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Culture of Interest: Japan Theoretical Research Paper

… Japan scored somewhere in middle on individualism collectivism index and the society is more paternalistic in nature. It does not display strongest of collectivist traditions but neither does it resonate with individualistic characteristics as a cultural unit. The American people on the other hand have displayed tremendously high score in this dimension. Having scored 91, the nation is among highest scorer in this aspect. People primarily work for them and do not like affording extended families. Satisfaction of personal aims, aspirations and motives is primary to American people. Glorification of personal efforts to achieve success is common place in the society Americans live in. While Japanese people are more considerate towards other group members, Americans too have displayed desire to form groups, only to satisfy…. [read more]

Culture Psych Culture and Human Essay

… , 2011).

A social psychological investigation of the gift giving in North America and particularly the United States, the behavior was found to be a way of almost ranking the significance and the intimacy that exists in various relationships (Cheal, 2011). In a culture where material wealth is not so much a matter of direct survival but of status, the wealth one invests in the gifts they give is turned to an expression of the intimacy and connection one feels with the gift recipient (Cheal, 2011). Emotional attachments related to gift giving and the psychological perception about the worth of relationships is thus impacted by/has an impact on the behavior of gift giving, with direct cultural and psychological interactions (Cheal, 2011).

Japan's celebration of Valentine's…. [read more]

Culture and Negotiations Globalization Research Paper

… Culture & Negotiations

Globalization has brought many benefits and potential growth opportunities for companies around the world. Companies may now expand their reach to sell their products to countries on the other side of the planet, but there are some issues that have to be approached and resolved prior to doing business overseas: the negotiations between company "A" in the United States and company "B" in Singapore, for example, have to take into account cultural differences and cultural traditions. This paper reviews some of the negotiation styles that need to be understood and practiced in the context of doing business in foreign lands.

When business representatives from different cultures meet in a negotiation setting there needs to be understanding of the cultural foundations of each…. [read more]

Culture and Subculture (P Essay

… 82)

Barriers to multicultural communication include anxiety; assuming similarity instead of difference, ethnocentrism, prejudice, and stereotyping. Anxiety is a natural and understandable barrier, but one that can impede successful communications. While it is not good to assume only differences, assuming similarity projects unreasonable and unrealistic values and norms on others and therefore impedes communication. Ethnocentrism is a cluster of phenomena based on the assumption that one's own culture is superior -- or at least a basis from which to judge others. Stereotypes are generalizations that, while sometimes valid, also cause unhealthy reactions such as prejudicial attitudes and behaviors.

Nonverbal message codes (p. 114-onward)

Nonverbal message codes include proxemics (the study of personal space); kinesics (gestures and body movements); chronemics (use of or attitudes toward time);…. [read more]

Culture Compare and Contrast Two Different Definitions Thesis

… Culture

Compare and contrast two different definitions of culture. Which one do you subscribe to? Explain why one definition that you have selected better explains "the culture."

Perhaps the best definition of culture is that culture is "symbolic communication" (Choudhury 2009). Some of the tools used in symbolic communication include the "skills, knowledge, attitudes, values, and motives" of a particular group (Choudhury 2009). Inherent in this definition is the idea that the "meanings of the symbols are learned and deliberately perpetuated in a society through its institutions" (Choudhury 2009).

This suggests that culture is a kind of language, but a language in an unwritten and physical as well as a written sense. For example, in Japan, individuals from that culture collectively respect a greater physical…. [read more]

Culture's Impact on Healthcare Essay

… " Independence is seen in this culture as a valued ideal, but no real sense of true independence is actually demonstrated. Midwestern folks like the idea of freedom and independence, but when forced with the option, most are happy to go along with the crowd and keep pace with their neighbors. Standing out in the crowd is reserved for the more extreme Midwestern personalities.

Question 4

Midwestern culture and the health risks associated with this type of lifestyle are not exceedingly dangerous, but do represent the in proportion, the typical health problems of any American. Diet and exercise are two areas of preventive health that need attention and focus in this group of people. Midwesterners like to watch a lot of TV, also causing intellectual…. [read more]

Culture Essay

… That was something that I wasn't very used to as we do not take shoes off when we go to church. Going inside, I was greeted by a mark of red color on my forehead. As I looked around, most of the people had that mark on their head; the eagerness with which people were putting their faces had made me think that it must be a good thing to have this mark on your head.

The place was full of men and women of varying age and built. Most of the people were wearing white clothes that were stained with different cultures. Seeing this different mix of colors, I did understand why this festival is a prelude to spring. The various colors flying around…. [read more]

Context Cultures Term Paper

… ¶ … Cultures

Explain the difference between high context cultures and low context cultures using examples from two cultures with which you are familiar. Assume that you are doing business in a high context culture like Japan or China. What are the challenges involved that may impact your marketing goals in that culture? Use concrete examples to illustrate your points.

There are many differences between high context and low context cultures, with the majority of these differences being in the approach to communication, adherence to laws, nature and structure of agreements, relative view of attention to detail, directness, and several other factors that all culminate in how members of these cultures learn to trust each other (Lindsay, 2005). High context cultures include Japan and China.…. [read more]

Hawaiian Culture Research Paper

… Hawaiians still retain a strong and distinctive culture, dating back centuries, and where they have adopted American culture it is a matter of them doing so as part of living within the context of the United States.


Hawaiians are a separate culture within the United States, not a microculture. They are a dominant culture in their home territory and have adopted some American cultural elements, but their separate culture remains strong and clearly identifiable. Their culture is easily identifiable from an ethnic perspective and is culturally distinct even from other Polynesian groups within the U.S. The status of Hawaiian culture is also special within the context of the United States and especially in the state of Hawaii.


Davis, F. (1995). The Hawaiian alternative…. [read more]

Culture Is a Relative Concept Essay

… Q2. 'It's not fair.' Because fairness is such a powerful concept, it is tempting to view the idea of fairness as something that is cross-cultural. However, the Japanese and American concepts of fairness are almost completely distinct. In Japan, fairness is based upon outcomes, or how equitably the community is treated as a whole. In America, our concept of fairness is based upon the individual, or whether each distinct person was satisfied, in terms of what he or she gave or did not give to the effort.

In Japanese culture, because of the importance of community, it might be considered 'fair' that a student suppress his or her views during a classroom discussion, if this would cause hurt feelings or an overly divisive discussion. In…. [read more]

Interaction Between Culture and Individual Psychology Essay

… ¶ … interaction between culture and individual psychology using Angela K.Y. Leung and Dov Cohen's article "Within- and between-culture variation: Individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures" as a springboard for deeper analysis of the degree to which culture can impact personal psychology and vice versa. Rather than seeing one as causing the other, Leung and Cohen propose a model that demonstrates an interaction between individual and environment in terms of the responses that are produced. Culture produces the individual's worldview and no human being exists outside of culture, but individuals are not homogeneous within that worldview. Responses to the environment must be interpreted based upon the subject's originating context, rather than judging acts of reciprocity, aggression, or self-assertion in…. [read more]

Consumption, Society and Culture Cultural Essay

… When you observe the behaviour of a social club of consumers, you will find them obsessed with searching appeasement and joys in materialistic things that are attractive. Their irritation and alienation from social circle further pushes them to consumption (Foucault, 1984).

If you look at the TV commercials and advertisement, you will find the hidden message that if you want that particular happiness, you can get it with this product or service. In the best possible soft words, commercials are a handy tool for capitalist mindset to capture a non-political and less active mind even in its pastime (Foucault, 1984).

In his book "Culture Industry Reconsidered," Adorno describes the phenomenon as 'people can't be held responsible for measuring the culture, the philosophy of the culture…. [read more]

Globalization Culture Essay

… This is not strictly a one-way street, with America exporting itself around the world, and it is absurd to even think that. China has just as much influence around the world, as the dominant power in vast swathes of Asia and Africa. But even the almighty Internet -- an American invention dominated by American companies -- serves mainly as a communications tool. Its openness has become a powerful tool that allows people to build communications in their own image. This newfound openness is by far and away the greatest contribution of American culture to the world -- hamburgers are for people who can't think beyond a high school level. The Internet is not just built on the American model, but on the 21st century American…. [read more]

Intersecting Cultures and or Culture in a Global World Essay

… Intersecting cultures are creating a new kind of world, where just about every culture in every nation or region is a blend of two or more cultures. Much of the research one finds in the literature today reflects the dynamics of diversity within nations that have a multicultural social makeup. But there also is a need to understand what happens over time when one culture colonizes another and then is evicted as the indigenous culture re-assumes control. This process of de-colonization leaves in its wake a culture that is comprised of two or more distinctly different cultures, a kind of blend of cultures. This paper delves into those issues.

The Literature on the Intersecting of Cultures

Researching the way in which cultures have intersected over…. [read more]

Culture Element Makes a Nation Essay

… They must be aware of the obvious cultural aspects, as well as underlying values and attitudes of international negotiations. In this case, managers must cultural awareness. According to Primecz, Romani & Sackmann (2011 p. 50), analysis of dichotomized culture, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualist and collective culture is of considerable help. Managers must demonstrate language skills of the negotiating partner. This will assist them understand the cultural nuances and create rapport easily. Nevertheless, to minimize misunderstandings and remain professional on the negotiating table, it is vital to include professionally trained translators or interpreters. Lastly, managers involved in international negotiations must have the ability to interpret non-verbal communications, paralanguage and body language.

Positive or negative outcomes for an organisation that is negotiating internationally

The understanding of…. [read more]

Consider How National Identity and Culture Is Constructed Through Fashion in China and Japan Term Paper

… ¶ … national identity and culture is constructed through fashion in China and Japan

Fashion and Cultural Identity on China and Japan

Fashion, as it relates to culture, has initiated a relatively new and complex area of research into society and societal history. The concept of fashion has come to mean more than merely the history of dress and style for its own sake. Consequently, the study of fashion has developed into a multidisciplinary field that includes cultural, historical and sociological analyses of the role of fashion in societies.

The emerging field of fashion studies, sometimes known as the "new" fashion history, differs significantly from traditional dress history, which tended to focus on the stylistic analysis of elite fashions. By contrast, contemporary fashion studies asks…. [read more]

What Can We Learn From Other Cultures That Can Help US Better Understand Our Sexualities? Essay

… ¶ … Cultures Can Teach Us about Sexuality

Sexuality is an interesting concept, and when examined clearly has a relationship to cultural rules and norms. What is considered acceptable and appropriate sexual behavior varies significantly according to cultural rules, though some sexual taboos and norms seem to cross cultural lines. The fact that cultural norms impact what sexual behaviors are considered appropriate or inappropriate is significant, because many people argue that certain variants of sexuality are either natural or unnatural. However, if some sexual behavior was inherently unnatural, one would not expect to find sexual behavior that is considered aberrant in some cultures as a normative behavior in other cultures. In fact, it is this diversity of "normal" sexual behavior that is the most informative…. [read more]

Theories of Culture in Human Relations Term Paper

… ¶ … Culture in Human Relations

In his attempt to argue the importance of culture in human relations, Geert Hofstede (2005) resorts to the following introductory paragraph for the first chapter of his book Culture and Organizations. Software of the Mind:

11th juror: (rising) "I beg pardon, in discussing..."

10th juror: (interrupting and mimicking) "I beg pardon. What are you so goddam polite about?"

11th juror: (looking straight at the 10th juror) "For the same reason you're not. it's the way I was brought up." (Reginald Rose, Twelve Angry Men, 1955)

The dialogue above takes place between a garage owner (10th juror) and a European born watchmaker (11th juror) in the context of having to reach a unanimous verdict regarding the innocence of a boy…. [read more]

Historical Development of Cultures Essay

… ¶ … Cultures


The historical development of cultures is an expression of many factors, both naturally occurring and those that are manmade. In the earliest stages of human development, the historical development of culture was heavily contingent upon natural resources such as access to water and land that was fertile for agriculture. As humanity grew, diversified, and developed more intricate civilizations, the historical development of cultures was contingent upon more factors than in the past. In some ways, life was simpler in the past, while it was primitive. As human civilization advances, we sacrifice advancement for simplicity, as the development of cultures depends on more important, yet unstable factors such as politics, military strength, trade regulations, and forms of resources & labor. As we…. [read more]

Culture Training Doing Business Essay

… In addition, in hierarchical countries it can cause offense if an American company sends a lower level manager to meet with a CEO -- the CEO in that culture would expect to deal with someone of equivalent rank within the organization, even if the lower level manager is actually better suited to the task. Directness in communication is another pitfall that Wade describes. Americans are often very direct in communication, something that can cause offense in other countries. Conversely, people from indirect countries are often frustrating to Americans because they do not say exactly what they mean, and the American is entirely unequipped to deal with the cultural nuances of the high-context communication.

Multinational enterprises (MNEs) must deal with the challenges faced by cultural differences…. [read more]

Morality and Culture Essay

… ¶ … culture and morality. In other words it deals with the question: Is morality relative to culture? Proponents of so called "cultural relativism," sometimes also called "moral relativism" or "ethical relativism" argue that different cultures obtain varying moral codes. "If there is no transcendent moral or ethical standard, then often culture arguably seems to become the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong" (see Anderson: 1). Culture and cultural dimensions are considered the collective horizon representing a specific social reality. American anthropologist and cultural relativist Ruth Benedict in Patterns of Culture (1934) said: "Morality differs in every society and is a convenient term for socially approved habits" (as cited by Kehl: 2). The paper will show that the doctrine of…. [read more]

Culture Memory Studies This Week's Readings Essay

… Culture

Memory Studies

This week's readings discussed the idea of memory and its connection to culture and identity. Memories are versions of ones past that are depicted as words and images (Connerton, 2003). It is how and why a person remembers things that make the study of memories very interesting. According to Coser (1992), Halbwachs believed that there is a definite connection between what people remember and their sense of identity. People tend to identity strongly with the culture in which they live and their relation to that culture. It is through these associations with the culture around them that people remember things. According to Assman (1995), cultural memory is that association of events in ones past with fixed points. The fixed points are fixed…. [read more]

Why Is Culture a Political Issue? Essay

… ¶ … Culture a Political Issue?

People today are living in an increasingly diverse world in terms of culture. Globalization and the rapid advances in communication technology since the middle of the 20th century are issues that have contributed significantly to this. An increasing amount of people have access to online technology and hence to a diversity of cultures and communications across the globe. Paradoxically, culture is also the one thing that all human beings have in common. Nobody can claim to be outside some form of cultural heritage. The general concept of culture then manifests itself in all human activity, precisely because it cannot be discarded, escaped, or negated. Paradigms such as religion, the home, medicine are for example strongly influenced by culture. Culture…. [read more]

Culture in This Briefing New Essay

… They try to have as few rules as possible to govern themselves. The people in these cultures usually tend to be much more pragmatic and are also more tolerant of change (ibid 173-177).

The definition of individualism and collectivism refers to the social frameworks in with which individuals prioritize their individual or group needs. In individualistic societies, the individuals are expected to look after themselves. In collectivist societies, individuals are expected to look out for one another. Organisations protect their employee's interests. However, in individualist societies stress is put upon individual rights and personal achievements. People are expected to stand up for themselves and their immediate family members and to choose their own personal affiliations. In contrast, individuals in collectivist societies act predominantly as the…. [read more]

Cultures in Conflict and Change Essay

… Her new husband has a free hand, but the other one clasps hers like an "iron gate" (3) and while he is not frigid, he is stern and distant and this scares her, almost overwhelming the hope she can escape her past. It is his peace not hers that the marriage vows promise and he seems at peace; monumental, like Lincoln freeing her to a new and uncertain future, which will no longer be "backward," "ignorant" and "wrong" (3). He is right but she does not share his peace, but actually the opposite.

The iron gate of this peace of his will be permanent, but she is already trapped, ironically by the religion that binds them at the very moment she is thinking these wild…. [read more]

Cultures Different Thesis

… Cultures

Different cultures are very interesting to examine, not only for comparison purposes, but also for the way in which various traditional aspects of such cultures influenced individuality. Education for example would influence a person's future hopes and expectations, whereas a lack of opportunity may cause a person to feel trapped and unhappy in a life that was imposed rather than chosen. The two cultures that I am to examine here include the Japanese and the ancient Greek culture.

Ancient Greece

According to Fisher and Harlan, men, women and children all had specific roles in ancient Greece. The man was for example the head of the family and the house. Much like the traditional roles in Western society today, most Greek men worked during the…. [read more]

Culture Geertz Social Anthropology Essay

… It has been my practice throughout my professional career to demonstrate my knowledge of fieldwork through well developed and insightful interpretations of witnessed events among peoples I find interesting. Yet, Geertz seems to belittle this endeavor stating that those who invest in such scientific abstractions of "the personal" are not objective, but rather are subjective and cannot produce works that are systematic, reproducible, cumulative, predictive, precise or testable. It has been my experience that the results of any inquiry in social anthropology and well most of the social sciences is an attempt to record a situation in time and place, within the very context of the period as well as the people. There is no evidence that there is a need for any other goal…. [read more]

Culture and Media Worlds Term Paper

… Culture and Media Works

Sexual Objectification of Women in Media

Media today is one of the most common grounds used to communicate or get a message across. It has readily increased its accessibility and its reach to people with phenomenon of globalization. Any individual who has access to any form of visual media today knows how the issue of "sex" has become a common term in the media. It is used in different ways and on different levels in different countries but it is reasonable to state that the sexual objectification is being used in media today and is presented in such an open manner that it can simply not be disregarded anymore (Hall, 1998).

Be it television, billboards, movies, TV shows, magazines or any…. [read more]

Human Resources Managing Organisational Culture Dissertation

… d).

Understanding of organisational culture and cultural types also helps the understanding of why managerial reforms may impact differently within and between organisations. An organisation with a predominantly internal process culture, for example, may be more resistant to reforms aimed at promoting innovation. It is expected that staff in high uncertainty avoidance cultures to be more concerned with rule-following and more reluctant to risk changing jobs - both factors of some importance for those reformers who want to deregulate bureaucracies and encourage more rapid job change in the public service'. Businesses in both the private and public sectors have come to understand that organisational change frequently requires changing the organisation's culture and learning (O'Donnell & Boyle, 2008).

Whatever the purpose and performance results of culture…. [read more]

Strategic Leadership Influence Culture Organization Essay

… The company had set positive values and vision, through which it had promised to support the well-being of its stakeholders, but in the end it engaged in false accounting actions (Turner, 2009).

The company placed an increased emphasis on enhancing the value of its shares through tempering with the annual balance sheets and the promise of superior values for the customers, as well as the promotion of an organizational culture focused on the employees (Ulrich, Zenger and Smallwood, 1999). The leadership style at Enron was highly charismatic and close to a cult, in which the members were asked to conform and were penalized when they did not. While the accountancy issues ultimately generated the failure of Enron, it was the leadership style and culture created…. [read more]

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