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Youth Justice System in Canada Essay

… Typically, Section 3(1) of the YOA was somewhat inconsistence and outdated to address the desired Canadian youth criminal justice system. Within the YOA Declaration of Principle, the Act stated a rehabilitation of young persons, which aimed to focus on the discipline, supervision and control necessary for young offenders. However, these qualities were particularly problematic. Leschied, et al. (1991) argued that few years after the passage of YOA, there were general clamour against YOA on the ground that the law was too lenient. Group of victims argued that many young offenders got away with the murder crimes because they were not transferred to the adult criminal court where they would be given a longer lifetime sentence as opposed to the maximum three-year sentence given to a…. [read more]

Incorporating Restorative and Community Justice Into American Sentencing and Corrections Article Critique

… Restorative Justice




In criminal justice, new interventions targeting crime control and reduction are constantly being developed and implemented. The recent intervention that is notable is Restorative Justice. This paper will thus critique this particular emerging intervention and focus on answering questions like: What is Restorative Justice? What is Community Justice? Should Restorative and Community Justice Be incorporated into the Criminal Justice System?

In criminal justice, new interventions targeting crime control and reduction are constantly being developed and implemented. The recent intervention that is notable is Restorative Justice. Regardless of the enhanced attention provided recently to the concept of restorative justice, the principle still stays rather bothersome to specify as many feedbacks to criminal habits could fall under the supposed corrective umbrella. The…. [read more]

Plea Bargaining Pleading for Justice Essay

… Fisher (2007) then goes on to argue for adding another bargaining chip to the defendant's arsenal. This chip would be agreeing to a reduction in the standard of proof required for a criminal trial in exchange for concessions by the prosecution. Gray and colleagues (2012) would argue, however, that the standard of proof is already significantly reduced by the Silver Platter Doctrine instituted by the U.S. Supreme Court in United States vs. Calandra (1974). Of particular concern is the use of evidence obtained in violation of Fourth Amendment protections against unlawful searches and seizures during grand jury hearings. An indictment or the threat of an indictment allows prosecutors to effectively use illegally-obtained evidence during plea bargains. Gray and colleagues went further and claimed that the…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Mainly Focuses Essay

… Despite the existence of these assorted challenges, most judicial institutions have managed to forge cordial relations and cooperation towards realization of justice to all criminals in a state or country (Gaines & Miller 2013).

My decision to choose the manager for the interview came about owing to his vast knowledge in matters of enforcement of criminal justice. Administration of justice to criminals must follow due process of the law (Neubauer 2011). Hence, the manager notwithstanding his experience and expertise in this unit is more candid to provide information without apprehension. Under the administration of criminal justice, only personnel with vast knowledge and experience in matters of law and criminal justice have direct consent or permission to comment and even proceed to give sensitive information (Neubauer…. [read more]

Ethics in the Justice System How We Treat Minorities Versus Whites Research Paper

… Ethics in Justice System-How we treat Minorities vs. The whites.

Ethics in the Justice System- How We Treat Minorities vs. Whites

Ethics or the moral philosophy is the study of right and wrong. The Criminal Justice System is comprised of numerous participants who include police, prosecutors, defense counsel, probation officers and judges (Ohio Commission on Racial Fairness, 1999, p.36). When it comes to the process of procedural fairness, Americans are highly sensitive. The single most important source of popular dissatisfaction with the American legal system is the perception of unfair or unequal treatment (Burke and Leben, 2007, p.4). The public's dissatisfaction with the judicial branch can be alleviated by the judges paying critical attention to the key elements of procedural fairness. They should also be…. [read more]

Law Enforcement Officer Definition Justice Essay

… Although upholding civil liberties is occasionally presented as in opposition to community safety, showing respect for community members can often enhance the enforcement of justice. Members of a mosque are more likely to come forward with information about potential radicals if members of the police force treat them with respect than if they are hostile. Incorporating members of the community into the police force are often the best ways to ensure such a positive dialogue. "A community policing agency also has to thoughtfully examine where it is seeking recruits, whom it is recruiting and hiring, and what is being tested" (Community policing defined, 2011, Department of Justice).

Part of the Department of Homeland Security's training that it offers through the Federal Enforcement Training Center involves…. [read more]

Restorative Justice Approaches Reduce Youth Essay

… Retributive Justice

From the criminal law perspective, retributive justice aims at treating youth offenders in formally controlled systems. The concept behind the disciplinary approach shows a consistency with the paradigm of punitive justice. The core theme of retributive justice is that the country is the victim of a criminal act, and the focus is on the youth who violated the laws and interests of the country. When the juvenile justice system operates under the retributive justice approach, focuses upon the offender and the public fear of criminal activities (Wenzel et al., 2008). Therefore, this results to the placement of the crime victims and their sympathizers, including their families in a passive position.

In most of the cases, retributive justice leads to youth offenders being put…. [read more]

Fran it Is Difficult Essay

… Even more revealing about the federal case was the implosion of that cover-up in the face of lengthy federal sentences. Four other police officers present at the scene of Jude's beating chose plea bargain as to indicate their complicity in the affair. Jon Clausing pled guilty to conspiracy (Department of Justice), as did Ryan Lemke who admitted his part in attacking Jude. Joseph Stromei denoted his part in the cover-up by pleading guilty to obstruction of justice due to lying about his cognizance of the role of other officers in the beating (Department of Justice). The plea bargain of Joseph Schabel was even more significant. Schabel, who was one of the first on-duty officers to arrive at the crime scene, played an instrumental role as…. [read more]

Private Security Functions as it Relates to the Various Components of the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… Private Security Functions as it Relates to the Various Components of the Criminal Justice System

The objective of this work is to analyze major components of the criminal justice system which includes private security functions with a focus upon improvement of the interaction between law enforcement, private security the courts and institutional and community corrections over the next 15 years. This is a 15-year plan that should take into consideration the aspects of budgets, revenue, expenditures, communication, technology and cultural aspects of the organization that can be improved.


"Working with Law Enforcement to Abate Cybercrime: Cyber Security Guidelines" states that increasing dependence of society upon technology "has brought about enhanced business functionality and productivity while…. [read more]

Organizational Issues and Criminology Essay

… It does, however, take advantage of economies of scale and teams to work issues on a national basis that is constantly "learning" (McNamara, 2008).


National Strategy for Homeland Security. (2002, November). Retrieved from

Aman, T. (2008). Decentralization: Pros and Cons. Retrieved from:

Autry, R.H., (1996). What is Organization Design? Retrieved from:

Clark, D. (2008). Leadership and Organizational Behavior. Retrieved from:

Corlett, J.A. (2009). Responsibility and Punishment. Dordrect, Netherlands: Springer.

Longley, R. (2004) Miranda: Rights of Silence, Cited in: http://usgovinfo

Marsh, I., ed. (2006). Theories of Crime. New York: Routledge.

McNamara, C., (2008). Emerging Nature and New Organizational Structures. Retrieved from:

Packer, H. (1964). Two Models of the Criminal Process. Retrieved from:…. [read more]

Duty of Any State Essay

… Clearly crime prevention by this strategy means useful resources are saved which are normally used once crime is committed. Again with so many outcomes attached to one idea it becomes difficult to determine what takes priority.

Measuring the success of community policing itself is a criterion to determine the success or failure. A strategy that can itself not be evaluated in black and white is more likely to be criticized and fail acceptance by both experts and public. Those who support new ideas and change would give it a chance and try to make it a success by learning from trial and error over a period of time, believing that an idea like community policing can flourish in a democratic environment. Thus, it is clear…. [read more]

Cooperation Due Process and Justice Term Paper

… Cooperation, Due Process, And Justice

In the course of daily life, everyone will encounter a number of different situations, where they must use ethics to determine the right course of action. As a number of different ethical philosophies have been developed; to help people decide how to react to various issues they face. Yet, with so many different theories, to determine the most accurate requires that you carefully examine three ethical theories. This will be accomplished by reviewing three different pieces of literature on ethics. As an examination of the ethical value, personal opinions about each theory and when they can be applied in the workplace will highlight the significance of each. The three different theories that will be examined include: applied ethics, moral psychology…. [read more]

Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gangs: Threat to National Security? Thesis

… ¶ … predominantly Latino Gangs, Mara Salvatrucha (aka MS-13), and the 18th Street Gang operating on the streets of communities across America. This study is significant because it will provide a snapshot in time concerning how these violent gangs operate in this country in ways that can inform and alert both civilian society and government agencies concerning optimal responses to the problem created by these gangs. Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of documentary evidence and governmental statistics about the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang, this study developed several conclusive findings on the negative effects of these groups in the United States. The Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang are becoming transnational criminal organizations given the fact that they originated in Central America and…. [read more]

Environmental Justice and Executive Order 12898 Research Proposal


The objective of this work is to examine whether the issuance of Executive Order 12898 in 1994 has made a recognizable difference in assisting the environmental justice movement reach its goal of achieving environmental protection for all communities.

On February 11, 1994, President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 12898 on Environmental Justice: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. This order directs each federal agency to develop an environmental justice strategy for identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health, or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority populations and low-income populations. Monies were allocated to federal agencies and state governments assisting communities to develop strategies toward local environmental problems.…. [read more]

Strategy to Reduce Organized Crime Research Paper

… Evaluation Section

There is great need for a comprehensive feedback mechanism to determine whether the six objectives highlighted above are indeed having an effect in both the prevention and reduction of transnational organized crime. The table below highlights my proposed evaluation mechanism.


Time Line

Evaluation Tool

Formulation of Policies to Address the Root Cause of the Problem

3 years

Reduced unemployment rates

Enhancement of International Cooperation and Partnerships

4 Years

Enhanced inter-country cooperation (i.e. On extradition of suspects), enhanced inter-country intelligence sharing, increased joint cross-boarder operations

Enactment of Stricter Penalties

3 Years

Reduced rates of recidivism

Disrupt the Operations of Drug Trafficking Cartels

2 Years

Marked decrease in the availability of drugs on the streets

Formation of a Special Paramilitary Unit to Combat Organized…. [read more]

Human Trafficking Research Proposal

… Human Trafficking

The objective of this work is to examine the history of human trafficking as well as the moral and legal obligations and the impact of human trafficking on the global community and its impact on U.S. foreign policy. Finally, this work will examine the impact that human trafficking has on members of society and the solutions to the issue from a criminal justice standpoint.

Human trafficking crimes are as old as mankind itself however as the world has become more globalized so has too the trafficking of human beings. This work examines the history of human trafficking and the moral and legal obligations of society in addressing these crimes. Furthermore, this work examines the impact of human trafficking on the global community; the…. [read more]

Criminal Justice System Admission Essay

… Third, these decisions should be used to design effective System-wide: alternative programs for dealing with addiction; screening and assessment in order to decide which people should be merely prosecuted and which people need alternatives such as substance abuse treatment. Fourth, the System needs to empower and encourage all members of the Criminal Justice System to use effective alternatives to sentencing. Fifth, the System needs to empower and encourage all members of the Criminal Justice System to supervise people being helped by those alternatives, using the power of their positions to encourage each person's cooperation. By adopting a System-wide approach to substance abuse, the Criminal Justice System can more effectively and ultimately inexpensively deal with our rampant drug/alcohol-related criminal problems.

In closing, I want to thank…. [read more]

Juvenile Justice How to Prevent Juvenile Delinquency Term Paper

… Juvenile Justice

How to Prevent Juvenile Delinquency

Much has been written about juvenile delinquency in the last two decades. The problem attracts a serious interest these days because of the prevalence of delinquent behavior among adolescents in the United States throughout the country and the inability of stakeholders in containing the growing rate of juvenile delinquency. Juveniles are also a special target for those interested in rehabilitation (a) because there are greater chances of rehabilitating adolescents than adults and (b) because of the fear that without intervention juvenile delinquents are likely to carry their delinquent behavior to adulthood. So, how to tackle the problem of juvenile delinquency? There is no easy answer to this question. Different types of juvenile delinquency may require different approaches. But…. [read more]

Social Justice Essay

… Social Justice

By saying that social justice is a "mirage," Friedrich Hayek has raised the question whether the concept of social justice has meaningful content. This provocative statement implies that social justice is not real, but stands closer to an illusion. As such, it questions those who would assert that social justice is, or can be, a social reality. It compels an answer from anyone who would assert a concept of social justice grounded in real possibilities. Using a number of scholarly articles, Hayek's assumptions will be evaluated. This essay will argue that social justice has historically seemed like a mirage, but that some contemporary theoretical approaches might profitably be used to correct this impression. Further, it will show that historical studies prove the moral…. [read more]

DRNC Scenario Term Paper

… DNRC Scenario


Ethics or moral philosophy is about what is right or wrong, the basis of the choice we make each day and how we ought to live (Banks, 2004). Specifically, there is a need for a system of clear ground rules and principles to guide in making difficult decisions in moral issues and situations. Otherwise, these decisions will be drawn from emotion, instinct or personal values, which cannot adequately fare along in dealing with moral dilemmas. These dilemmas include the use of discretion, force, and the due process involved in rendering the correct and moral judgment on a situation. Ethics also sensitizes one to matters of right and wrong and the right way to behave as well as helps in identifying actions,…. [read more]

Police Administration Discussion Chapter

… Emotional and social intelligence is extremely important in regards to modern policing and the characteristics of contemporary officers. Without emotional and social intelligence, police officers with stand alone, hostile to their environments as they attempt to solve and prevent crime. According to the research, emotional intelligence "is the ability to interpret, understand, and manage one's own and others' emotions," (Saville 2006). Essentially, emotional intelligence is the ability to cognitively understand others well-being and emotions. It is essentially empathy on behalf of officers serving within a community. Saville (2012) also suggests that emotional intelligence "is not about becoming emotionally detached, it is about becoming emotionally mature and confident." Modern officers also need social intelligence, which is the ability to remain in tune with the society, despite…. [read more]

Cops and Pops Community Term Paper

… Police agencies, or elements within these agencies, have no desire to change their ways. There is the perception that socioeconomically advantaged neighborhoods will benefit the most, which suggests these policing reforms as implemented merely maintain the status quo. To conclude, the goals of community- and problem-oriented policing is sound, but implementation tends to be compromised by personal and political agendas. While widespread implementation of these policing strategies has occurred, the benefits realized by the communities have therefore been mixed at best.


Clarke, Ronald, V. And Eck, John E. (2005). Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from

Community Oriented Policing Services. (n.d.). Community policing defined. Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice.…. [read more]

Individuality and Community Ethics Essay

… Individualism can be lost in a group's quest to make sure that rights are distributed equally. As an example of this, Akhtar (2011) relates that "for instance, Naisha will have her own particularized way of being Indian in addition to the collective form of the culture that she shares with others." Every individual will benefit from the equal distribution of the right that has been given to all or the status that all have achieved, but they will all wear it differently. Each person within the collective has their own unique way of employing the distribution. So, the autonomy, the right to personhood, also needs to be recognized as an essential element of all these conceptions of social justice.

Critical Recognition

The liberal form of…. [read more]

Develop an Affirmative Program Designed to Reduce Citizens Complaints Essay

… Reducing Citizen Complaints

A growing body of evidence suggests that in any police department a small percentage of officers are responsible for a disproportionate share of citizen complaints. Develop an affirmative action program designed to reduce citizen complaints. Discuss affirmative steps that a department may take to train and monitor officers' conduct that tend to produce citizen complaints. Include discussions on the legal and personnel implications of your proposed program.

Psychologists have proven that it is often a part of human nature that when humans are given more authority, sometimes they act excessively with that authority and go beyond the normal, accepted morality of a situation to become more brutal and violent. Witness many rather mild-mannered German officials who, during the advent of Nazism, became…. [read more]

Maryland Prison System Crime Term Paper

… Much of the criticism and backlash attacks "three strikes" laws as being an ill-advised policy, a quick fix solution to the dynamic problem of crime, a policy with no or at best modest deterrent effect, and lastly, a financial burden to the correctional community and taxpayers. Furthermore, critics say, this law, which currently has been adopted by thirty-seven states, contains many inconsistencies across the states. Some of these inconsistencies include what crimes (violent or nonviolent) actually count as a strike, the possibility of parole or no parole, whether the person should be sentenced as a habitual offender, and whether the offender should receive a mandatory life sentence. In response, some states such as Washington suggest that "three strikes" laws are effective given proper implementation (…. [read more]

O.J. Simpson Orenthal James Research Paper

… The investigator must have the philosophy of collecting as much evidence as possible before it is removed from the crime scene. There must be full cooperation and coordination among the police officers who arrive first at the crime scene and the investigators or detectives. Communication is the key to effectively processing blood evidence. (Schiro, n.d) Full forensic help should be at their disposal from the start. Experts and not trainees should be hired under any circumstances, especially in cases that have the potential to be this significant and controversial.

Furthermore, care must be taken as to how information is gathered such as, witness statements, suspect statements, victim statements ( unless it's a murder case), information from the officer who first arrives, information from detectives and…. [read more]

Homeland Security and Preparedness, Response Capstone Project

… (Edwards, 2012, p.26)

(2) Geo-Call Mapping A county map with colored push pins representing call types and locations. The color bar and pie charts correlating calls by day and time. Awareness of crime locations and nexus to day and time lead to meaningful patrol, prevention, and disruption. (Edwards, 2012, p.26)

(3) Deputies Resource Center The center offers professional magazines, intelligence pamphlets, and case law updates. This creates a professional culture with efficient and effective law enforcement. (Edwards, 2012, p.26)

(4) Intelligence Database Intelligence information is submitted. Intelligence is shared. (Edwards, 2012, p.26)

(5) All Hazards An intelligence analyst e-mails important information regarding potential public safety hazards. This leads to situational awareness among all public safety stakeholders. (Edwards, 2012, p.26)

(6) Open-Source Alerts An intelligence analyst…. [read more]

Cardsmax Frohmann,( 1991) Discusses Case Term Paper

… A constant comparison method of grounded theory was used regarding the data.

Findings in Frohmann's (1991) research account for rejections that are made due to discrepancies that are found in the data presented in a possible case. There are reports and records that are utilized in order to spot possible discrepancies in a potential case. It was further reported that these discrepancies often directly correlated to the credibility that the prosecutor would have in the victim regarding the proposed crime. The findings also relate to a typification of rape-relevant behavior & scenarios that the prosecution goes by to determine whether or not a victim fits most characteristics. The timeline in which a case is reported also affects the decision making of the prosecution. The prosecution…. [read more]

Labor Relations Interview Interview

… ¶ … Locust Club -- "We Protect the Police"

Fighting crime is a full-time job, and the men and woman of law enforcement are, in most states, duly compensated for their efforts. Yet, striking the balance between equitable salaries and accommodating work hours for law enforcement officers and municipal budgetary concerns is not easy. Debates between city officials and union representatives are often long, and at times, contentious. Though, at the end of the day, union reps and city officials typically come together to ensure that the streets are kept safe and that law enforcement officers are given the benefits and the salaries they deserve. Patience, the art of negotiating and collective bargaining, being empathetic and understanding of the other side's position, all of these…. [read more]

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