Viewing papers 1-15 of 15 for criminal AND justice AND and AND criminology AND interpreting AND simple AND data

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Criminal Justice and Criminology Interpreting Simple Data Research Proposal

… ¶ … Criminal Justice and Criminology

Interpreting simple data

The data collection exercise involved posting a picture of a bear on Facebook. The caption of the picture asked viewers to provide their thoughts on the picture. This caption was kept simple in order to prevent bias that could arise from asking viewers to like or dislike the pictures. The data that could be collected included likes, positive and negative comments. The data was collected over a 24-hour period.

The data collected can be summarized as below.

Number of respondents


Positive comments

Neutral comments

Negative comments




Positive comments

Neutral comments

Negative comments



Level of education



Positive comments

Neutral comments

Negative comments

High School


From the simple data…. [read more]

Crime on March 9th, 2013 Term Paper

… This focus on community-level social control is integral to social disorganization theory (Savelsberg, 2006, p. 33). While the results of the study were productive, in that the study helped to demonstrate the detrimental effects of widespread incarceration on the level of the community, the study nevertheless includes an implicit bias because it assumes that, for example, it is more important to nurture and maintain local neighborhoods and communities as methods of social control rather than examine what produces the need for that control in the first place (Rose & Clear, 1998, p. 469-470).

As a result, from the perspective of social disorganization theory, a search for the causes behind the violent and disruptive reaction to Gray's shooting would start with the relative levels of organization…. [read more]

Capital Punishment Analyzed by Utilitarian Ethics and Kantian Research Paper

… Death Penalty Philosophy

Capital Punishment Analyzed by Utilitarian Ethics & Kantian Ethics

The death penalty is the most extreme of punitive consequences, with its application representing the greatest of finalities in law enforcement and criminal sentencing. An issue which has garnered intense debate for decades and which has divided individuals along party lines and philosophical dispositions, the use of capital punishment is defended by its advocates as an effective way to deter violent crime and as a critically potent way to punish the worst of offenders. Its critics regard it as barbaric, unconstitutional or generally a violation of human rights. The United States is the only Western democracy in the world which still employs the death penalty in its criminal justice system. A careful analysis…. [read more]

Community Policing Efficacy the Violent Research Paper

… 4-5). Standard policing (professional law enforcement), which entails responding to upsurges in criminal activity by increasing the number of patrol officers, decreasing response times, instituting random patrols, increasing pressure to solve crimes, and arresting more offenders, has been shown to be largely ineffective in deterring crime. The evidence though, has revealed that two criteria produce the greatest benefit to controlling crime: (1) increasing the diversity of approaches and (2) using crime analysis to focus on high crime areas.

Community policing incorporates a diversity of approaches, by spreading the responsibility for crime control among all interested parties. The community policing strategies that seem to have the greatest empirical support (weak to moderate) are: making connections with members of the community, police engaging citizens in a respectful…. [read more]

Hate Crime Term Paper

… That is what makes defining and judging hate crimes so tricky. They can be seen as self-expression, which is granted by the First Amendment, but if they cross the line to harming others, they are not longer simply a form of self-expression and free speech.

Clearly, there are many forms of hate crimes, and those that include violence or physical harm to another person are handled differently than vandalism and other forms of protest and intimidation. In fact, "Intimidation,' the most frequently reported offense, accounted for one-third of all hate crime offenses against property and accounted for 27.4% of reported hate crimes" (Jacobs and Henry). There are also many problems inherent with the data reporting hate crimes. Some crimes of harassment may go unreported. Three…. [read more]

Racial Discrimination and the Death Term Paper

… 6% were white and roughly three percent were Hispanic (Coker pp). The fact that drug enforcement task force efforts were responsible for fifty-one percent of the cases was explained, "the defendants in these drug-related cases are not White because the members of the drug gangs that engage in large-scale trafficking in the district are not White" (Coker pp). In response to racial disparities in plea bargaining the survey's author suggested that African-Americans and Hispanics were more inclined to reject a plea offer than whites, yet offered no evidence, empirical or anecdotal, to support any of the claims (Coker pp).

Michael J. Klarman reports in the October 01, 2000 issue of the Michigan Law Review the constitutional law of state criminal procedure was born between World…. [read more]

Race and Incarceration Prison Term Paper

… The One Billion Rising movement was basically initiated to end violence and sexual oppression in women all across the country. This global campaign basically worked to call an end to sexual violence, for justice and for gender equality. The men and women who were incarcerated in San Francisco also became part of this movement as well. Their motives were not only to end the violence against women but to also speak against the unjust treatment that has been going in jails as well.

All this discussion basically brings us to the conclusion that racial and gender bias does exist in our criminal justice system today. The African-American and Latinos are being victimized and are being pushed into the viscous circle that pushes them towards crime.…. [read more]

Death Penalty the Debate Surrounding Research Paper

… McCleskey has been used to illustrate that claims based on government denial of "equal protection of the laws" to racial minorities may fail unless something more than a mere discriminatory effect can be shown. In addition to a proven discriminatory effect, the Supreme Court typically asks for proof of premeditated motivation for discrimination towards a particular group. The statistical analysis showed that a population in a single area was more likely to receive capital punishment, but extrapolation of this data on a national and longitudinal basis was not convincing to the Court (See: Baldus, 1983).

The case, though, seems not to be just about the death penalty, or whether or not execution of a human being is cruel and unusual. Lawyers should beware combining…. [read more]

Social Control Theory Term Paper

… Social Control Theory

All control theories play on the theme that deviance is mainly a function of the kinds of constraints to which people are exposed. The most well-known specific theory of this genre is Travis Hirschi's revised theory of social control (1969). It contends that everybody is motivated toward deviance, but only those who are relatively free of the bonds of commitment to, and belief in, the conventional order, attachment to others, and involvement with conventional institutions of society actually manifest their deviant motivation in unacceptable behavior.

Following especially the work of Emile Durkheim, control theorists argue that individuals are freed to commit crime when their ties to the conventional social order are weak or broken. In the late 1800s, Durkheim concluded, "The more…. [read more]

Sampling Plan Term Paper

… Determining the need for target population

The activities of determining the need of a target population reflect the process of gathering, then analyzing and interpreting information concerning the target population. There is a need to make evaluative judgments concerning the scope, nature and extent of needs. The above process is also known as the needs assessment (Maher, 2012). When dealing with the individuals that were in the target population, population validity can be retrieved. Population validity is the ability to effectively generalize a study from specific individuals that was conducted to the larger population (Burke & Christensen, 2010).


A stratified sampling category is a sapling for probability. The technique is evidenced when a researcher divides a certain population to form different subgroups known as…. [read more]

Red Light Cameras Term Paper

… Red Lights Camera


Red-Light Cameras

Department of Transportation reported that more than 92,000 crashes have resulted in 900 deaths every year by drivers beating red traffic lights (Harvey 2005). Red light running or beating the red light has been identified as a significant cause of accidents at signalized intersections (Hakkert 2004). Studies on accidents at such intersections in the Australian states of Victoria, Western Australia and Queensland from 1994 to 1998 were conducted. They found that 15-21% of accidents were related to red light running. The U.S. General Estimates System, on the other hand, reported that of the 260,000 red light running accidents, 750 were fatal. The high-volume casualty required prompt attention and appropriate countermeasures to confront and solve the problem. A…. [read more]

Labeling Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … labeling theory and its specific relevance to the condition of juvenile delinquency. Through references and studies the effect of negative as well as positive labeling will be discussed and a reviewed for its particular impact on the younger offender. Also considered will be the part that labeling theory, as well as other social interactions, has played in affecting the justice system's sentencing of juvenile offenders. Though labeling theory focuses primarily on the negative impact on juveniles, it has also played a part in correcting many misuses of power in the justice system.

Labeling Theory

Social interaction is an extremely important aspect of human behavior and is an integral part of the survival instinct of the species as a whole. The human brain has…. [read more]

Police Reform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil Thesis

… 2) This particular research will also be of immense help for policy formulators in metropolitan police departments and in police departments of small vicinities, in making effectual judgment regarding relevant development.

3) The material along with the conclusion of this particular study will certainly enhance and modernize the methodologies of the investigations linked to job performance and challenges related to police development in Brazil.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Section 1: Police and Crime in Brazil

Since the last ten years the focus of the Brazilian establishment concerning the protection of the civil society has been on the conglomeration out of three immense spectrums: (a) the police department, essential constituent of numerous problems and possibly the recurrent performer in every region of urban space; (b) violent…. [read more]

Sharp Force Trauma Macroscopic Evidence on Bone Morphology Term Paper

… Sharp Force Trauma Macroscopic Evidence on Bone Morphology

Reviewing the literature is of utmost importance. Without a comprehensive review of literature on the subject, readers of a study are left with a lack of understanding or with a misconception that the results of the study or the subject being studied exists in a kind of bubble and has no relevance to other areas of study that are along the same basic issues. In order to encompass the entire issue, some of the areas that surround forensics and pathology must also be addressed before bone morphology is specifically discussed.

This is done to give an overview of the issue and to show the different ways that are used in order to ensure that crimes are solved…. [read more]

NCCFS Veteran Transition Program Evaluation Chapter

… An external party will, however, be contracted to carry out data analysis as the program staff lack such expertise. The project director will coordinate the data analysis process to ensure that it is carried out within the evaluation timelines.

The data collection instrument collects data at the nominal level and ordinal level. Nominal level data is collected from questions requiring a simple ‘yes’ or ‘no’ response, while ordinal-level data is collected from questions measuring intensity (very great extent to none at all). Ordinal-level data will be scored from 4 (for very great extent/very good) to 0 (for non-at-all/very poor). Participants’ scores will be entered in a spreadsheet, and the median score calculated (Walker & Maddan, 2013). If the median score for question 2, for…. [read more]

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