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Convicted Felons Return to the Community Research Paper

… Convicted Felons Return to the Community

Deviance is both a sociological and psychological component of the human organism that expresses itself in numerous ways at numerous times. Further, if we look back at the way philosophers have defined abnormality and deviance, from Plato through Kant and into the 20th century, we find that there are really three classifications of abnormality and within these three classifications a variance on a continuum of low to high:

Perceived harmfulness -- usually to society as a whole (Plato) or to the actualization of the individual (Kant).

The degree of social consensus about whether the action is abnormal or deviant; what real harm is done? Is this utilitarian -- the most harm to the most people qualifies as the most…. [read more]

Convicted Felons Returning to the Community Term Paper

… Felons and the Community Analysis

Within the modern American justice system, there are two legal ways a felon may return to society: parole/early release or completion of sentencing. Parole is a controversial topic, and 16 states have abolished it entirely, with 4 states negating parole for certain offenses. According to the U.S. Justice Department, about 45% of parolees complete their sentence without incident, 38% are returned to prison, and 11% escape or leave the country (Office of Justice Programs, 2013).

Studies also show that there are upwards of 600,000 inmates that are released into communities on an annual basis. However, there are virtually no complete studies that have been systematic, longitudinal and focused on policy for issues involving the political, economic and social consequences of…. [read more]

Felony Disenfranchisement Essay

… Felony Disenfranchisement

Disenfranchisement affects both the individual and the community. It is taxation without representation in that an ex-felon pays taxes but obtains no benefits from it as do his neighbors.

This and the other denied rights separate him from those neighbors and lend a negative impact to neighborhoods and communities "coming together."

It becomes a horrific cycle of the ex-felon feeling that if society won't treat him as if he had paid his debt, then why should he treat society with any respect -- and he doesn't.

Felony Disenfranchisement

Disenfranchisement denies a convicted felon the following nine rights or areas of life: the right to vote, parenting, public employment, divorce, serving on a jury, holding public office, firearm ownership, criminal registration, and civil death.…. [read more]

Convicted Felons Change? Research Paper

… ¶ … Convicted Felons Change?

One of the most pressing issues in modern criminal law is whether convicted felons can change. Are felons born to engage in antisocial activities, or do their environments shape them in a way that makes them antisocial? Moreover, does it matter? Whether caused by nature or nurture, do people with serious criminal tendencies have a meaningful chance at change once they have begun engaging in serious criminal behavior? Or, are convicted criminals so likely to reoffend and become recidivists, that aiming to reduce recidivism is a waste of resources? All of these questions are extremely important and need to be answered as quickly and as accurately as possible. The United States has a prison population that is disproportionately large for…. [read more]

Three Strikes Law Term Paper

… Another challenge has been based on the premise that the law violates the separation of powers provision of the constitution because it grants the prosecutor discretion while limiting judicial discretion. These challenges have mostly been unsuccessful, though they have resulted in some changes to the law. Mainly, the legal challenges have helped formalize the law's policies. "For example, the courts have determined that 'wobblers' (crimes that can be considered either a misdemeanor or a felony) can trigger second and third strike enhancements, juvenile convictions can count as strike offenses, and multiple strikes can be charged from a single crime or incident" (Brown, & Jolivette, 2005).

One of the policy considerations for the policy was that its extension of prison sentences for such a large number…. [read more]

Offenders Rehabilitation vs. Punishment Changing Term Paper

… The model is expressed in public policy through crime control strategies such as determinate sentencing and sentencing guidelines, abolishment of parole, tougher penalties, and expanded use of the death penalty. One consequence has been more massive expenditures for corrections and an explosion in the prison population, with the result that virtually every prison system in the United States is seriously overcrowded: "These punitive crime control strategies enjoy wide public support and therefore are promoted as well by politicians" (Torres 19).

More prisons administrators are operating prisons as total lock-down facilities and abolishing prison programs such as recreation, education, religious services, and drug treatment. They are requiring prisoners to work on chain gangs and similar work programs. It was not too long ago that penal experts…. [read more]

Rehabilitation of Felony Offenders Possible? Essay

… According to Magen and Emerman, "Felonies such as murder, sexual assault, and other physical crimes against a person are not only violations of the law, but are also moral, social, and political violations" (p. 401). Because felonies are such serious offenses against the social order, Magen and Emerman argue that disenfranchisement and the other limitations placed on felons post-release are necessary. In this regard, Magen and Emerman conclude that, "Placing felonies in this larger context suggests that justice, realized through punishment of the offender, is a narrow and partial response to a societal breach, and that a more complete response includes a full range of societal sanctions" (p. 401).

Given that some felons, past and present, have managed to overcome these obstacles to reintegration into…. [read more]

Imprisonment on Individuals, Families Term Paper

… The impacts on children whose parents (or a parent) are imprisoned, which this article focuses on, include the following: a) children go through "emotional and behavioral disturbance"; b) children obtain a "negative self-image"; c) children withdraw from friends and from their family; d) children develop "eating and sleeping disorders"; e) children suffer from anxiety and from development regression; f) children go through a period of "antisocial behavior"; and g) later in life children of incarcerated parents "…are more likely than their peers to be incarcerated or involved with police and the justice system" (Brookes, et al., 2011, p. 32).

Incarceration and the tasks of grief

Being incarcerated also means being isolated from family, which has enormous implications for the psychological and emotional health of the…. [read more]

Though the Eyes of a Convict Term Paper

… ¶ … Eyes of a Convict a. There are several elements of the reading that surprised me. My background does not include any type of incarceration, so I know little beyond what I've seen in shows like "Oz" on television. One of the first things that surprised me was the leg irons. When seeing people in leg irons on television, for example, it does not seem that they are as uncomfortable and painful as described in the passage. I had to wince when reading about the red rings on Inmate's legs.

Another element in the reading that did not so much surprise me as made me see prison life in a new light is the almost immediate loss of the non-prison identity. From the start,…. [read more]

Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts Research Paper

… And conversely, when those African-American men are released from overcrowded prisons (in certain cases some inmates are released prior to the time they were sentenced for because they were not convicted of violent crimes and judges have ordered prisons to reduce crammed facilities), the "vast majority will return to the same communities" (smith, 388). This in turn puts "additional strain on already scarce resources" in the communities they came from and want to return to.

In other words, the PIC has a recent legacy of overcrowding, and in the process the PIC "exploits African-American men by extracting their labor" below fair market wages, and then by returning them to their communities where socioeconomic resources are already depleted (Smith, 389). On page 389 the authors use…. [read more]

Deviance Chiricos, T., Barrick, K., Bales, W Research Paper

… ¶ … Deviance

Chiricos, T., Barrick, K., Bales, W., & Bontrager, S. (2007). The labeling of convicted felons and its consequences for recidivism. Criminology, 45(3), 547-581. Retrieved from

The authors in this study apply labeling theory to the study of convicted felons. The main research question they ask is whether labeling of convicted felons has an effect on subsequent recidivism. They also ask whether subsequent recidivism of convicted felons may be affected by either adjudication or the withholding of it. Then they examine whether any of the characteristics such as sex, race, prior record, and the characteristics of the county to which the sentenced defendants return may have any effect on labeling effects on recidivism. The authors discuss recent theory and research and use…. [read more]

New York State Department Capstone Project

… Good behavior was not the end result of his efforts and criminals kept committing crimes once they were released. The obstacle became providing adequate supervision and consequences once criminals were released.

By 1913, the re-offense rate increased and it became apparent, supervision of released offenders as well as inmates residing in correctional facilities had to be implemented. Actions were granted for officials to keep offenders from reoffending, but resources were unable to keep up with the demand. As will be discussed in the upcoming literature review, mental illness appears to correlate with increased criminal activity. During the Great Depression of the United States, there was a sharp increase in prison populations.

The increase was due in part to the lack of jobs and desperate conditions…. [read more]

Britain, Australia Term Paper

… In 1785 the Parliamentary Committee enquiring into the Transportation Act of 1784 commented, with reference to transportation to America, that "the old system of Transporting to America, answered every good Purpose which could be expected from it - That it tended directly to reclaim the Objects on which it was inflicted, and to render them good Citizens... That the Colonies seem to have been sensible of the beneficial Consequences of this Practice." In the case of the Australian penal colonies drawing workers from the ranks of the convicts was not only a matter of policy, it was also a necessity, given that no other suitable workforce existed:

Governor Phillip [the first governor of Botany Bay] accordingly had to find all his overseers from among the…. [read more]

Refusal to Hire Based on Background Results Term Paper

… ¶ … refusal to hire based on criminal background checks. The writer examines different issues of the topic, including what types of positions usually require the refusal to hire with criminal background, state and federal laws with regard to hiring or refusal to hire based on criminal background checks and a look at Maryland and its rules with regard to this topic. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

In recent years, employers have found themselves increasingly libel in the acts committed by employees. Whether the person is charged with a criminal act on or off the job, if that person is employed it often falls to the feet of the employer and a suit may follow. Because of this many employers across…. [read more]

Parole Board Robert, the Chair Case Study

… ¶ … Parole Board

Robert, the chair of the parole board, is under pressure to relax the standards for parole because of the Governor's fears that if current overcrowding suits are successful, it will result in inmates being released under a federal process outside of the parole board's control. However, Robert is concerned that relaxing the current standards could result in the release of inmates more likely to re-offend than Robert feels is acceptable for a parole risk. The ethical dilemma appears to be whether Robert reduces the parole eligibility requirements, which would result in the release of more dangerous inmates than Robert feels is acceptable, or whether he does not reduce the parole eligibility requirements, which could result in the state losing control over…. [read more]

Theories How Refusal to Hire Ex-Offenders Research Paper

… Theories

How Refusal to Hire Ex-Offenders in Florida is affecting the Recidivism Rate Compared to Other States.

Criminal offenders often commit more crimes after they return to the community. This re-offense performance is known as recidivism. The result of prison or jail sentences on recidivism is a significant matter to those apprehensive with public safety and the cost-effectiveness of putting people in prison. Attitude is split between those supporting longer sentences in the attention of public safety, and those supporting shorter sentences with the supposition that confinement, or longer prison terms, will not decrease recidivism rates (Song and Lieb, 1993). Recidivism can be calculated in a lot of different ways. The majority of correctional agencies calculate the proportion of prisoners released in a fiscal year…. [read more]

Crime Understanding Why Crime Occurs Term Paper

… Researchers also found those individuals who posses this extra chromosome have a delay in maturation, causing a delay in intelligence, which is also linked to criminals (Moyer 1979).


Early studies at the beginning of the twentieth century attempting to address the hereditary bases of criminality by examining traditional families were eventually abandoned because it was essentially impossible to disentangle the effects of genes from those of the environment (Christiansen, 1977). Half a century later, researchers like Mednick and Christiansen (1971), found that one way to determine the role of genetics was to compare the incidences and types of criminal convictions of identical and fraternal twins.

In the earlier studies conducted on the behavior of twins, researchers generally found greater similarities of…. [read more]

Privacy Law: Requiring Convicted Sex Term Paper

… Connecticut, like every other state, has responded to the need to protect the community by enacting a statute designed to protect its communities from sex offenders and to help apprehend repeat sex offenders. Connecticut's "Megan's Law" applies to "all persons convicted of criminal offenses against a minor, violent and nonviolent sexual offenses, and felonies committed for a sexual purpose," hardly sympathetic defendants ("Privacy loses to security," 2003, LSU Law Center). Also, by definition the law only applies to convicted sex offenders, who had already ceded their liberties by virtue of their conviction at trial, which arguably make the state's interest in protecting the safety of its citizens, especially its most vulnerable citizens, greater than protecting the rights of the convicted individual.

But will this really…. [read more]

Women in the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… Women in the Criminal Justice System

The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration Task Force on Women re-evaluated its 1975 recommendations on issues concerning the treatment of women and girls in the criminal justice system (Gowdy et al. 1998). The Task Force found that female offenders, female crime victims, and female criminal justice professionals have been significantly neglected despite noteworthy gains made. Although the nature and composition of female offenders have improved or changed, their needs have remained largely neglected. Assistance rendered to them has increased and improved, but the criminal justice and juvenile justice systems have yet to make a firm commitment to change their response to victimized women and girls. Opportunities for female criminal justice professionals have likewise improved, but gender bias and inequality within…. [read more]

Intermediate Sanctions? Essay

… Chapter 10.

How is restorative justice different from traditional justice approaches?

The restorative justice is the newly preferred justice system since it does not just concentrate on the punishment of the crime and making the offender feel the pain physically but looks further into the psychological disposition of the offender after the punishment period. It strives to reduce crime rather than punish crime by rehabilitating the offender to be able to integrate back into the society while shunning crime.

How is community service used as a correctional tool?

Community service is one of the community correction facilities available with the offender made to do a specified amount or hours of manual work as a punishment to the wrongs they did. This impacts on them psychologically…. [read more]

Illegal Immigrants in the U.S Term Paper

… ¶ … illegal immigrants in the U.S. And the possibility of legalizing their status. The article shows: how illegal immigration is currently being dealt with, the views of people on the issue and the flexibility being exhibited by the government. The author makes it clear that while illegal immigration has always been a problem for the country and most people feel country must be protected against such immigration, still illegal entrance into the U.S. should not be criminalized. Very few, if any, percentage of people interviewed supported felony status, the rest felt that while it was not correct to let illegal immigration prosper, there was also no particular need for categorized it as a crime or serious offence.

Illegal immigration is a problem, which the…. [read more]

Ex Offenders the United States Research Paper

… Programs offered on a community or a state level go on to make the patient feel more secure about their place in the society. The patient feels encouraged and motivated if he attains support and advice on how to reintegrate. There are many programs present today which aim at making the transition from prison to home easier. One such program is the R.I.S.E program that is present in Philadelphia

R.I.S.E program

This program has been started with the name of RISE in Philadelphia and is short for reintegration services. This program was basically initiated to aid the transition from incarceration back into the community. It goes on to use direct services and partnerships with other agencies in order to successfully integrate the ex-offenders back into…. [read more]

Corrections Gius, Mark. ) Term Paper

… Under option four, the regional facility manages both pretrial and convicted inmates, however only portions of the participating jurisdictions continue to operate their own facilities. Under option five, local facility accepts referrals from other participating jurisdictions, including the state, for specified inmate types. Under option six, a single jurisdiction accepts pretrial and/or sentenced inmates on a set fee-for-service basis. Under option seven, total consolidation of city-county jurisdiction inmates, resources and governance.

The author notes that there is no one right answer, nor is there a quick and easy way to make the decision, and that success lies in careful consideration of a number of complex issues, and hinge on a number of factors, as leaders develop innovative and strategic collaborations that bring benefits to both…. [read more]

Substance Abuse: Driving Term Paper

… These include the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) -- a support group of alcoholics that seeks to cure alcohol addicts from their addiction through a twelve-step process; the Al-Anon / Al-Ateen Family Groups -- a fellowship of relatives and friends of alcoholics who share their experience, strength, and hope, in order to solve their common problems.

The Al-Anon programs are based on the belief that alcoholism is a family illness, and that changed attitudes can aid recovery.

Jail Alternatives:

Convicted DUI offenders can be sent to jail and fined, particularly in case of repeat offenders. Other alternatives to jail sentence, apart from the DUI Programs for rehabilitation that were discussed in the preceding paragraphs are: Electronic Monitoring (wearing of an ankle bracelet that monitors the whereabouts of…. [read more]

Correctional Institutions Have Enhanced Term Paper

… These are the one with minimum security. This institution basically focuses on responsibility and having someone depend on you. Since the security is minimum, these institutions allow a wide array of courses in community college, special education and learning resource center. Also, jobs are offered in grounds and farms. The jobs available are of janitors, cooks, maintenance work and kitchen helpers. The Iowa State Penitentiary is the maximum security institution. This takes in repeated violent male offenders and is the only one with maximum security in the entire state. The offenders there are offered basic education and labor skills. ("Iowa DOC")

There is no federal prison in the state of Iowa. Even though there are numerous institutions just across the border of Iowa in Minnesota,…. [read more]

Parolees Face Upon Release Essay

… While over three quarters of inmates report having been employed at the time of their arrests, many of them struggle to find gainful employment upon their release and there are many reasons for this. The lack of stable employment and wages will continue to affect parolees who have been released long after their prison time has passed.

Many prisoners are unable to work in several fields upon their release, depending on the state in which they live. In many states they cannot be public employees or work in education, healthcare, law enforcement and other fields. Even in fields where they are not restricted there is a general stigma attached to hiring an ex-convict. Many employers will simply not hire them at all, citing the fact…. [read more]

National Security Implications of Transnational Essay

… S. banks. China is trying to steal patents and U.S. technology that companies keep in their sites and in their computers, and the attack on Government increased almost nine fold, to "48,562 in fiscal 2012 from 5,503 in 2006.

Thus Afghanistan, Pakistan, or the region in terms of stability and U.S. concerns, and from Afghanistan the post-withdrawal relationship with the governments involved, the level of development and security it desires, and what kind of peace are not clear. Afghanistan is one example where making and arming insurgents have made the proverbial finger poke the eye. This type of criminals is entering the U.S. As legal and illegal immigrants too.

Illegal Immigrants and Crime

Illegal immigration also causes burdens in the economy and affects national safety.…. [read more]

Drug Courts: A Program Term Paper

… The first key component of a drug court system is that it integrates the drug treatment programs directly into the judicial system. The goal of the program is to cure the offender of their drug habit and get them back into society with jobs and other responsibilities (Nolan, 2001, 64). Research has shown that someone judicially forced into detoxification programs is just as likely to be successful as those who voluntarily join a program (Hubbard, R., Marsden, M., Rachal, J., Harwood, H., Cavanaugh, E., & H. Ginzburg, 1989). Thus, in the drug court system, clients obtain both treatment and justice from the same organization.

The second component of a drug court system is that it uses a "a nonadversarial approach, with prosecution and defense counsel…. [read more]

Administrative Scenarios Administration Case Study

… Administrative Scenarios

Administration scenarios

The purpose of incarceration of individuals in correctional facilities is to punish and rehabilitate dangerous criminals. The Federal Bureau of Prisons is responsible for the enforcement of law, and in administration of federal prison systems. Prisoners' detention centers are state owned facilities in the United States of America except in some situation where prisoners go to privately owned facilities. Correctional facilities management follows State, local authority laws. Over eighty percent of those incarcerated stay in bureau owned prisons while the remaining number stay at community owned facilities, detention centers or juvenile facilities (Carlson & Garrett, 2006). Prisons administration departments have a layout of authority and the commissioner of prisons has the highest authority.

The bureau has the jurisdiction to carry out…. [read more]

Parole Some Might Describe America Thesis

… The United States Courts suggested ways that this role can be maximized that appear to be logical and based in solid theory and principles. They recommended that "community corrections professionals, whether at the federal or state/local level, play a dual role, part law enforcement and part social work. Officers monitor the behavior and activities of persons under supervision to make sure they don't commit further crime. They also refer these individuals to treatment, education, employment, and other services that can help them achieve a crime-free life. Different community corrections agencies in different jurisdictions may emphasize one role or the other, but they all share the same basic mission: to promote public safety by motivating persons under supervision to stay on the right side of the…. [read more]

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