able to be compatible with the patient's views. This means that in order to administer VPE, the physician must be (a) compatible with patient's moral views about euthanasia; or, in the event that the patient disagrees to VPE, (b) must at least inform the patient's right that s/he has the right to physician-assisted suicide/death (PAS).

These alternatives and precautions that the authors discuss in their article show how the issues of morality are the primary…. [read more]

Advertisements and Emerging Technology Studies Essay

… The research messages for children have put parents in an opposing position with their children with the utilitarian and deontological concepts assuming an adversarial association between stockholders, researchers, and consumers. Although majority of researchers are committed towards ethical and legal behaviors in the industry, frameworks for drawing lines between unethical and ethical research behaviors do not exist. In this regard, research firms in are required to continue wrestling with the challenge of how to research their services and goods and present their findings to the appropriate target audience. Researchers should ensure that they achieve this through respectful means that views research samples as human beings and not items meant to be exploited (Vaughn, 2010).


Hill, T.E. (2009). Contemporary ethical theories. New York: Macmillan.

Vaughn,…. [read more]

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