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Criminal Offending Essay

… In such a case, the perceived unfairness and failure to accept the unfair sanction nullifies any deterrent effect produced by strong social bonds, and this means, the unfair sanction may have little or no influence on the future behavior of the offender (Leana & Nicole, 2008). For poorly bonded offenders who perceive sanctions to be unfair and accept the accompanying shame, the sanction will be irrelevant or possibly produce a deterrent outcome to future offending. On the other hand, the poorly bonded offender who denies the shame is likely to respond defiantly and engage in future criminal activities, because of unfair and stigmatizing sanctions. Therefore, the outcome of a sanction determines continuity or discontinuity of criminal activity in the future. In addition, defining the sanction…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Process Essay

… Criminal Justice Process

Considerable attention has been devoted to law, both substantive and procedural on the justice process. The criminal justice system is a legal system. How does the law influence the day-to-day activities of the justice process? Be sure to cover criminal justice decisions in all major sub-components of the process.

The law influences the day-to-day activities of the justice process in a number of ways, because the law determines the parameters of permissible activity at every point in the criminal justice system. First, it is important to realize that the law influences what is considered criminal activity. This may seem like an obvious point, but it can have a tremendous impact on the day-to-day activities of the criminal justice system. For example, the…. [read more]

Justice in the Twentieth Century Term Paper

… Justice

In the twentieth century, as in the centuries of the past, most wars and other conflicts were prompted not by what the victims did, but by who the victims were. Horrific atrocities were committed against Jews because they were Jews, against blacks because they were black, against Hutus because they were not Tutsis, and Tutsis because they were not Hutus. After these conflicts ended, two models of retribution became legacies: trial and punishment as the resolution for the Holocaust in Europe, and reconciliation as the resolution for Apartheid in South Africa. These resolutions are polar opposites, yet each one has both strong opponents and equally strong advocates. It is "an eye for an eye" versus the teachings of Jesus and Gandhi. But this dilemma…. [read more]

Criminal Justice and Capital Punishment Essay

… ¶ … Capital Punishment

Criminal Justice and Capital Punishment

Capital punishment has provoked heated discussion since biblical times. The debate remains as divisive as ever because it sits at the intersection of life, death and the very definition of the word justice. Whether justice requires the death penalty is strictly a matter of how one defines justice. Since the reinstatement of the death penalty in 1977 there have been over 600,000 murders in the United States and just over 1,000 executions.

The first known execution in the territory now known as the United States of America was of Captain George Kendall, who, accused of sowing discord and mutiny was shot by a firing squad in Jamestown in December 1607. In 1622 the next known execution,…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Interoffice Memorandum Supervising Term Paper

… Ebersol can expect his punishment to be 30 days in jail or a $500.00 fine. If Mr. Ebersol is found guilty, it can be argued that he should not be subject to 30 days in jail or a $500.00 fine, as prescribed by § 22-15-992. Under People v. Durant, 12 N.M. 26, 55 P. 200 (1901), a two-hour detention of a shoplifter by store security was determined to be a violation of the shoplifter's rights. Because of the length of time that the shoplifter was detained by store security, the Durant court determined that the shoplifter should suffer no sentence, however minimal. Durant is still good law. Mr. Ebersol's detention by the police was even lengthier than the detention in Durant. However, the issue is…. [read more]

Criminal Justice the Issue of Future Dangerousness Term Paper

… Criminal Justice

The Issue of Future Dangerousness in Capital Murder Trials

One of the most controversial elements of Texas' capital murder statute is that it requires juries to find that a defendant poses a risk of future dangerousness prior to sentencing a defendant to death. In fact, "during the punishment phase of death penalty trials, the question of whether or not a convicted capital murderer can be given a life sentence and prevented from committing future acts of violence often becomes the focal point for both the prosecution and the defense." (Merillat, 2006). Many outside of the legal community assume that a life sentence without the possibility of parole will ensure that convicts are unable to present a future danger. However, those within the legal…. [read more]

Criminal Gang Enhancements Term Paper

… Criminal Gang Enhancements in Sentencing



During the time period between the years of 1997 and 1998 legislation was focused on crime and most specifically juvenile crime. The work of Matthews and Ruzicka entitled: "Proposition 21: Juvenile Crime" (2000) published by the Capital Center for Government Law and Policy in a California Initiative Review relates that Proposition 21 had as its aim the amendment of both "the Penal Code and the Welfare and Institution Code" and this was specific to the "procedures used in the treatment of juveniles and adults who commit gang-related felonies." (Matthews & Ruzicka, 2000) According to Matthews and Ruzicka this law would bring about serious changes to the way. Proposition 21 would increase penalties related to street…. [read more]

Is Criminal Behavior Due to Nature and Genetics or Is it Nurtured Through the Environment? Term Paper

… Criminal Behaviour

Chapter I Introduction

Review of Researched Considerations

Chapter III Conclusion


Very simply, the law treats man's conduct as autonomous and willed, not because it is, but because it is desirable to proceed as if it were."

Not So Simple

Has the jury reached a verdict?"

Yes and no, your Honor. Although we, the jury, acknowledge the defendant did commit the crime and deserves a 'guilty' verdict, we find the defendant 'not guilty', as we do not feel he should not be held accountable for his criminal behavior. Due to evidence presented regarding his genetic make-up, along with evidence revealing the defendant experienced a horrendous environment while growing up, we are convinced his actions were beyond his ability to control them.…. [read more]

CJ 205 Juvenile Justice Term Paper

… Juvenile Justice System

Do you believe there is a growing common consensus that juveniles are somehow less culpable for their crimes since they have not been in this world as long as an adult or do you believe that there is growing common consensus that juveniles are just as guilty as an adult when they make a conscious decision to commit a crime? Explain.

From the early stages of the development of criminal justice system in the United States, there has been a distinction between adult justice system and the juvenile justice system. Otherwise, there would be no need to talk about juveniles as a separate category. The issue for a long time was different in practice, juveniles being punished in the same way adults…. [read more]

Identifying Problems in the Criminal Justice System Thesis

… Criminal Justice - Systematic Problem


The Problem of Capital Punishment in the United States:

Capital punishment has been a feature of human social justice since before recorded history. Generally, civilized societies reserve the ultimate form of punishment for the most serious crimes, such as the murder of another, but that is not always the case.

The Guillotine played a highly publicized role throughout the 18th century in France, and hanging by the neck was frequently imposed in the U.S. well into the 20th century.

In several Middle Eastern countries, capital punishment is still imposed for such "crimes" as homosexuality; in others, including some of the wealthiest, modern, and so- called "moderate" Islamic nations, the death penalty is not formally sanctioned…. [read more]

Economic Philosophy Crime and Punishment Term Paper

… Economic Philosophy: Crime and Punishment

In this paper, we are examining the economic impact of crime and punishment on society. This is accomplished by analyzing the article Crime and Punishment by Gary Becker. Once this occurs, is when we will see how this is affecting productivity and what steps can be taken to deal with these issues.

Over the decades, the impact of crime and punishment has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because this can have positive or negative effects on the economy. This is dependent upon the way various laws are enacted and enforced. In Crime and Punishment by Gary Becker, he is discussing how this can be analyzed. To determine the effectiveness of this approach…. [read more]

Crime and Punishment Space Essay

… His fever reaches a high point and it is only with the arrival of his friend Razumikhin and his mother and sister that he is able to come back to his senses.

Still, the city acts like a prison for Raskolnikov, just as his mind acts like a tormentor, imprisoning him and attacking him through conscience. The city's reflection of Raskolnikov's conscience is the detective Porfiry, who, like Sonya, tries to get Raskolnikov to confess his crime and thus restore him and the city to a sense of moral order.

However, just as the city itself cannot help but daily confess to its own atrocities, whether these are in the form of prostitution, vehicular homicide, drunkenness, theft or seduction, Raskolnikov's crime comes to be seen…. [read more]

Criminal Behavior Theories That Relate to Armed Robbery Thesis

… Armed Robbery and Criminal Behavior Theories

There are well-documented theories in the field of criminology to help researchers understand why incidents of armed robbery take place -- but many questions remain to be answered. Indeed, why do criminals resort to robbery with the threat of force? This question will be pursued in this paper utilizing existing research literature published in scholarly journals, along with information from author Roger Matthews, the FBI, and others. The answers to that question are not direct nor exact, however the entirety of the research provides clues, data, and theories that lead to a general understanding.

Armed Robbery is the subject and the title of a book by Roger Matthews, who interviewed some 340 convicted robbers in UK prisons and researched…. [read more]

Do African-American Women Receive Harsher Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System for Crimes? Thesis

… Racial Bias in Sentencing

Do African-American Women Receive Harsher Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System for Crimes than Caucasian Women?

A ic/Research Question

The proposed research will explore racial bias in the criminal justice system. It will explore consist of a paired analysis of sentencing practices between Caucasian women and African-American women for similar crimes. It will explore the research question: do African-American women receive harsher sentencing in the criminal justice system for crimes than Caucasian women?

The United States prides itself on the maintenance of a fair and equitable justice system. Formal laws and policies are in place to make certain that one group or another does not receive partial treatment due to factors such as sex, race, gender, or religion. The justice system…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Juveniles Research Paper

… (Johnson and Tabri, Page 2 -- 3)

People think that juveniles with life sentences would improve their health and their character if the possibility of parole existed to be something for them to work towards while imprisoned. LWOP is another form of death. Others who argue against LWOP for juvenile declare that LWOP diminishes the health of juveniles in many ways, many of which, lead to premature death.

According to Monahon (2009), juveniles are vulnerable because of their size, lack of experience in the system, and lack of peer support groups. Compared to youth in juvenile facilities, juveniles incarcerated in adult prisons are five times more likely to be sexually assaulted, and almost twice as likely to be attacked with a weapon by inmates or…. [read more]

U.S. Constitution Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Thesis


The objective of this research is to examine police procedures such as searches, arrest and interrogations, as well as criminal trials and sentencing regulated by the Constitution in the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments. Most of these provisions of these amendments apply to states through the Fourteenth Amendment. The Constitution provides general guidelines or rules that apply to criminal cases. This work will discuss and analyze the rights, due process, protections and safeguards included in these amendments and the impact these amendments have upon today's criminal justice system and criminal prosecution.

Constitutional Amendments that are at focus in this study are those listed and stated as follows:

Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure…. [read more]

Corporal Punishment Death Penalty Term Paper

… How then in any case can a jury or a judge offer the death penalty as a viable punishment. One case that is very personally associated with wrongful conviction is the Spaziano case, in which the police were even found to have hypnotized the defendant to elicit his guilty plea, a clear violation of his rights. There is a lengthy book The Wrong Man written by Michael Mello, the attorney who has been unflaggingly trying to overturn the case for many years and information about the case and Spaziano can be found online here:

The Story of Randall Adams is also a telling and personal account of wrongful conviction in a capital trail:

The Ohio native is embarking on a nationwide tour to discuss…. [read more]

Supreme Court Case Coker v. Georgia Research Paper

… Supreme Court Case:

According to the United States Constitution, any state legislature or Congress may prescribe capital punishment or the death penalty for capital offenses or murder. This is especially because the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that this form of punishment is not necessarily an infringement of the Eighth Amendment's prohibition on unusual and cruel punishment. Actually, the Amendment shapes some procedural aspects about when a jury may use this form of punishment and how it must be conducted. The Eighth Amendment is applicable against the federal and state government due to the due process clause in the Fourteenth Amendment.

Constitutional Requirements under Which a Criminal can receive Death Penalty:

Currently, thirty-eight states and federal government enforce the death penalty or capital punishment, which…. [read more]

Supervision in the Criminal Justice Research Paper

… The other challenge involves offender punishment.The issue of what form of punishment be given to criminal offenders is paramount. Different groups of people and especially the human rights activists differ with the kind of punishment given saying that some are inhumane. Another main challenge faced by the criminal justice organizations is the provision of services to demeanor offenders. There has been raising concern on how the criminal justice combats crime. For instance, it is always said that the police take a lot of time to respond when alerted in times of crime. This is mainly fueled by deficiency of tools and machinery that facilitate war against crime, for example, inadequate police vehicles and lack of good communication systems in the force (Raine, 1993)

The other…. [read more]

Constitutional Protections in American Criminal Justice Essay

… Constitutional Protections in American Criminal Justice

The United States Constitution was ratified in 1788, at which time it replaced the Articles of Confederation that had represented the same concept for the previous seven years. Since its ratification, the Constitution has been continually modified pursuant to the requirements for doing so by acts of Congress detailed in Article Five of the Constitution. The first ten constitutional amendments are jointly referred to as the Bill of Rights, based on their subject matter and areas of constitutional authority (Friedman, 2005).

The American criminal justice system evolved gradually over the last two centuries, with a series of some of the most important changes incorporated within the last fifty years. A few decades earlier, American law enforcement policies and criminal…. [read more]

Death Penalty Is Final Punishment Film Review

… Death penalty is final punishment that can be given to a culprit. It is also called the capital punishment, which is legal retribution where the state authorizes to kill a person for his crimes. The death penalty can be given for committing capital crimes such as killing, massacre, and war crimes among other crimes. While the human right associations are demanding to abolish the practice, there are still many countries practicing death penalty. There have been many movies, novels, dramas, and stories created on criminals who are subjected to capital punishment. It also significantly affects those that have served in the staff taking part in the execution as well. There are several means to execute a person including hanging, poisoning, and electric shocks and the…. [read more]

Australian Criminal Justice System Formal Essay

… The judge in these cases presides over the proceedings deciding the case that is heard by jurors of 12 that determine guilt or innocence of the accused (AGD, et al., 2011). The criminal offenses are tried at the district or county level. The types of criminal offenses tried include cases of murder, armed robbery, and rape (AGD et al., 2011). Criminal activity of a lesser nature is handled by local magistrates who preside within each community or city who hear the case and then give a ruling. All that are accused in Australian court system are innocent until they are proven guilty with reasonable doubt being the metric used to make the decision. Capital punishment is not a part of the Australian criminal system with…. [read more]

Victims and Criminal Justice Victimization Essay

… Thus, many victims' rights groups have been started that have the purpose of ensuring that all people who have been the victims of criminal activity are able to realize the same rights as a victim that White, middle class people are. The provision of victims' rights has even swung to criminals in some cases when they are the victims of heinous crimes committed against them by either other criminals (many times during a prison sentence) or their victims (Van den Wyngaert, 2011).

There have actually been studies conducted that look at victims' rights from the perspective of the victim as the suspected criminal is being processed through the criminal courts system as mentioned in the second part of the question. This secondary victimization is described…. [read more]

Role of Psychics in Criminal Justice Term Paper

… Role of Psychics in Criminal Justice

An Analysis of the Modern Role of Psychics in Criminal Justice

Summary of Remaining Chapters

Chapter IV: Data Analysis

Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations

Responses to "I believe that psychics have some special ability that other people do not possess"

Responses to "I have experienced episodes in my life where I thought could read other people's minds or could see the future"

Responses to "I believe psychics can help law enforcement authorities solve crimes"

Responses to "I believe that psychics have some special ability that other people do not possess"

Responses to "I have experienced episodes in my life where I thought could read other people's minds or could see the future"

Figure 3. Responses to "I believe psychics can…. [read more]

Sentencing in Criminal Justice Systems Essay

… The close analysis of the numbers in that study, according to Berk, shows that in the majority of U.S. states, during most 12-month periods, do not execute anyone. Also, Berk continues, very few states in the U.S. put more than 5 people to death. These "values represent about 1% of the available observations," according to Berk. And hence, the claims of deterrence "are a statistical artifact of this anomalous 1%" (Berk, p. 2).

Another supporter of the death penalty is the former Professor of Jurisprudence at Fordham University, Ernest Van Den Haag. According to Van Den Haag, "Common sense, lately bolstered by statistics" is enough evidence that capital punishment deters homicides (Ban Den Haag, 1983). What statistics does he use? He doesn't say. As long…. [read more]

Ethics in the Justice System How We Treat Minorities Versus Whites Research Paper

… Ethics in Justice System-How we treat Minorities vs. The whites.

Ethics in the Justice System- How We Treat Minorities vs. Whites

Ethics or the moral philosophy is the study of right and wrong. The Criminal Justice System is comprised of numerous participants who include police, prosecutors, defense counsel, probation officers and judges (Ohio Commission on Racial Fairness, 1999, p.36). When it comes to the process of procedural fairness, Americans are highly sensitive. The single most important source of popular dissatisfaction with the American legal system is the perception of unfair or unequal treatment (Burke and Leben, 2007, p.4). The public's dissatisfaction with the judicial branch can be alleviated by the judges paying critical attention to the key elements of procedural fairness. They should also be…. [read more]

DNA in Criminal Cases Term Paper

… They began, 'We wish to suggest a structure for... DNA. This structure has novel features, which are of considerable biological interest.' They ended as modestly: 'It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for genetic material.'" (Lee) In 1991, nearly 40 years after the Nature article was published Watson wrote, "There is no substance so important as DNA... The key to our optimism that all secrets of life are within the grasp of future generations of perceptive biologists is the ever accelerating speed at which we have been able to probe the secrets of DNA." (Lee)

How can a narration of the structure and workings of DNA emerge into a claim that DNA is…. [read more]

Constitutional Violations Questionnaire

… In wartime, criminal procedure has had a varied history. Prior to World War II countries placed extraordinary powers within the government's realm based on a perception of real emergency, the laws of war. During the Cold War, roughly 1948-1990, an emphasis was made on protection from espionage and enemy intelligence. After 9/11, though, the focus became prevention of terrorism in any and all means necessary, which also changed the way the United States viewed wiretapping, Internet surveillance, profiling, detention of suspected terrorists, and invoking a threat to national security as a way to remove many constitutional protections (Samaha, pp. 510-11).

5. The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and requires a warrant to have probable cause and be sanctioned by a…. [read more]

Particular Behaviors Tend to Cross Research Paper

… Thus, the media has a negative impact on how people view crime because it distorts who is the criminal and who is the victim in a way where fact and fiction both seem to support each other and the stereotype.

The Hedonistic Calculus is a theory which describes that criminal behavior often comes about as a result of someone trying to gain pleasure. However, to think that individuals or the state can control the amount of pain associated with such acts is not acceptable. Bentham believes that there are a number of variables associated with the amount of pleasure or pain that can result from an act. These are benchmarks that can help show how little control society has over individual pleasure and pain. The…. [read more]

Social Control and the Life-Course Essay

… For instance, one might interpret the "social capitol" accumulated via transitions and turning points as the factors motivating individuals with criminal tendencies to maintain self-control, which ultimately demonstrates the claim stated earlier, namely, that both consistency and inconsistency in behavior may be explained by sociological factors such as important transitions and turning points, because every individual in society is constantly being challenged or reinforced by the sociological factors surrounding them. Thus, while Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory offers some useful insights into the causes of crime, only within the larger framework of the life-course perspective do these insights become useful and widely applicable.

Social control theories attempt to discover the social factors that may influence criminal behavior, and a number of disparate theories fall under this…. [read more]

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