Viewing papers 1-30 of 52 for criminal AND justice AND AND counterterrorism AND international AND terrorism AND issues

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Terrorism Organizations What Is Terrorism? Research Paper

… Prevention and mitigation methods are complex and often somewhat controversial in that some see Civil Rights being eroded, while others feel that the protection of the many, utilitarianism, is worth losing some personal liberty. In any case, diligence, scholarship and preparation are necessary as never before.

REFERENCES

ACLU Lawsuit. (1993). The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/16/us/aclu-lawsuit-backs-klan-in-seeking-permit-for-cross.html

Anti-Defamation League. (2013). Ku Klux Klan -- Affiliations. ADL. Retrieved from: http://archive.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/affiliations.html?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk

Bocstette, C. (2008). Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques. George C. Marshall European Center for Security. Retrieved from: http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/MCDocs/files/College/F_Publications/occPapers/occ-paper_20-en.pdf

Department of Homeland Security. (2014). About DHS. Retrieved from: http:.//www/dhs.gov

____. (2007, October). National Strategy for Homeland Security. Retrieved from: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/nat_strat_homelandsecurity_2007.pdf

Masters, J. (2011). Militant Extremists in the United States. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved…. [read more]


Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism Issues Essay

… Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism

COUNTERTERRORISM ISSUES

What is counterterrorism? Why is it important to understand the motivations behind terrorism when engaged in counterterrorism efforts? What kind of general motives might you find among terrorists in this country and abroad?

Counterterrorism is the full spectrum of governmental law enforcement and military responses to perceived terrorist threats. Effective intelligence collection, analysis, and dissemination requires a comprehensive understanding of terrorist motivation because that knowledge enables investigators to identify terrorist organizations and sources of operational support, financing, and recruiting.

Understanding terrorist motivation also enables authorities to establish effective surveillance techniques as well as counterintelligence operations designed to infiltrate terrorist entities to apprehend individual terrorist leaders and financers and, most importantly, to prevent terrorist attacks.

In the current era of…. [read more]


Counterterrorism Counter-Terrorism Framework Research Paper

… This is not to say that they should make a profit, which is the alpha goal of a business, but the other parts of running a business including training people timely and fully, spending money wisely, making upgrades to equipment and resources only when necessary but not in a way that is too over the top and commits resources that are not needed is just the tip of the iceberg.

Last on the docket for recommendations is to properly police and regulate the behavior of people that have extraordinary ability to do very bad or at least unethical things. The Snowden thing is an extreme example but the revelation that NSA operatives are using their powers to check up on love interests is ridiculous (Poulson,…. [read more]


Terrorism and Policy Thesis

… Terrorism and Policy: An Examination of the Federal Policy Changes Since 9/11

The objective of this work is to summarize the federal policy changes that resulted from the tragic events of September 1, 2001. This work will examine Homeland Security National Strategy and the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act in conducting an analysis of contemporary crime control policies.

HOMELAND SECURITY STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES

The National Strategy for Homeland Security, published by the Office of Homeland Security in July 2002 states as Homeland Security 'strategic objectives' the following: (1) prevent terrorist attacks within the United States; (2) Reduce America's vulnerability to terrorism; and (3) Minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur. It is related in this same publication that six major initiatives which have been identified…. [read more]


Latin American Terrorism Issues Research Paper

… United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)

This group of terrorist is relatively weak and less active. Very few activities have been reported by this group. It has more than 32000 members dismissed. Thus, it remains inactive as a formal group. Despite of its less activities, many old members of AUC are engaged in criminal activities mostly drug trafficking, in newly emerging criminal organizations (known as BACRIM, BandasCriminalesEmergentes). This newly emerging group has more than 3500 and less than 6000 members. To cope with this situation, Colombian government has taken multiple steps and made new laws. These laws are being implemented properly in order to generate peace in the region. One of the unique and most effective laws made in this context is the thorough and…. [read more]


Terrorism Term Paper

… For the person heading up the relief effort, the key to this negotiation event is to be calm, low-key, and recognize that the warlord needs to get something in return for letting the trucks through. Simply giving the supplies over to the terrorists would be a big mistake, but some compromise must be approached.

Preemption: George W. Bush, while he was president, used preemption, which the Brookings Institution suggests was not a good idea. "A broad-based doctrine of preemption carries serious risks," the Brookings Institution asserts. In fact elevating the preemptive approach to a "policy doctrine" can bring "negative consequences" because it opens up the image that the U.S. "…is too quick to use military force and to do so outside the bounds of international…. [read more]


Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism International Terrorism Issues Essay

… Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism

INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM ISSUES

Compare and contrast several definitions of terrorism. Include definitions employed by government agencies as well as by scholars. Which definition do you find to be most accurate or most useful? Why? Also, by extension, why do you find certain definitions deficient?

According to the U.S. State Department, Title 22 of U.S. Code section 2656f (d) defines 'terrorism' as the "premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups of clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience" and defines 'international terrorism' as "terrorism involving citizens or the territory of more than one country." This definition is comprehensive and accurate except that is seems to exclude (1) individual perpetrators and (2) acts of terrorism perpetrated strictly for…. [read more]


International Terrorism Violence in the Middle East Essay

… International Terrorism

Violence in the Middle East:

The principle cause of perpetual violence in the Middle East is the extremist attitudes prevailing amongst Palestinian Arabs and other Arab states and militant groups toward the nation of Israel. Still today, large Arab nations like Iran and militant Islamic

organizations in positions of power throughout the Palestinian territories maintain formal

declarations of their intention to destroy Israel by any means necessary and refuse ever to acknowledge the right of Israel to exist as a nation. While extremist groups like the Moshe Amon exist in Israel too, the principal difference is that extremist influences neither reflect the predominant view of the Israeli populace nor do they dictate national policy. In Israel, anti-Arab extremist acts of violence are defined…. [read more]


Combatting Future Terrorism Term Paper

… He therefore notes that the prison departments have a noble duty of promoting positive influence with a lot of zeal as well as facilitating the transition of prisoners back to the mainstream society with great innovation. These correctional facilities within the country can act as a special and effective venue for ensuring that the convicted terrorists are de-radicalized and also the spreading of the network of the terrorists is stopped.

The use of airplanes as weapons of terror has been the latest trend and indeed was the tool that was used by the terrorists in the fatal 9/11 attack on the U.S.A. Indeed even before the attack using the planes, Rodney Stitch who was a specialist in air travel safety suggested that the cockpit doors…. [read more]


Combating Terrorism Essay

… To date, there has been little published relative to the responsibilities of the four directorates. Obviously the directorate on Homeland Security can be expected to cooperate with the Department of Homeland Security in an effort to strengthen international cooperation on homeland security issues as they relate to transportation security and monitoring the travel activities of terrorists and the Policy directorate will be involved in developing policy but beyond those basic considerations the actual workings of the new Bureau have not been determined. For the short-term, it can be expected that the new Bureau will operate much like the former Office for Counterterrorism did.

Although terrorism has been utilized by those with a specific political agenda has been around for a long time it developed as…. [read more]


Domestic Terrorism America Is Home Essay

… They once destroyed a laboratory in Michigan University because the laboratory was used to create genetically modified organisms funded by Monsanto (Grubbs, 2010). In reality, Monsanto only donated a paltry 2000 USD to send 5 African students to a conference on biotechnology. In their wisdom they have maintained that whatever they did was justified.

The Army of God revels on religious pretexts to harm others. They use violence to discourage abortion and homosexual activities as exemplified in their attacks on gay night clubs and abortion clinics. One of its members, Eric Rudolph, planted a bomb at the 1996 Olympics venue in Atlanta, Georgia. Two people succumbed and whopping 150 others injured. He explained without remorse in 2005 his action was an indictment to the government…. [read more]


Argentina's Definition of Terrorism Term Paper

… Argentina's Definition Of Terrorism

Terrorism is nowadays one of the most important aspects of international security which states and international organizations are trying to address at all levels, both internal and global. This is largely due to the fact that the terrorist flabellum does not represent a regular threat to the national and international security, but rather an unconventional one, whose motives, reasons, and targets cannot be fully understood or identified. In this sense it is argued that "the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 11 September 2001 have focused attention on the issue of international terrorism as an urgent matter for the United Nations" (International Peace Academy, 2002) This is why it is important that action is taken at all…. [read more]


Ilea's International Law Enforcement Academies Research Paper

… Courses are offered on the basis of the needs of specific countries and participants include mid to senior level law enforcement and criminal justice officials that have already graduated from a regional ILEA. The topics of these specialized courses include high level topics like police organizations and administration, ethics, domestic violence, women in policing, role of citizens, civil disobedience and always include a cultural and institutional orientation component. ("ILEA-Roswell")

When it comes to the individual agencies within the American government, there are a number which are directly involved in the International Law Enforcement Academies. For instance, the Diplomatic Security Service, also known as the Bureau of Diplomatic Security, is the world leader in international investigations, threat analysis, cyber security, counterterrorism, security technology, and protection of…. [read more]


Greater Threat: Domestic or International Terrorism? Research Paper

… As Mantri points out, "The domestic attacks disprove the idea that the United States, as a nation, is immune from radicalization at home" (2011, p. 91). In fact, Mantri (2011) suggests that notwithstanding the numerous examples of domestic terrorism cited above, the potential for even more such attacks in the future may be far greater because of the ideological attraction that these acts hold for some people. In this regard, Mantri notes that, "Even more disturbing has been the concept that this is driven by so called 'lone wolf' attacks, of people self-radicalizing through the internet and without the support of a much wider terrorist infrastructure or radical community" (2011, p. 91). In fact, a recent highly controversial report from the U.S. Department of Homeland…. [read more]


Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom Essay

… The debate over the issue of security and preemptive strikes doctrine as opposed to the right to privacy and the right to a private life have taken into account the increased necessity of both. However, while the Republicans argue for the supremacy of the Patriot Act, no matter the costs involved, the Democrats, although not dismissing entirely the idea of actions against terrorists on the homeland, do consider the right to privacy as being crucial in the development of a normal and democratic society.

FISA represents the acronym for Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, a Cold War piece of legislation that regulates the foreign electronic surveillance techniques used by the U.S. intelligence agencies. More precisely the 1978 Act "establishes a legal regime for foreign intelligence surveillance…. [read more]


State Sponsored Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … Sponsored Terrorism

State Sponsored Terrorism

What is terrorism and what is state-sponsored terrorism?

Terrorism: "The systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion" - Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Notwithstanding that simple definition by Merriam-Webster, there is an inherent difficulty in defining the concept of terrorism, writes Martha Crenshaw in the journal Political Psychology (Crenshaw, 2000). The problem in searching for an appropriate definition, Crenshaw explains, is that in attempting to adequately discuss terrorism, one must take into account the so-called new terrorism, which emerged during the last few years of the 20th Century. Also, there are so many conflicting psychological studies into the various personalities that any attempt at a final definition tends to get muddled and watered down. There are a wide…. [read more]


Norfolk Virginia Is a Medium Research Paper

… Norfolk Virginia has long since had a special operations team to assist patrol officers with special circumstances that may have arisen, for instance, hostage situations, bank robberies, and other such criminal activities. But because of the threats posed by terrorism "the Special Operations Team has received specialized training in Weapons of Mass Destruction and anti-terrorism response, CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive), and HAZMAT operations." ("Homeland Security Division") In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the responsibility for categorize the city's infrastructure assets and providing these assets with the information to aid in the event of a terrorist attack. Potential assets include government buildings like schools, power generating stations, public utilities, shipyards, and a variety of public venues. In addition, the team…. [read more]


Counter Terrorism Issues. The Writer Uses Three Term Paper

… ¶ … counter terrorism issues. The writer uses three sources to answer questions about Mosques, agents and privacy.

The city that we live in has a large Arab population. The Arab community is comprised of both Arab-Americans and immigrants from Arab nations. As a senior counter terrorism official for the United States government it is my duty to determine the level of caution and steps that will be taken in this area to counteract and help prevent any possible acts of terrorism in the area.

When one wants to determine what level of caution to take when it comes to preventing acts of terrorism it is important not to focus exclusively on Arab populations. One only need to study the Oklahoma bombings to understand the…. [read more]


Counterterrorism: MS-13 and Gangs in American Term Paper

… Counterterrorism: MS-13 and Gangs in American

Counterterrorism has always been a top importance for the FBI, but nowadays, it is the Bureau's superseding mission to prevent acts of terrorism before they happen. This determination is achieved by the Counterterrorism Division at Headquarters and transported out by every single separate field office, resident agency, and legat. The Headquarters are usually providing a team of analysts that are working to put together fragments of information that is being gathered by the field offices. Headquarters also have the job of administering a national threat warning system that permits the FBI to instantly allocate significant bulletins to law enforcement agencies and public safety departments. "Flying Squads" deliver particular counterterrorism experience and knowledge, language capabilities, and analytical support as needed…. [read more]


Al Capone or Al Qaeda?: Organized Crime and Counterterrorism as Law Enforcement Priorities Essay

… The impossibility of the fight in Mexico, combined with the high potential for profit in the trade, made this defection happen. It is important to note, however, that Los Zetas have technically only been their own cartel since 2010: from 1999 to 2010, they were essentially the paramilitary enforcement wing of the Gulf Cartel. But by 2010, Los Zetas split off from the Gulf Cartel, and became a rival: they are currently better-organized and quite possibly more profitable than either of the two older rivals, the Gulf and Sinaloa Cartels. However, their origins as military commandos are the most noteworthy fact about them -- it would be as if the Navy Seals took over the crystal meth trade in the American Midwest, or if an…. [read more]


Cybercrime Includes a Range Essay

… Cybercrime includes a range of illicit activities that depend on digital data and networks, and includes such behaviors as fraud, identity theft, and embezzlement, sabotage, and conspiracy. It is wrong to refer to Silk Road solely as a cybercrime issue, because law enforcement is more concerned with the trafficking of illicit substances than it is with the methods used to market those substances. However, the term cybercrime is loosely applied to refer to the use of computer databases and networks to conduct illegal activities from child pornography and human trafficking to weapons trafficking and terrorism. As the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute puts it, "The advent of new internet technology has resulted in the corresponding advent of both new forms of crime,…. [read more]


International Peace and Terrorism Introduction

… Law promotes equity and respects for people. Law advocates treatment of all human beings as members of the family. Islam, Judaism, and Christianity share this value. Hinduism embraces divine spark for all human beings while Buddhism talks of the human race are having similar distinctions made by humankind from all other animal varieties. There are numerous species across board distinguishing their category based on fundamentalism. The teachings make emphasis on oneness in which people work towards common goals of perish together. International law plays a role in fostering cooperation. Law consists of sets of rules that ensured passive co-existence of nations. Today, the concept of world governance is moving towards active cooperation among all countries. The concerns about matters of human welfare, international travel, outer…. [read more]


Policy Efficacy: Terrorist Activity Research Paper

… (Sandler, 2005, 77)

Transnational terrorism is a greater threat than domestic terrorism because transnational terrorists understand human nature and the great diversity of cultures on Earth. Every country and every culture handles defense and safety matters in different ways. Therefore, when citizens from multiple countries are in some way involved in a transnational terrorist activity, it is unlikely that the matter will come to an easy, simple, or direct resolution. The differences in methods and culture hinder cooperation, resolution, and apprehension of terrorists. Furthermore, Sandler adds that

To appreciate the collective action problems posed by transnational terrorism, one must recognize the asymmetries that distinguish the behavior of targeted nations and their terrorist adversaries. These asymmetries provide tactical advantages to terrorists who target assets from powerful…. [read more]


Commission Report There's a Substantial Research Paper

… Details are collected through numerous techniques, which include primarily the signals intelligence and interviews of human resources, as well as the general intelligence reviews previously recorded, which are then edited with newer information as it comes. With respect to the source and character of the confirmation of information as well as its extent or nature, these reviews can be regarded as highly classified. This is why some of the information that is gathered is tightly held. Some of the information is also referred to as less sensitive depending upon it importance and then broadly disseminated to the local police force agencies. Threat or risk of threat which is confirmed should be disseminated as well, through either individual reviews or through threat advisories. The threat advisories…. [read more]


Kennedy Hickman (N.D.) the Entebbe Essay

… Counterterrorism operations

The counterterrorism operation in Entebbe by Israeli was immediate and swift. As a result the standards of counter-terrorism operation do not apply. The terrorist group had demands that were not only touching on Israel but a number of countries across the world. This was so because the Palestinian hostages were kept both in Israel and other nations in the globe. Therefore, Israeli could not meet these demands. Israeli had to act swiftly lest the hostages in Entebbe be killed (as a deadline was given).

According to Eileen Skinnider (2004), "The present threat of international terrorism is seen as an exceptional phenomenon; it is not practicable to apply the principles of law and the rules of evidence generally recognized in the trial of criminal…. [read more]


Financing Al-Qaeda Identifying and Attempting to Slow Term Paper

… Financing Al-Qaeda

Identifying & Attempting to Slow Al-Qaeda's Operational Cash Sources

There is no consensus among experts in and outside the U.S. government about the magnitude of the threat to U.S. national interests posed by the Al Qaeda organization. Virtually all experts agree that Al Qaeda and its sympathizers retain the intention to conduct major attacks in the United States, against U.S. interests abroad, and against Western countries."

Kenneth Katzman, Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs, U.S. State Department

How do individuals associated with the terrorist group al-Qaeda fund their activities? And what is the global community doing about stopping of those funds that support al-Qaeda? This paper reviews funding sources - some creative and some traditional - for al-Qaeda's terrorist activities, past and current. The…. [read more]


Military Law and Justice Essay

… ¶ … Military Law and Military Justice?

Military justice, also known as military law is a set of procedures and laws that govern members of the armed forces. Different states have designed distinct and separate bodies of law governing their armed forces. Other states have adopted the use of special judicial in enforcing military justice (McCormack 9). Military justice has unique legal issues such as preservation of proper discipline and order, the legal nature of orders and proper conduct within members of the military force. Some states allow their system of military justice to handle civil offences, which have been committed by members of their armed forces. Military justice differs from the implementation of military authority on civilians as a form of civil authority. This…. [read more]


Extraordinary Rendition Refers to the Practice Research Paper

… Extraordinary Rendition refers to the practice of transferring terror suspects from one country to another by means that bypass all judicial due process. After their secret transfer to selected countries, which do not care much for human rights or the due process, the suspects are subjected to brutal interrogation methods to gather information. Most such 'renditions' are initiated by the United States, although they are tacitly approved by several U.S. allies, and the objective is to gather intelligence about international terrorist networks by whatever means necessary without judicial oversight. Although the rendition policy for forcible transportation of terror suspects to other countries was started by the Clinton administration during the 1990s, it has considerably expanded in scope under the Bush administration especially after the 9/11…. [read more]


Corruption Exists Term Paper

… The protection of citizens should not only consider protection against terrorism, but also protection against their own government.

Throughout recent history, citizens have fought in court for the right to regulate the behavior of law enforcement. The prevention of brutality, coercion tactics, and misuse of resources of law enforcement is a vital part of the ongoing relationship between citizens and those responsible for enforcing the laws. Those regulations are enacted through the Warren Court, and the Court's decisions in many legal battles, as well as through the United States Constitution. This paper will examine one of those protections, the "Exclusionary Rule," and will discuss how this protection has assisted the public in regulating the behavior of law enforcement.

How does the Exclusionary Rule relate to…. [read more]

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