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Convicted Felons Return to the Community Research Paper

… Convicted Felons Return to the Community

Deviance is both a sociological and psychological component of the human organism that expresses itself in numerous ways at numerous times. Further, if we look back at the way philosophers have defined abnormality and deviance, from Plato through Kant and into the 20th century, we find that there are really three classifications of abnormality and within these three classifications a variance on a continuum of low to high:

Perceived harmfulness -- usually to society as a whole (Plato) or to the actualization of the individual (Kant).

The degree of social consensus about whether the action is abnormal or deviant; what real harm is done? Is this utilitarian -- the most harm to the most people qualifies as the most…. [read more]

Convicted Felons Returning to the Community Term Paper

… Felons and the Community Analysis

Within the modern American justice system, there are two legal ways a felon may return to society: parole/early release or completion of sentencing. Parole is a controversial topic, and 16 states have abolished it entirely, with 4 states negating parole for certain offenses. According to the U.S. Justice Department, about 45% of parolees complete their sentence without incident, 38% are returned to prison, and 11% escape or leave the country (Office of Justice Programs, 2013).

Studies also show that there are upwards of 600,000 inmates that are released into communities on an annual basis. However, there are virtually no complete studies that have been systematic, longitudinal and focused on policy for issues involving the political, economic and social consequences of…. [read more]

Convicted Felons Change? Research Paper

… ¶ … Convicted Felons Change?

One of the most pressing issues in modern criminal law is whether convicted felons can change. Are felons born to engage in antisocial activities, or do their environments shape them in a way that makes them antisocial? Moreover, does it matter? Whether caused by nature or nurture, do people with serious criminal tendencies have a meaningful chance at change once they have begun engaging in serious criminal behavior? Or, are convicted criminals so likely to reoffend and become recidivists, that aiming to reduce recidivism is a waste of resources? All of these questions are extremely important and need to be answered as quickly and as accurately as possible. The United States has a prison population that is disproportionately large for…. [read more]

Felony Disenfranchisement Essay

… Felony Disenfranchisement

Disenfranchisement affects both the individual and the community. It is taxation without representation in that an ex-felon pays taxes but obtains no benefits from it as do his neighbors.

This and the other denied rights separate him from those neighbors and lend a negative impact to neighborhoods and communities "coming together."

It becomes a horrific cycle of the ex-felon feeling that if society won't treat him as if he had paid his debt, then why should he treat society with any respect -- and he doesn't.

Felony Disenfranchisement

Disenfranchisement denies a convicted felon the following nine rights or areas of life: the right to vote, parenting, public employment, divorce, serving on a jury, holding public office, firearm ownership, criminal registration, and civil death.…. [read more]

Three Strikes Law Term Paper

… Another challenge has been based on the premise that the law violates the separation of powers provision of the constitution because it grants the prosecutor discretion while limiting judicial discretion. These challenges have mostly been unsuccessful, though they have resulted in some changes to the law. Mainly, the legal challenges have helped formalize the law's policies. "For example, the courts have determined that 'wobblers' (crimes that can be considered either a misdemeanor or a felony) can trigger second and third strike enhancements, juvenile convictions can count as strike offenses, and multiple strikes can be charged from a single crime or incident" (Brown, & Jolivette, 2005).

One of the policy considerations for the policy was that its extension of prison sentences for such a large number…. [read more]

Rehabilitation of Felony Offenders Possible? Essay

… According to Magen and Emerman, "Felonies such as murder, sexual assault, and other physical crimes against a person are not only violations of the law, but are also moral, social, and political violations" (p. 401). Because felonies are such serious offenses against the social order, Magen and Emerman argue that disenfranchisement and the other limitations placed on felons post-release are necessary. In this regard, Magen and Emerman conclude that, "Placing felonies in this larger context suggests that justice, realized through punishment of the offender, is a narrow and partial response to a societal breach, and that a more complete response includes a full range of societal sanctions" (p. 401).

Given that some felons, past and present, have managed to overcome these obstacles to reintegration into…. [read more]

Offenders Rehabilitation vs. Punishment Changing Term Paper

… The model is expressed in public policy through crime control strategies such as determinate sentencing and sentencing guidelines, abolishment of parole, tougher penalties, and expanded use of the death penalty. One consequence has been more massive expenditures for corrections and an explosion in the prison population, with the result that virtually every prison system in the United States is seriously overcrowded: "These punitive crime control strategies enjoy wide public support and therefore are promoted as well by politicians" (Torres 19).

More prisons administrators are operating prisons as total lock-down facilities and abolishing prison programs such as recreation, education, religious services, and drug treatment. They are requiring prisoners to work on chain gangs and similar work programs. It was not too long ago that penal experts…. [read more]

Deviance Chiricos, T., Barrick, K., Bales, W Research Paper

… ¶ … Deviance

Chiricos, T., Barrick, K., Bales, W., & Bontrager, S. (2007). The labeling of convicted felons and its consequences for recidivism. Criminology, 45(3), 547-581. Retrieved from

The authors in this study apply labeling theory to the study of convicted felons. The main research question they ask is whether labeling of convicted felons has an effect on subsequent recidivism. They also ask whether subsequent recidivism of convicted felons may be affected by either adjudication or the withholding of it. Then they examine whether any of the characteristics such as sex, race, prior record, and the characteristics of the county to which the sentenced defendants return may have any effect on labeling effects on recidivism. The authors discuss recent theory and research and use…. [read more]

Imprisonment on Individuals, Families Term Paper

… The impacts on children whose parents (or a parent) are imprisoned, which this article focuses on, include the following: a) children go through "emotional and behavioral disturbance"; b) children obtain a "negative self-image"; c) children withdraw from friends and from their family; d) children develop "eating and sleeping disorders"; e) children suffer from anxiety and from development regression; f) children go through a period of "antisocial behavior"; and g) later in life children of incarcerated parents "…are more likely than their peers to be incarcerated or involved with police and the justice system" (Brookes, et al., 2011, p. 32).

Incarceration and the tasks of grief

Being incarcerated also means being isolated from family, which has enormous implications for the psychological and emotional health of the…. [read more]

Though the Eyes of a Convict Term Paper

… ¶ … Eyes of a Convict a. There are several elements of the reading that surprised me. My background does not include any type of incarceration, so I know little beyond what I've seen in shows like "Oz" on television. One of the first things that surprised me was the leg irons. When seeing people in leg irons on television, for example, it does not seem that they are as uncomfortable and painful as described in the passage. I had to wince when reading about the red rings on Inmate's legs.

Another element in the reading that did not so much surprise me as made me see prison life in a new light is the almost immediate loss of the non-prison identity. From the start,…. [read more]

New York State Department Capstone Project

… Good behavior was not the end result of his efforts and criminals kept committing crimes once they were released. The obstacle became providing adequate supervision and consequences once criminals were released.

By 1913, the re-offense rate increased and it became apparent, supervision of released offenders as well as inmates residing in correctional facilities had to be implemented. Actions were granted for officials to keep offenders from reoffending, but resources were unable to keep up with the demand. As will be discussed in the upcoming literature review, mental illness appears to correlate with increased criminal activity. During the Great Depression of the United States, there was a sharp increase in prison populations.

The increase was due in part to the lack of jobs and desperate conditions…. [read more]

Parole Board Robert, the Chair Case Study

… ¶ … Parole Board

Robert, the chair of the parole board, is under pressure to relax the standards for parole because of the Governor's fears that if current overcrowding suits are successful, it will result in inmates being released under a federal process outside of the parole board's control. However, Robert is concerned that relaxing the current standards could result in the release of inmates more likely to re-offend than Robert feels is acceptable for a parole risk. The ethical dilemma appears to be whether Robert reduces the parole eligibility requirements, which would result in the release of more dangerous inmates than Robert feels is acceptable, or whether he does not reduce the parole eligibility requirements, which could result in the state losing control over…. [read more]

Theories How Refusal to Hire Ex-Offenders Research Paper

… Theories

How Refusal to Hire Ex-Offenders in Florida is affecting the Recidivism Rate Compared to Other States.

Criminal offenders often commit more crimes after they return to the community. This re-offense performance is known as recidivism. The result of prison or jail sentences on recidivism is a significant matter to those apprehensive with public safety and the cost-effectiveness of putting people in prison. Attitude is split between those supporting longer sentences in the attention of public safety, and those supporting shorter sentences with the supposition that confinement, or longer prison terms, will not decrease recidivism rates (Song and Lieb, 1993). Recidivism can be calculated in a lot of different ways. The majority of correctional agencies calculate the proportion of prisoners released in a fiscal year…. [read more]

Intermediate Sanctions? Essay

… Chapter 10.

How is restorative justice different from traditional justice approaches?

The restorative justice is the newly preferred justice system since it does not just concentrate on the punishment of the crime and making the offender feel the pain physically but looks further into the psychological disposition of the offender after the punishment period. It strives to reduce crime rather than punish crime by rehabilitating the offender to be able to integrate back into the society while shunning crime.

How is community service used as a correctional tool?

Community service is one of the community correction facilities available with the offender made to do a specified amount or hours of manual work as a punishment to the wrongs they did. This impacts on them psychologically…. [read more]

Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts Research Paper

… And conversely, when those African-American men are released from overcrowded prisons (in certain cases some inmates are released prior to the time they were sentenced for because they were not convicted of violent crimes and judges have ordered prisons to reduce crammed facilities), the "vast majority will return to the same communities" (smith, 388). This in turn puts "additional strain on already scarce resources" in the communities they came from and want to return to.

In other words, the PIC has a recent legacy of overcrowding, and in the process the PIC "exploits African-American men by extracting their labor" below fair market wages, and then by returning them to their communities where socioeconomic resources are already depleted (Smith, 389). On page 389 the authors use…. [read more]

National Security Implications of Transnational Essay

… S. banks. China is trying to steal patents and U.S. technology that companies keep in their sites and in their computers, and the attack on Government increased almost nine fold, to "48,562 in fiscal 2012 from 5,503 in 2006.

Thus Afghanistan, Pakistan, or the region in terms of stability and U.S. concerns, and from Afghanistan the post-withdrawal relationship with the governments involved, the level of development and security it desires, and what kind of peace are not clear. Afghanistan is one example where making and arming insurgents have made the proverbial finger poke the eye. This type of criminals is entering the U.S. As legal and illegal immigrants too.

Illegal Immigrants and Crime

Illegal immigration also causes burdens in the economy and affects national safety.…. [read more]

Administrative Scenarios Administration Case Study

… Administrative Scenarios

Administration scenarios

The purpose of incarceration of individuals in correctional facilities is to punish and rehabilitate dangerous criminals. The Federal Bureau of Prisons is responsible for the enforcement of law, and in administration of federal prison systems. Prisoners' detention centers are state owned facilities in the United States of America except in some situation where prisoners go to privately owned facilities. Correctional facilities management follows State, local authority laws. Over eighty percent of those incarcerated stay in bureau owned prisons while the remaining number stay at community owned facilities, detention centers or juvenile facilities (Carlson & Garrett, 2006). Prisons administration departments have a layout of authority and the commissioner of prisons has the highest authority.

The bureau has the jurisdiction to carry out…. [read more]

Simon Communities in Ireland Research Paper

… With the establishment of the Catholic Worker Movement, Houses of Hospitality sprang throughout many cities in America. These establishments provided people with food, clothing, a roof over their head, and above everything else, a sense of union and companionship. The Houses of Hospitality were in fact part of a larger project on behalf of the Catholic Worker Movement that thrived on combating social injustice. Dorothy Day said about the project that ?it just came about. It just happened. (as quoted in Troester 3) And in the next years, over a hundred houses will happen to welcome homeless people in Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, South Bend, Chicago, Minneapolis, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and others (Troester 4). It is important to understand that homeless people were as well…. [read more]

Political Activity and Geographic Area Term Paper

… ¶ … political activity and geographic area. Political activity involves more than simply participation in the voting process. It also includes whether people affiliate with political parties, the level of participation in the party process, and political contributions as a percentage of disposable income. This topic is of interest because it would allow the researcher to see if low involvement in other parts of the political process necessarily correlates with a low voter turnout.

The topic would also allow the researcher to determine if the other demographics associated with certain geographic areas, such as race or socioeconomic status, reveal bigger trends in political participation. Furthermore, the topic would allow politicians and other community leaders to target areas with low political involvement to see if there…. [read more]

Britain, Australia Term Paper

… In 1785 the Parliamentary Committee enquiring into the Transportation Act of 1784 commented, with reference to transportation to America, that "the old system of Transporting to America, answered every good Purpose which could be expected from it - That it tended directly to reclaim the Objects on which it was inflicted, and to render them good Citizens... That the Colonies seem to have been sensible of the beneficial Consequences of this Practice." In the case of the Australian penal colonies drawing workers from the ranks of the convicts was not only a matter of policy, it was also a necessity, given that no other suitable workforce existed:

Governor Phillip [the first governor of Botany Bay] accordingly had to find all his overseers from among the…. [read more]

United States Has the Highest Essay

… However, 78% of sentences imposed by United States federal courts in 2005 involved incarceration, whereas 3% of sentences involved only fines and in 2004 70% of convicted felons in state courts were sentenced to incarceration. Essentially, in the United States people are more likely to be sentenced to prison for federal and drug offenses than other countries and these sentences are lengthier in duration. A person sentenced in the United States for burglary will serve about 16 months in prison, whereas in Canada they will serve about 5 months and in England about 7 months. In England only 12% of prisoners, compared to 41% in the United States have been sentenced to 10 years or more. Six percent of prisoners in England convicted of drug…. [read more]

Refusal to Hire Based on Background Results Term Paper

… ¶ … refusal to hire based on criminal background checks. The writer examines different issues of the topic, including what types of positions usually require the refusal to hire with criminal background, state and federal laws with regard to hiring or refusal to hire based on criminal background checks and a look at Maryland and its rules with regard to this topic. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

In recent years, employers have found themselves increasingly libel in the acts committed by employees. Whether the person is charged with a criminal act on or off the job, if that person is employed it often falls to the feet of the employer and a suit may follow. Because of this many employers across…. [read more]

Overhaul of Our Prison System Term Paper

… We might assume that at least juveniles would far better, but Louisiana prison officials had to be ordered to report abuse, to install video cameras and to investigate allegations of violence (Staff writers, PAGE). In the California juvenile system, more than ten assaults of one kind or another occur every day (Broder & Almelda, PAGE). We can incarcerate children and youth, but we apparently cannot protect them afterwards.

Some of California's youth facilities are particularly counter-productive to allowing a young person to reform into a productive and contributing young adult. At the facility in Whittier, CA, those who cause trouble can leave their cells only for education or counseling, and these services are provided in steel cages (Broder & Almelda, PAGE). According to Broder and…. [read more]

Probation and Parole Term Paper

… However, Pennsylvania's rate is only 40%, so it seems as if their attempts at creating a support network that teaches inmates the skills they need to survive outside prison is helping reduce their recidivism rate (Beard, and Gnall).

One of the main issues facing the PBPP and the local courts is lack of funding and manpower. Parole and probation offers have to take on too many cases, and with budget cuts and prison overcrowding, they face even more issues with caseloads and keeping up with their work. They would like to implement more electronic monitoring, and other safeguards for the public, but they are expensive and out of reach in tough economic times.

In conclusion, the parole and probation departments in Pennsylvania the same types…. [read more]

Women in Prison Major Legal Research Paper

… Women are also in a total state of dependency upon their female guards for all of their needs, which can again exacerbate the feelings of victimhood.

A lack of program support

Although most prisons afford vocational training and psychological support for women to enter into the job market as productive citizens, few women prisoners take advantage of such opportunities. The reason, one study suggests, may be inadequate program design, given that most approaches to training focus on males and are the program paradigm is merely transferred to female prisons with the same approach. The employment rate of formerly incarcerated women is similar to the level of their pre-incarceration period, suggesting a failure of appropriate vocational training and social support for women inmates (Lalonde & Cho…. [read more]

9-11 DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Term Paper

… 9/11 DNA Identification in Mass Fatality

The aftermath of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers

How important is DNA evidence in this case?

Will everyone get identified?

Restrictions on how DNA evidence can be used

Fragment sizes

Decomposing DNA

How does the analysis get proper resource and funding?

DNA management

Source of DNA samples

Using Identification Number on the site

Storing into the database

How DNA analysis (methods) can be utilized in making identification

DNA Extraction

DNA amplification and analysis (PCR)

Mitochondrial DNA

Single nucleotide polymorphism

Short Tandem Repeat analysis

Identifying victims

Probability ratio in linking to the victims

Linking victims using relatives and family member's DNA

Limitation of modern technology



An Analysis of DNA Identification of Mass Fatalities resulted from Terrorist…. [read more]

Privacy Law: Requiring Convicted Sex Term Paper

… Connecticut, like every other state, has responded to the need to protect the community by enacting a statute designed to protect its communities from sex offenders and to help apprehend repeat sex offenders. Connecticut's "Megan's Law" applies to "all persons convicted of criminal offenses against a minor, violent and nonviolent sexual offenses, and felonies committed for a sexual purpose," hardly sympathetic defendants ("Privacy loses to security," 2003, LSU Law Center). Also, by definition the law only applies to convicted sex offenders, who had already ceded their liberties by virtue of their conviction at trial, which arguably make the state's interest in protecting the safety of its citizens, especially its most vulnerable citizens, greater than protecting the rights of the convicted individual.

But will this really…. [read more]

Discrimination Against High-Risk Sex Offenders Research Paper

… Discrimination Against High Risk Sex Offenders

Even when denoting truly violent offenders, demonization of any class of individual as being beyond redemption and/or devoid of humanity proves not only destructive, but wrong.

Contemporary laws, albeit, routinely brand any transgressor of under-age sex rules as a "sexual predator," even when no violence or force is alleged, and even if the young person is an only a few days from the age of consent. Most sexual contact between adults and minors occurs among family and friends. Without doubt, however, children deserve to be protected from sexual abuser...period. Not acknowledging sexual predators are also human, however, stigmatizes these individuals amdcontinues to cover of the roots of such crimes. These type negative actions also hinder/prevent individuals, previously branded as…. [read more]

Illegal Immigrants in the U.S Term Paper

… ¶ … illegal immigrants in the U.S. And the possibility of legalizing their status. The article shows: how illegal immigration is currently being dealt with, the views of people on the issue and the flexibility being exhibited by the government. The author makes it clear that while illegal immigration has always been a problem for the country and most people feel country must be protected against such immigration, still illegal entrance into the U.S. should not be criminalized. Very few, if any, percentage of people interviewed supported felony status, the rest felt that while it was not correct to let illegal immigration prosper, there was also no particular need for categorized it as a crime or serious offence.

Illegal immigration is a problem, which the…. [read more]

Ex Offenders the United States Research Paper

… Programs offered on a community or a state level go on to make the patient feel more secure about their place in the society. The patient feels encouraged and motivated if he attains support and advice on how to reintegrate. There are many programs present today which aim at making the transition from prison to home easier. One such program is the R.I.S.E program that is present in Philadelphia

R.I.S.E program

This program has been started with the name of RISE in Philadelphia and is short for reintegration services. This program was basically initiated to aid the transition from incarceration back into the community. It goes on to use direct services and partnerships with other agencies in order to successfully integrate the ex-offenders back into…. [read more]

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