Viewing papers 1-30 of 40 for criminal AND justice AND and AND criminology AND the AND chicago AND alternative

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Criminal Justice and Criminology the Chicago Alternative Research Proposal

… ¶ … Criminal Justice and Criminology

The Chicago alternative policing strategy came into effect in the year 1993. The strategy initially took place in five police district then moved to include the entire city. The need of this strategy was to revise the way police departments conducted their operation in the entire city. It is a long-term strategy where now police officers do have long-term duties in each of the 279 police units. The entire police squads in the city have training on problem solving techniques based on the steps formulated by CAPS. There are steps that any police officer needs to adhere to based on the strategy the processes are focusing on the victims, focus on the location of crime, attention given on offenders…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Juvenile Justice Gang Term Paper

… The office of juvenile justice and delinquency prevention should have seminars to train law enforcement officials to forestall the formation of gangs (TheAttorneyStore, 2013). This can significantly eradicate/limit number of gangs involvement in criminal activities. The Office of the Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention should come up with programs that prioritize recruitment of faith-based organizations as well as community members and representatives from community-based organizations to come up with engaging activities for at-risk juveniles. The program should also encourage multiagency collaboration at neighborhood, community and federal level. The program should finally stress the importance of partnering with the private sector. Community businesses stand to flourish when juvenile involvement in gang activities is reduced (TheAttorneyStore, 2013). To counter juvenile hate crime, respective states should come up with…. [read more]


Incorporating Restorative and Community Justice Into American Sentencing and Corrections Article Critique

… Restorative Justice

Evidence

Evaluation

Bibligoraphy

In criminal justice, new interventions targeting crime control and reduction are constantly being developed and implemented. The recent intervention that is notable is Restorative Justice. This paper will thus critique this particular emerging intervention and focus on answering questions like: What is Restorative Justice? What is Community Justice? Should Restorative and Community Justice Be incorporated into the Criminal Justice System?

In criminal justice, new interventions targeting crime control and reduction are constantly being developed and implemented. The recent intervention that is notable is Restorative Justice. Regardless of the enhanced attention provided recently to the concept of restorative justice, the principle still stays rather bothersome to specify as many feedbacks to criminal habits could fall under the supposed corrective umbrella. The…. [read more]


Aims of Criminology Term Paper

… ¶ … Criminology

The beginnings of criminology in the United States began with the founding fathers and the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution and is a theory relating to criminal behavior of individuals. The theoretical framework is criminology within this view is one that is straightforward and simple and states that the individual, upon having been informed of a specific penalty for the commission of a crime will inherently weigh the options. Measurement of the options is based upon the potential present and future pleasure weighed against the potential present and future pain for having committed the crime, been caught and punished. There have been various theories posited to attempt to pin down precisely the precise theoretical framework that identifies the method to fulfill…. [read more]


Treatment vs. Punishment Treatment Concept Research Paper

… In this research, recidivism was the new contact with the criminal justice system after release from the last DHS supervised residential treatment placement (McCollister et al., 2009). The critical was critical in integrating three definitions: new arrest for felony crime, new conviction for felony crime, and incarceration with the Michigan Department of Corrections

According to this research, 1978 persons took part in the experiment. About 83% of the participants were males while the remaining 17% females. The study also focused on the inclusion of 62% of the participants from the white race while other racial groups made-up 38%. According to the findings, there is a continuous reduction or decline in relation to the number of juvenile justice youths released from the treatment aspect. The decline…. [read more]


Discretionary Situations for a Police Term Paper

… The discretion of the police to make arrests is often challenged by individuals who offer proof that the police purposely targeted a minority due to their race.

The second situation discretionary situation is the police "Stop" and "Frisk" policy. The appropriateness and inappropriateness of this discretion policy was recently seen in the 2011 review of the New York Police Department practice of over 684,000 stops. According to the Police Commissioner Kelly Raymond who defended the policy, said that the practice had reduced crime and reduce the number of drugs and guns on the streets. Unfortunately, the legal director of the New York Civil Liberties Union, Dunn Christopher, found the policy needed to be reformed and curbed, as it accounted for minorities making over 90% of…. [read more]


Mandatory Sentencing Public Policy, Crime Research Paper

… Afterwards, the constructing of the justice system aimed at criminalizing the "equal" African-American; additionally, the system also ensured that the social position of African-Americans was not equal to those of their white counterparts. From history, dating back to the era of Nixon, the president of America, this was done through the establishment of the "Drug War" as a strategy to gain support from whites in the south by advocating for policies in opposing civil rights and racial equality related initiatives. The system also changed via conservative justices on the courts who would endorse reductions to the fourth Amendment protections against many illegal searches, seizures of property and wrongful detentions. From the arguments presented in some studies, I strongly agree that there exist civil liberty issues…. [read more]


Criminal Justice and Criminology Interpreting Simple Data Research Proposal

… ¶ … Criminal Justice and Criminology

Interpreting simple data

The data collection exercise involved posting a picture of a bear on Facebook. The caption of the picture asked viewers to provide their thoughts on the picture. This caption was kept simple in order to prevent bias that could arise from asking viewers to like or dislike the pictures. The data that could be collected included likes, positive and negative comments. The data was collected over a 24-hour period.

The data collected can be summarized as below.

Number of respondents

Likes

Positive comments

Neutral comments

Negative comments

Gender

Total

Likes

Positive comments

Neutral comments

Negative comments

Males

Females

Level of education

Total

Likes

Positive comments

Neutral comments

Negative comments

High School

Bachelor's

From the simple data…. [read more]


Criminology Women in Jails Research Paper

… Women in Jails

Women in Prison

The criminal justice system is clearly unprepared and ill equipped to manage the unique needs of women in prison. There is clearly a need for a specific focus on Mental illness, sexual violence and drug abuse, reproductive health and other issues that are very relevant to the incarcerated female population. There is no question of doubt that incarceration is a failed, inhuman and ineffective approach to the social problems faced by women. Instead, policymakers should focus on alternative correctional programs that allow women to reform their behaviors and become productive citizens while still staying connected to their family members.

Women in prison have unique problems and challenges compared to men. Incarcerated women present with a multiplicity of problems including…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Policy and Theory Case Study

… Wrongful Convictions Act in Arizona

Arizona State Analysis in Implementing the Wrongful Convictions Act

Hot debates concerning compensating the exonerated date back to 1900s. The movement to compensate the wrongly convicted has never gained momentum until in the recent years. With more victims being released, the topic of compensating those convicted is more relevant than ever. The society is always on the lookout for the convicts, whether rightfully or wrongly convicted, and has the ultimate mandate to allow for compensation assistance. This is achieved by offering monetary compensation depending on the year served, providing financial services to acquire basic needs, legal aid, medical attention and development assistance in rebuilding professional skills. Several statutes concerning the subject have been provided in almost 27 states in America,…. [read more]


Arise Gang Prevention Program Thesis

… ¶ … Gang Prevention Program

"Gangs contain bright boys who do well, bright boys who do less well, and dull boys who pass, dull boys who fail, and illiterates"

(Garabedian & . Gibbons, 2005, p. 26).

In regard to gangs, one never knows what may happen. In the article, "Gang grief: violence wounds teens and communities," Melissa Klein (2009) reports that Chantelle S., a 15-year-old from New York City relates that at times, students become fearful of what may happen when fights break out between rival groups in her high school. These fight lead to lockdowns with increased security in the school. Chantelle said: "It's kind of scary because you never know what can happen" (Chantelle, as cited in Klein, ¶ 1). During this paper,…. [read more]


Community Policing Efficacy the Violent Research Paper

… 4-5). Standard policing (professional law enforcement), which entails responding to upsurges in criminal activity by increasing the number of patrol officers, decreasing response times, instituting random patrols, increasing pressure to solve crimes, and arresting more offenders, has been shown to be largely ineffective in deterring crime. The evidence though, has revealed that two criteria produce the greatest benefit to controlling crime: (1) increasing the diversity of approaches and (2) using crime analysis to focus on high crime areas.

Community policing incorporates a diversity of approaches, by spreading the responsibility for crime control among all interested parties. The community policing strategies that seem to have the greatest empirical support (weak to moderate) are: making connections with members of the community, police engaging citizens in a respectful…. [read more]


Violence Against Women Term Paper

… Violence Against Women: An Application of Theory

The question of gender violence in relationships, particularly violent crimes perpetrated against females, has been the focus of media as well as criminological and psychological investigation in recent years. Various theoretical trajectories have been put forward with the aim of understanding and thereby preventing the occurrences of this type of crime. The application of social learning theory has been shown to provide invaluable insight into the deeper causative structure of these crimes. This paper investigates a single, severe example of this type of crime and analyses it in terms of social learning theory. This analysis indicates that this theory not only provides a useful understanding of the causes of the crime but is also beneficial in terms of…. [read more]


Juvenile Delinquency Crime Term Paper

… Juvenile Delinquency

Date (day, Month, year)

Pop quiz: What do the phrases "other side of the tracks" "tough neighborhood" and "the bad side of town" have in common? They indicate that specific parts of a city or other urban area are more prone to crime and criminal activity. These neighborhoods or areas tend to be run-down, poorly maintained, and have few, if any, long-term residents. Many people believe these areas are more prone to crime because of the racial or ethnic make-up of the majority of its residents. For example, many Washington, D.C. residents believe that Anacostcia, a neighborhood in the southeast quadrant of the city, has a higher rate of crime because the majority of it residents are African-American. Capital area residents are not…. [read more]


Suggestions for Actions That Law Enforcement or the Public May Take to Curb Gang Activities Essay

… Gang Activity

PLEASE SEE NOTES and DETAILED REPORTS AFTER the REFERENCES PAGES. THANKS! BEFORE YOU RUN ADDITIONAL CHECKS, REMOVE TITLE PAGE, ALL QUOTES, REFERENCES, BIB, etc.

Question 1- According to many researchers, the public in general views law enforcement as having the primary responsibility for curbing gang activity. Is this view faulty? Justify your conclusions and provide suggestions for actions that law enforcement or the public may take to curb gang activity.

Gangs are certainly not new in the historical sense. 19th century American and British teen gangs have been extensively studied, and even popularized in movies like Gangs of New York. In fact, who can forget the famous musical rendition of Oliver Twist, a youth gang led by a nefarious criminal; or even the…. [read more]


Al Capone or Al Qaeda?: Organized Crime and Counterterrorism as Law Enforcement Priorities Essay

… The impossibility of the fight in Mexico, combined with the high potential for profit in the trade, made this defection happen. It is important to note, however, that Los Zetas have technically only been their own cartel since 2010: from 1999 to 2010, they were essentially the paramilitary enforcement wing of the Gulf Cartel. But by 2010, Los Zetas split off from the Gulf Cartel, and became a rival: they are currently better-organized and quite possibly more profitable than either of the two older rivals, the Gulf and Sinaloa Cartels. However, their origins as military commandos are the most noteworthy fact about them -- it would be as if the Navy Seals took over the crystal meth trade in the American Midwest, or if an…. [read more]


Convicted Felons Return to the Community Research Paper

… Convicted Felons Return to the Community

Deviance is both a sociological and psychological component of the human organism that expresses itself in numerous ways at numerous times. Further, if we look back at the way philosophers have defined abnormality and deviance, from Plato through Kant and into the 20th century, we find that there are really three classifications of abnormality and within these three classifications a variance on a continuum of low to high:

Perceived harmfulness -- usually to society as a whole (Plato) or to the actualization of the individual (Kant).

The degree of social consensus about whether the action is abnormal or deviant; what real harm is done? Is this utilitarian -- the most harm to the most people qualifies as the most…. [read more]


Develop an Affirmative Program Designed to Reduce Citizens Complaints Essay

… Reducing Citizen Complaints

A growing body of evidence suggests that in any police department a small percentage of officers are responsible for a disproportionate share of citizen complaints. Develop an affirmative action program designed to reduce citizen complaints. Discuss affirmative steps that a department may take to train and monitor officers' conduct that tend to produce citizen complaints. Include discussions on the legal and personnel implications of your proposed program.

Psychologists have proven that it is often a part of human nature that when humans are given more authority, sometimes they act excessively with that authority and go beyond the normal, accepted morality of a situation to become more brutal and violent. Witness many rather mild-mannered German officials who, during the advent of Nazism, became…. [read more]


Policy Analysis -- Gang Activity Research Paper

… Researchers reached to three conclusions at the end of this exercise. Firstly, approximately 8 out of each 10 cities had been noted to experience gang homicide cases on a frequent basis. Secondly, the pattern of gang homicide cases in these cities was experiencing an increasing curve allowing the problem to grow further and getting into the roots of the city. Thirdly, around 20-40% of all homicide cases pertained to gang killing in the two largest cities. These cities comprised 70% of the total population selected for the analysis (Howell et al., 2011).

The study revealed that gang activity has prevailed throughout the nation. It was not just confined to the State of New York. The presence of gangs in these regions raises doubts over the…. [read more]


Gun Control Legislation the Availability Essay

… Retrieved from Government Printing Office website:

http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/htus8008.pdf

Koper, C.S. (2007). Crime gun risk factors: buyer, seller, firearm, and transaction characteristics associated with gun trafficking and criminal gun use. Report to the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 1-31. Retrieved

from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/221074.pdf

Lemstra, M.E., Nielsen, G., Rogers, M.R., Thompson, A.T., & Moraros, J.S. (2012). Risk indicators and outcomes assoicated with bullying in youth aged 9-15 years. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 103(1), 9-13.

Lupkin, S. (2013, September 19). U.S. has more guns -- and gun deaths -- than any other country, study finds. ABC News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/health/2013/09/19/u-s-has-more-guns-and-gun-deaths-than-

any-other-country-study-finds/

Martosko, D. (2012, December 15). After school massacre, 100,000 americans petition white house for gun control. The Daily Caller. Retrieved from…. [read more]


Analyzing Criminal Justice Professional Interview

… Criminal Justice Professional

How do certain individuals choose to commit a crime? Do they actually take into consideration the advantages as well as the dangers involved? Why do certain individuals commit crimes in spite of the known repercussions? Why are other individuals never involved in crimes, regardless of how desperate their situation is? Criminology refers to the study of crime and criminals conducted by experts known as criminologists. Criminologists actually analyze what leads to crime and how it may be stopped. All through history, individuals have attempted to explain what leads to abnormal social character, including crime. Attempts to manage "bad" behavior extend back to ancient Babylon's Code of Hammurabi, 3,700 years ago. During the 17th century, European colonists in North America viewed sin and…. [read more]


United States Has the Highest Essay

… However, 78% of sentences imposed by United States federal courts in 2005 involved incarceration, whereas 3% of sentences involved only fines and in 2004 70% of convicted felons in state courts were sentenced to incarceration. Essentially, in the United States people are more likely to be sentenced to prison for federal and drug offenses than other countries and these sentences are lengthier in duration. A person sentenced in the United States for burglary will serve about 16 months in prison, whereas in Canada they will serve about 5 months and in England about 7 months. In England only 12% of prisoners, compared to 41% in the United States have been sentenced to 10 years or more. Six percent of prisoners in England convicted of drug…. [read more]


Goals of Corrections Term Paper

… ¶ … Goals of Corrections

The objective of this work is to research the five goals of corrections which are those of: (1) retribution; (2) deterrence; (3) rehabilitation; (4) incapacitation; and (5) restoration. The history, philosophy, development and empirical validity of each will be discussed as well as the status of each in terms of the present. This work will conclude with a statement of recommendation as to the preferred corrections theory stating why that is the theory thought superior to the other corrections theories. Finally stated will be that which should serve to guide corrections in the future.

Retribution is just another word for punishment or sometimes said as 'getting what someone deserves' or 'just desserts' which all speaks of the belief that the…. [read more]


Establishing a Community Policing Program Term Paper

… ¶ … Establishing a Community Policing Program in an American Municipality Today

From a law enforcement and community relations perspective, it would just seem to make good sense to place as many police officers "on the beat" in any given community and this, in fact, has proven to be the case in cities across the country. Police officers on bicycles, all-terrain vehicles and horseback are becoming an increasingly common sight in the nation's park, beaches and public areas as well as homeland security has assumed an increasingly important role in law enforcement in post-September 11, 2001 America. Unfortunately, in some cases, community policing initiatives have met with a wide range of obstacles and constraints to their implementation from both external and internal sources. To this…. [read more]


Oversight in Policing Essay

… Oversight in Policing

Police wrongs are real and abhorrent when they are brought to light. For every wrong doing that comes to light there are hundreds of others that are unreported. Largely this is due to the fact that there is no remedy to take action against the erring officers. Some cases like the L.A. Rampart scandal, Kathryn Johnston shooting, make headlines and it is a fact that over 26,000 complaints of police misconduct were filed in the year 2002. There was found to be substance in two thousand cases and hence police misconduct is a fact that has to be controlled. It is also argued that punishing erring officers after the deed is not a satisfactory method of prevention. Rather there is a need…. [read more]


Capital Punishment Term Paper

… Illinois Gov. George Ryan's decision to suspend the death penalty -- while affirming his belief in capital punishment -- represents America's own schizophrenia. "We believe in the death penalty but shrink from it as applied." But Ryan's action also represents a public shift. While he is the first governor to take such a stand since the death penalty's resumption in 1977, cities as disparate as New Haven, Conn., and Mount Rainier, Md., among others, are on record as favoring a moratorium.

There are many who reiterate the fact that the support for death penalty beginning to wane. "There are other signs that our love for the death penalty is on the wane. Last year, the number of death sentences meted out was the fewest in…. [read more]


Capital Punishment Term Paper

… Let us the take the case of Michigan for our study. Michigan legal rules presently orders compulsory condemnation of life imprisonment with no scope of parole on such crimes. During 1846, Michigan turned out to be the initial English-speaking government in the globe to eradicate the death penalty. Another eleven states have also banned the death penalty till now. (Kaffer; Alley, 2004) The prohibition on death sentence in Michigan was incorporated in the Michigan Constitution which was agreed to by the voters in 1963. Several attempts by the supporters of death penalty to place before voters- by means of Legislature or petition exercises- have been unsuccessful. From 1991, twenty-five Michigan officers have been murdered. The capital punishment in Michigan got fresh favor following the killings…. [read more]


Trait Theories Term Paper

… Crime Theories Comparison

Social organization theory

Followers of the social organization theory believe the degree of a society's organization is correlated with violent crime. If a community has strong social institutions or organizations, there will be less violent crime. Conversely, in a society where social organizations are underfunded, weak or ineffective, there will be higher instances of crime.

Social organization theory applies macrosociological methods to explain criminal behavior. Criminal behavior is discouraged when the basic needs of community members are addressed and in communities with strong social bonds. These bonds could be seen in after-school programs, the growth of businesses, police presence, good real estate and various other community and neighborhood programs. When such programs are present, community members will have a stronger bond to…. [read more]


Cultural Masculinity Issues in Criminal Behavior Research Proposal

… Messerschmidt

That the prisons in the United States are bursting at the seams comes as no surprise, considering that more violent crimes occur here than any other industrialized country and incarceration has become the customary way of punishment for a wide range of crimes (INTERPOL). In 2007, 75.8% of all persons arrested were male, 81.8% of persons arrested for violent crime were male, and 66.6% of persons arrested for property crime were male (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009). This is nothing new, nor is it unusual for most countries around the world. Perhaps, this is why not many studies have been done on what makes men more crime-oriented. According to Hagedorn (1998), for whatever reason, within the realm of the social sciences, research has analyzed…. [read more]


Labeling Theory Originating in Sociology Essay

… " Precisely because a child is labeled a delinquent, the label "transforms the offender's identity from a doer of evil to an evil person" (Tannenbaum, 1938, pg. 37). In essence, then, social labeling theory suggests that juveniles, having been labeled a "delinquent" begin to believe not only that they are people who do bad things, but that by labeling, such children are transformed into believing they are bad people. Bench and Allen (2003) suggest that younger inmates have higher rates of disciplinary infractions than older offenders. Consequently, labeling theory would explain the incidental increase in gang activity given the relatively few opportunities for inner-city youth to achieve a measure of success. Likewise, gang leaders getting out of prison yearly for good behavior might also be…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.