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Measuring Crime Victimization Essay

… In addition to being a recent development, the National Incident-Based Reporting System is an important source because it brings a change in reporting. The importance of this method is demonstrated by the fact that each crime incident will be reported rather than the summaries provided by the Uniform Crime Reports ("Chapter 6 - Measuring Crime," n.d.). This technique is also a significant source because it incorporates several individual elements regarding the incidents not included with UCR. Furthermore, National Incident-Based Reporting System includes more crimes than those provided for in the other crime reporting methods.

With regards to the most accurate method of collecting crime data, surveys have proved to be the most beneficial to researchers, especially in relation to its advantages. In addition to presenting…. [read more]

Crime Data Attorney Essay

… Some of these people actually took it as a chance to just start right over and others actually ran back to New Orleans once they felt they could. In 2010 the ones that stayed in Birmingham chose not to change their ways and they made the choice to continue to commit some of the crime that was going on in the city (Neighborhood Scout, 2013).

This is the motive for the reduction in property crime and individuals are realizing that it is better things to do then just sitting around stealing from other people. However, in 2005 the City of Corpus, Texas was recorded to have a very high rate in Larceny / Theft (Crime Data, 2012). Research does show that Corpus Christi has ongoing…. [read more]

Crime Rates and Abandoned Buildings Essay

… As a result, the feasibility of the study will highlight how abandoned buildings and crime rates are interconnected with each other. Yet, it will also demonstrate that these issues are a larger part of economic challenges impacting different urban areas. These solutions will vary from one location to the other depending upon the overall scope of the challenges and how they are addressed. (Pickvance, 2001) (Hoffe, 2007)


2001 Building Survey. (2001). City of Boston. Retrieved from:

Area Five Abandoned Buildings. (2011). Pop Retrieved from:

Understanding Descriptive Statistics. (2012). National Atlas. Retrieved from:

Bratton, W. (2009). Turn Around. New York, NY: Random House.

Gau, J.M., and Pratt, T.C. (2010). Revisiting broken windows theory: Examining the sources of the discriminant validity of…. [read more]

Crime and Gender Essay

… Crime and Gender

First Document

More than any other minority group, blacks remain residentially segregated. That is, they tend to live together in small areas away from other ethnic groups. The segregation is a result of discrimination toward blacks in rental agreements and mortgage loans, in addition to neighbors' desire to keep blacks from moving into their neighborhoods. When this occurs, only the middle class, or the relatively wealthy, can afford to move, leaving a concentration of poverty. The effects of this poverty concentration, or concentration effects, include an increase of poverty rates since more impoverished people are concentrated in one area, the decline of places of business, social services, and other properties, and general decline of political or social awareness and power. These neighborhoods…. [read more]

Crime on March 9th, 2013 Term Paper

… This focus on community-level social control is integral to social disorganization theory (Savelsberg, 2006, p. 33). While the results of the study were productive, in that the study helped to demonstrate the detrimental effects of widespread incarceration on the level of the community, the study nevertheless includes an implicit bias because it assumes that, for example, it is more important to nurture and maintain local neighborhoods and communities as methods of social control rather than examine what produces the need for that control in the first place (Rose & Clear, 1998, p. 469-470).

As a result, from the perspective of social disorganization theory, a search for the causes behind the violent and disruptive reaction to Gray's shooting would start with the relative levels of organization…. [read more]

Crime and Intelligence Analysis Term Paper

… Whereas the crime analyst went well with the policing department, the intelligence analyst goes well with the homeland security ideas. This is because a crime analyst usually serves in a more local capacity, whereas the intelligence analyst, as seen from the definitions above, is most likely to serve in a national and international capacity. For this reason, this role will be analyzed further below.

There are varying opinions on what makes up the analytic or intelligence community today, especially at high governmental levels. The reason for this is that this community is built upon many strata of more inferior positions, but all of which supply the individual with valuable information in order to carry out the task of gathering intelligence and utilizing it for the…. [read more]

Crime Data Sources Essay

… Similarly, the National Incident-Based Reporting System has attracted huge concerns on data accuracy. While NIBRS does not involve the application of similar methods to aggregate crime count totals using its data, the data from this method has been criticized for being non-representative and incomplete. Therefore, both UCR and NIBRS have significant data quality and accuracy issues in measuring and dealing with crime.

Rules in Classifying and Scoring of Offenses:

There are some similar rules that are applied in both UCR and NIBRS with regards to the classification and scoring of offenses when reporting. Even though NIBRS has extended its definition of the hotel rule, this rule is applied in both methods of crime reporting. The second rule applied in both systems when classifying and scoring…. [read more]

Crime Statistics UCR/NIBRS and NCVS Research Paper

… 2010, National Institute of Justice).

In contrast, the UCR only reports on the type of weapons used for violent offenses. It also obeys what is known as a 'hierarchy rule.' This means that during a single incident, it only records the most violent crime. This is designed to streamline reporting on one hand, but it can also result in underreporting of certain types of crimes. In the case of a rape-murder, only the murder would be recorded (Chapter 3: Crime, offenders, and victims, n.d, Exploring Criminal Justice: 63). In fact, only rapes upon females are recorded (on males they are recorded as aggravated assaults) and weapons used in rape cases are not recorded. With NCVS data, all crimes are reported and rape includes both male…. [read more]

Data Review on Prisoners Data Analysis Chapter

… Economic History_Prisoner Data

The issue of crime and requisite punishment has been a part of human society for millennia. It seems that given the human condition a certain percentage of any population tends towards deviance from laws and regulations designed to allow society to prosper. Crime is defined as a breach, or breaking, of laws that a governing authority has put in place to order that society. Because society and culture evolve so rapidly, laws and legal and ethical standards vary from both a geographic and chronological point. Indeed, so does the punishment aspect -- what might seem a minor infraction in one society is a capital crime in another. Indeed, one way of conceptualizing the history of humankind is to study the relationship between…. [read more]

Crime Reporting Essay

… 9% and arson was down 5%. The only category not to decrease was burglary which increased 0.3% ("Crime Rates are Down, 2012"). In many categories these numbers differ significantly from the NCVS report. The NCVS found forcible rape to be down 9.2%, robbery to be down 2.1%, aggravated assault to be up 22.7%, burglary to be up 13.8% and motor vehicle theft to be up 3.5% (Truman & Planty, 2012).

These differences are the result of a number of factors. Each program collects data from different sources and each program uses different terminology for labeling crimes. According to Schmalleger (2009) these definitional and procedural differences can account for many of these discrepancies. The UCR and NCVS numbers cannot be correlated using the same standards applied…. [read more]

Crime Statistics Using the FBI Research Paper

… However, tighter enforcement of nightlife areas would reduce the likelihood of assaults that occur in the course of late night partying. There is no evidence that older white people are inordinately the victims of crime in Miami Beach. Tourists are probably the main targets. This segment does not seem to feel as threatened as older people, but the reason why older people feel more threatened is that they feel more vulnerable. Older people have little defense against crime other than shooting. Even when they were raised in an urban environment, that vulnerability makes crime a greater concern for them. Consider assault -- a younger person might get into a fight and be injured, but that was preventable. Older people have little way to prevent assault…. [read more]

History and Theories of Crime Essay

… Crime Theory

The thirty years that made up the historic era known as the 1950s through the 1970s produced many changes in the way we view the world. Two significant events, the Weather Underground's rise to popularity and the massacre at My Lai both contribute to radical behavior. that contributed to this time in history's quality. These two events share something more important however, and that is the ability of history to reverse outdated roles and expose actions and people for their real humanity instead of fabricated and cliche roles.

The United States of America was constructed in violent and unjust manner. Native Americans were eliminated in a genocidal frenzy that has lasted well over two centuries. The Vietnam War represented for America a turning…. [read more]

Crime Statistics Goes Far Beyond Essay

… The statistics that are available, whether from the FBI or the National Crime Survey, indicate that violent and property crimes are at record lows in the United States. This decrease, which followed a two-decade increase that began in the mid 1960s, is encouraging to law enforcement agencies. Interestingly, despite the fact that statistics indicate that crime has been on the decline in the United States for the past two decades, the public's perception is that crime remains on the rise (Dowler, 2003). The reasons for this misperception are not clearly known. Many studies have been conducted in an effort to discover why this perception continues but, to date, no clear consensus as to the reasons has been reached. Since the late 1960s, the public has…. [read more]

Uniform Crime Report Essay

… Citation for the newly identified article (APA style)

Nolan, J., Haas, S., Napier, J. (2011). Estimating the Impact of Classification Error on the "Statistical Accuracy" of Uniform Crime

Reports. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 27(4), 497-519.

Explain what you learned from the new article and how it is related to the assigned readings (300 words)

From class readings and class discussions, I was aware of some of the methodological issues in the Uniform Crime Report. I understood that differences in how states classify different crimes could result in the same exact factual circumstances supporting different criminal classifications, depending upon jurisdiction. This problem made me wary of overreliance on the Uniform Crime Report as a source of information about crime in the United States. However, prior to…. [read more]

Crime Analysis and Intelligence Analysis in the Future of Policing and Homeland Security Term Paper

… Crime Analysis and Intelligence Analysis in the Future of Policing and Homeland Security

The objective of this work is to write a position paper on the roles of crime analysis and intelligence analysis in the future of policing and homeland security while citing at least 10 sources and ultimately conducting a synthesis of the various concepts, tools, issues and perspectives in what will be a critical analysis.

Inspector Gadget was a cartoon character that was very popular in the 1990s and was a character that had a great many very cool gadgets just as did James Bond in the movies. Yesterday's dream gadgets are the today's police and homeland security officer's tools of trade. However, if this information and technology is not properly shared in…. [read more]

Crime Rates and Abandoned Buildings Essay

… After quoting researchers such as Wilson and kelling, Kelling and Coles, as well as Skogan for stating that social and physical disorder leads to crime, the author explains that since not many residents and inhabitants of communities take responsibility to maintain properties and places beyond their own households, the criminal find it easy to flock abandoned properties for carrying out their illegal activities. The authors have also included differing perspectives on social and physical disorder by quoting Sampson & Raudenbush. Sampson mentioned in 1990 that social and physical disorders are symptoms of crime rather than being only causes of crime in neighborhoods.

In order to test their hypothesis, the authors developed an equation relating foreclosures and rate of crime. The abandoned buildings variable is also…. [read more]

Crime Reporting Essay

… Crime Reporting and Data Collection Methods

In what way(s) is the NIBRS similar and dissimilar to the NCVS?

The NIBRS and NCVS approaches are similar in that both the NIBRS and the NCVS provide more detailed information about some of the same types of crimes reported under the UCR as well as more types of crimes (USDOJ, 2005). The principal difference between the NIBRS and the NCVS is that only the latter collects information about crimes that affect victims but that are not reported by police because they occur in incidents never reported to or investigated by police (Hirschel, 2009; Safir, 2003; Schmalleger, 2009; USDOJ, 2005).

In what way(s) is the NIBRS similar and dissimilar to the UCR?

Both methods track crimes, tally incidents reported…. [read more]

Crime Scene Project Research Paper

… Crime Scene Analysis

Introduction- There is always missing information when analyzing a crime scene. The detective's task is thus to piece together the appropriate clues to find the most likely scenario with the data at hand, then attempt to validate that data based on further investigation. In our crime scene case we have the murder of a lawyer; we will call him Mr. Tort, Mr. T. For short. By all accounts, Mr. T. is a kind, upstanding citizen with no overt negativity in his life. He was married and had a small child. The crime took place while his office assistant was away on vacation, and sometime around 630 pm based on a clock being unplugged while certain effects were ransacked from the office. Mr.…. [read more]

Crime, Social Crime and Crime Against Research Paper

… Crime, Social Crime and Crime Against the Person: Violence

One of the more challenging aspects of understanding crime is its ever-changing geographic and temporal qualities. Indeed, what is criminal in one place and time may be completely legal in another. Likewise, so-called "social crimes" have similar qualities that require careful analyses to place them into the appropriate context. Similarly, violent acts against another person may also involve contextual issues that must be taken into account when evaluating the criminality of such behaviors. After all, if people are trying to defend themselves and their families from harm, violence may be the only legitimate alternative that is available to them. To gain a further understanding of these three concepts, this paper provides a review of the relevant…. [read more]

Low Crime Community Essay

… Low-Crime Community

An Analysis of the Elements of Crime and how they can contribute to Harmony

A low crime community is the goal of every neighborhood and city in the world, but achieving it is unquestionably one of the most puzzling problems to solve for local governments and police forces. The problems of crime in some of the country's most dangerous communities are never-ending, and every additional crime begets more crime, creating a dangerous compounding effect. The motivations for an individual or group to commit a crime are many, from pure economic reasons, down to the most arcane violent acts that shock neighborhoods by the displayed malicious intent.

There are some communities that have significantly reduced crime, however, by adopting some common sense rules and…. [read more]

Crime Watch Research Paper

… Crime Watch

Violent Crime Trends: Analysis of Resources

While statistics show a general decline in serious violent crimes such as homicide in the United States since 1991, the homicide rate in the country is remains one the highest in the developed world. There were, for example, 17,034 murders in the United States in 2006 (Deaths by Mass Unpleasantness: Estimated Totals for the Entire 20th Century).

However, according to a CBS report entitled Eye on Crime in America (2006) there has in fact been an increase in the incidence of violent crime in the United States in the last decade; but that this increase is not uniform for every city or area. This report refers to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program, which indicates an…. [read more]

Crime and Aileen Wuornos Criminal Research Paper

… In the case of Wuornos, specifically her predatory and serial homicidal tendencies, criminal opportunities presented themselves when her victims picked her up from the side of the road and then insinuated that they would be willing to pay Wuornos for sex. Additionally, this initial opportunity allowed Wuornos to use force -- in the form of intimidation with a .22 gun -- and fraud -- leading her victims to believe that she was going to sleep with them -- in order to lure her victims to their deaths. "Apparent specialization" was achieved when Wuornos established her modus operandi and used the same techniques to lure Mallory, and six other men, to their tragic and violent deaths.

While the general theory of crime may be used to…. [read more]

Crime Control Theory Understanding Criminal Inclination Thesis

… Crime Control Theory

Understanding Criminal Inclination in Society

The Cost of Crime

Crime is one of the most expensive drains on public funds and other resources in the United States. In California, it is particularly costly as result of various factors including widespread gang activity, disaffected youth, the physical proximity to Mexico and the economics of the foreign influx of drugs, as well as the state's tough criminal laws and mandatory sentencing guidelines (Roback Morse, 2003). The cost of maintaining the state's inmate population exceeds 5 billion dollars annually (Roback Morse, 2003), representing a tremendous amount of money that could be better spent on education and infrastructure repair and maintenance, among many other worthwhile public projects and services.

Significance of the Problem

Despite overwhelming evidence…. [read more]

History of Crime Measurement Essay

… National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS)

Since 1973, National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS) has been gathering facts and figures about the private and domestic victimization. This is done through a constant survey of a nationwide representative sample of housing addresses. This endeavor has 4 major purposes including the development of complete information concerning the sufferers and crime consequences, guesstimate of the number and kinds of unreported crimes, provision of standardized measurement of selected crimes and authorization of assessments over time and areas. The surveys also gather necessary demographic information including sexual category, age, race and earnings for crime evaluation within diverse subpopulations.

In short, the victimization surveys are extensively used for measuring the "frequency and characteristics of particular types of crime and the demographic profile of…. [read more]

Hate Crimes the Definition Term Paper

… Hate Crimes

The definition of a hate crime, according to the United States Department of Justice (Office of Justice Programs), is a crime in which the offender is "…motivated by specific characteristics of the victim, including the victim's race, ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation" ( The hate crime might be a crime against property, or a violent act against an individual, but in most cases the perpetrator shows evidence that "hate [against the race, ethnicity, religion or sexual orientation of a person] prompted" his or her actions (

Hate Crime Statistics

The Office of Justice Programs reports that only 44% of hate crimes in the U.S. are actually reported to the police, and more than 80% of hate crimes are associated with violent crimes (such…. [read more]

Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Essay

… As this method of crime data collection has continued to be used over the years, the debate regarding the validity of reported crime statistics have also continued to emerge. Throughout the years, Uniform Crime Reporting has proven to be an effective method for collection of crime data through the following ways and reasons:

Determination of the Effectiveness of Policies:

Uniform Crime Reports are effective tools for collection of crime data because they are an indication of the effectiveness of the established policies for lessening crime. There are various concerns that have emerged regarding some problems associated with UCR data and its effectiveness. However, many analysts have concluded that reported crime data are tainted by evaluation mistakes originating from variations in police department reporting practices in…. [read more]

Computer Related Data Term Paper

… As such, careful consideration of evidence must be conducted in the same manner as collecting physical evidence.

The first stage in the forensic process is collection. This "involves the search for, recognition of, collection of, and documentation of electronic evidence," (U.S. Department of Justice, 2013, 18). A warrant is needed before any computer devices can be seized in order to collect evidence (Protext International, 2003). All "first responders should document, photograph, and secure digital evidence as soon as possible at the scene" (National Institute of Justice, 2013). Therefore digital evidence needs to be treated as sensitive, if not more, as real physical evidence of a crime. Yet, there needs to be special steps taken in order to ensure that this evidence is not altered in…. [read more]

Organized Crime and Its Influence on Politics in Eastern Europe After the Fall of Communism Thesis

… Organized Crime and Its Influence on Politics in Eastern Europe After the Fall of Communism

What is Organized Crime?

Influence of Organized Crime in Politics in General

Influence of Organized Crime in Politics in Eastern Europe

Background information on breakup of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union

Political Sector of Balkans after breakup of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union

How Organized Crime influenced the Political sector of Balkans after breakup of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union

One cannot ignore the fact that the globe has penetrated into the age of industrial revolution where the technological and scientific advancements and innovations are at the peak. In this era of progression, social issues and concerns have simultaneously been escalating at an unprecedented rate. Crime, indeed, organized crime has…. [read more]

Crime Workplace Is Not Safe Essay

… They should also go for specialist indemnity for protection in opposition to the crime of identity theft. The costs associated with dealing with this kind of crime are far more than what is perceived in the society.

None of these safety measures are completely foolproof and even well-prepared people may have to go through a variety of costs as a result of and in dealing with virtual offenses: it usually happens that the sufferers of identity theft have to compensate for the loans acquired with their name by virtual offenders. Sufferers of internet fraud are not even surprised to know that their credit card particulars are employed by these lawbreakers to buy different products or service. The sufferers of phishing fraud are easily fooled into…. [read more]

Unemployment and Crime Rates Term Paper

… We found that there was some positive correlation between unemployment and crime rates in the city. The paper also discussed three theories that can explain this positive correlation between unemployment rate and crime rate. These three theories include economic deprivation, the Becker-Ehrlich model and the Labor Market/youth progression theory. Our research found that all of these theories assert a positive correlation between unemployment and under employment.


The research for this paper was conducted using a variety of sources including the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The BLS was especially helpful because it allowed me to make a graph that was relevant to the research that I was conducting. I also conducted research through the use of books, journals, magazines and newspapers

REFERENCES…. [read more]

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