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Justice, Crime and Ethics Prepping Research Paper

… Many prisons in the United States have adopted this Panopticon model and have begun functioning under the fact that all humans, even prisoners, have the right to be treated with human dignity. Using the model set forth by Bentham, criminal justice and psychological experts have seen that the condition of a prison certainly adds to a prisoner's pain and suffering during confinement. Bentham suggested that even those who had been undoubtedly scarred by a criminal and injured in any capacity would have suffering that -- no matter how great -- would never measure the pain and suffering of a prisoner who would spend the rest of his life or an extended time in the confines of a cell. Bentham's views and visions of utilitarianism in…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Associates Program Term Paper

… ¶ … Criminal Justice Associates Program

When I entered into the criminal justice associates program, I have to admit that my thoughts were not focused on what I would learn. Instead, in many ways I viewed the program as a means to an end, a necessary step that I had to take in order to get my desired job in law enforcement. I felt that it would provide me with the stepping stone that I needed to get a job in an administrative sector of law enforcement, and possibly help me get into a police academy and reduce my course requirements while there; if that is the route I chose to explore. However, once I began my coursework, I was pleasantly surprised to discover that…. [read more]

Justice Process for Illegal Immigrants Who Commit Crimes Term Paper

… Justice Process for Illegal Immigrants Who Commit Crimes

The most aggressive criminals presently are illegal aliens. However, in cities where such aliens perpetrate highest crimes, the police are not capable of applying the most common tool-their immigration status-to detain them. The ban of LAPD on immigration enforcement entails bans on immigrant-saturated cities all over the nation from New York and Chicago to San Diego, Austin and Houston. Such 'sanctuary policies' normally deter city personnel along with the cops from reporting immigration violations to the federal authorities. Irrespective of their harmfulness the sanctuary rules are symbol of a much extensive epidemic: lack of the control of the nation over immigration policy. Prior to about half a century the immigration policy was determining the number of immigrants…. [read more]

Criminal Justice/Forensics Undercover Thesis

… Criminal Justice/Forensics

Undercover" is a term that has made its way into the public vernacular, thanks in large part to movies and television programs. Undercover, at its fundamental level, means pretending to be someone else- the construction and portrayal of a false identity for an ulterior purpose. In the case of undercover police investigations, this ulterior purpose is to enforce the law. This is done by using a false identity to infiltrate a criminal group in order to gather evidence and build a case. This can be a long-term project- some cases have had an undercover operative on assignments that lasted for years. The purpose of this research paper is to show that undercover police officers are more likely to commit criminal acts than police…. [read more]

Criminal Gang Enhancements Term Paper

… Criminal Gang Enhancements in Sentencing



During the time period between the years of 1997 and 1998 legislation was focused on crime and most specifically juvenile crime. The work of Matthews and Ruzicka entitled: "Proposition 21: Juvenile Crime" (2000) published by the Capital Center for Government Law and Policy in a California Initiative Review relates that Proposition 21 had as its aim the amendment of both "the Penal Code and the Welfare and Institution Code" and this was specific to the "procedures used in the treatment of juveniles and adults who commit gang-related felonies." (Matthews & Ruzicka, 2000) According to Matthews and Ruzicka this law would bring about serious changes to the way. Proposition 21 would increase penalties related to street…. [read more]

Ex-Offenders Program Term Paper

… ¶ … Reform and Rehabilitation Program to Support Nonviolent Ex-Offenders

Ex-Offenders Problems

Programs in Other Countries

Opinions on Programs to Aid Ex-Offenders

Benefits of Rehabilitation

Programs That Work

Social Support For Ex-Offenders

This study focuses on the potential benefits of a rehabilitation and support program for non-violent ex-offenders in the community. The intent of the research is to gain insight regarding the critical elements necessary for a rehabilitation program to succeed and help reduce rates of recidivism in the community. After conducting an extensive preliminary literature review the researcher is able to identify multiple critical success factors for a successful ex-offender support program. In addition to the literature review the researcher proposes further investigation and field research that will examine inmates views and opinions regarding…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Computers and Their Term Paper

… The fingerprint also enabled the police investigator to track down the perpetrator of a crime even in those cases in which there had been no human witness, and in which other evidence was lacking or incomplete. The further influence of science - in particular medical science and pathology - led to ever more sophisticated techniques for investigating crime scenes. Biological and chemical evidence now put the noose around as many criminals' necks as once had eyewitnesses and fingerprints. With increased medical knowledge, a coroner could determine almost the exact time of murder victim's demise, thus helping the investigation. Having a specific window in time to work with, police had a better idea of whom to look for and whom to question. All of these new…. [read more]

Theories of Criminal Behavior That Have Exhibited Influence on Today's Correctional System Thesis


The objective of this work is to discuss theories of criminal behavior that have exhibited influence on today's correctional system and to support this opinion through providing examples of that influence.

Nonlinear Dynamics of Criminal Behavior Examined

The work of Thomas K. Arnold entitled: "The Nonlinear Dynamics of Criminal Behavior" states that one of the most enduring puzzles in criminology is the combination of both stability and change in criminal behavior over the life course." (2008) Arnold relates that many questions remain unanswered in criminology in regards to the "temporal stability of the criminal offender's risk of committing new crimes." (2008) it has been suggested by some including Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) that…. [read more]

Job Opportunities Thesis

… Criminal Justice - Job Opportunities


Good morning and thank you for inviting me to your school today. I am very pleased to know that so many of you have expressed a potential interest in this presentation because that is a good thing for our criminal justice system. As you may already know, the criminal justice system includes a wide range of particular professional roles besides the one with which most people are familiar.

Let me ask you, what profession first comes to mind when someone mentions criminal justice? [Fielding answer from the audience] That's right, most people think of police officers first. What professions come to mind next do you think? [Fielding answer from the audience again] That's right,…. [read more]

Crime Data Sources Essay

… Similarly, the National Incident-Based Reporting System has attracted huge concerns on data accuracy. While NIBRS does not involve the application of similar methods to aggregate crime count totals using its data, the data from this method has been criticized for being non-representative and incomplete. Therefore, both UCR and NIBRS have significant data quality and accuracy issues in measuring and dealing with crime.

Rules in Classifying and Scoring of Offenses:

There are some similar rules that are applied in both UCR and NIBRS with regards to the classification and scoring of offenses when reporting. Even though NIBRS has extended its definition of the hotel rule, this rule is applied in both methods of crime reporting. The second rule applied in both systems when classifying and scoring…. [read more]

Probation and Parole Programs Individuals Essay

… However, common sense can often run afoul of constitutional protections, and there have been numerous objections raised concerning the legality of such conditions. The following summarizes some of the major objections:

Over the last forty years, state courts have experienced an increasing number of constitutional challenges in the area of court-ordered conditions of probation. These challenges often implicated principles established under the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments, and have emphasized the adverse impact on a defendant's right to privacy, and on the unequal treatment that manifests when a defendant is subject to a condition that cannot be imposed on those similarly situated to him. In an effort to uncover the reasons for this increased litigation, some critics have opined that many of these challenges…. [read more]

Youth Justice Essay

… This aligns with research that suggests the earlier intervention takes place, the more likely rehabilitative measures are to have effect. In other areas of Europe the age may range between 15 and 18; thus one may see the severity with which youth crime is dealt with in England and Wales (Natale, 2010). In the year 2010 approximately 2,209 youths were in custody in England and Wales (Natale, 2010). The costs associated with youth offenders between 2008 and 2009 was roughly 4 billion pounds a year; within roughly 70,000 school age children entering the criminal justice system each year (Natale, 2010 p. 4). To help tackle the problem, an extra 54,000 pounds was committed to help combat rates of anti-social behavior in youths, and funding in…. [read more]

Use of Force in Law Enforcement Thesis

… ¶ … Force in Law Enforcement

The controversy swirling about Professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr., a respected Cambridge professor who happens to be an African-American, and Sgt. James M. Crowley, a police officer who arrested him at his home after someone called the police and said someone was breaking into it, is just one example of the wavering gray area which officers have to tread when deciding when to use force or not. When harangued because of his mistake, the officer took offense and the conversation became heated, setting off a controversy which reached the White House. President Barack Obama made the remark in a news conference that the police acted "stupidly" and the incident became a national issue. The New York Times reflected that…. [read more]

Arise Gang Prevention Program Thesis

… ¶ … Gang Prevention Program

"Gangs contain bright boys who do well, bright boys who do less well, and dull boys who pass, dull boys who fail, and illiterates"

(Garabedian & . Gibbons, 2005, p. 26).

In regard to gangs, one never knows what may happen. In the article, "Gang grief: violence wounds teens and communities," Melissa Klein (2009) reports that Chantelle S., a 15-year-old from New York City relates that at times, students become fearful of what may happen when fights break out between rival groups in her high school. These fight lead to lockdowns with increased security in the school. Chantelle said: "It's kind of scary because you never know what can happen" (Chantelle, as cited in Klein, ¶ 1). During this paper,…. [read more]

Do African-American Women Receive Harsher Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System for Crimes? Thesis

… Racial Bias in Sentencing

Do African-American Women Receive Harsher Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System for Crimes than Caucasian Women?

A ic/Research Question

The proposed research will explore racial bias in the criminal justice system. It will explore consist of a paired analysis of sentencing practices between Caucasian women and African-American women for similar crimes. It will explore the research question: do African-American women receive harsher sentencing in the criminal justice system for crimes than Caucasian women?

The United States prides itself on the maintenance of a fair and equitable justice system. Formal laws and policies are in place to make certain that one group or another does not receive partial treatment due to factors such as sex, race, gender, or religion. The justice system…. [read more]

measuring the effectiveness of corrections programs Essay

… 2). Recidivism studies have shown, on the other hand, that focusing on root causes can lead to desirable outcomes. The root causes do not necessarily need to be broad, daunting, or sociological in nature such as mitigating the effects of poverty or racism. Przbylski (2008) cites numerous criminal justice studies that show how focusing on individual factors reduces recidivism far better than re-entering prison. 'Research shows that when supervision is service-oriented and focuses on the individual offender's deficits that are related to criminal behavior...recidivism can be significantly reduced,' (Przbylski, 2008, p. 2). Mental health interventions are the most important of the alternative and preventative reform measures.
Finally, it is important to understand better the ways measuring recidivism impacts the effectiveness, legitimacy, or validity or program…. [read more]

Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gangs: Threat to National Security? Thesis

… ¶ … predominantly Latino Gangs, Mara Salvatrucha (aka MS-13), and the 18th Street Gang operating on the streets of communities across America. This study is significant because it will provide a snapshot in time concerning how these violent gangs operate in this country in ways that can inform and alert both civilian society and government agencies concerning optimal responses to the problem created by these gangs. Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of documentary evidence and governmental statistics about the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang, this study developed several conclusive findings on the negative effects of these groups in the United States. The Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang are becoming transnational criminal organizations given the fact that they originated in Central America and…. [read more]

Privacy Rights Term Paper

… Privacy Rights

In the case of Wilson vs. Layne that was argued in March 24, 1999, and was decided in May 24, 1999, the privacy rights of the citizen, Charles Wilson were challenged when he was interacting with the police, and he was filmed during the act by the media. In fact, Charles Wilson challenged the constitutionality of the arrest procedure that was conducted on his own son by the federal and the state authorities. His claim was that the police had in fact invited the 'media ride-alongs' to watch the fun, so to speak, when the officers would produce their arrest warrant, and when they would subsequently arrest the son. Charles was of the opinion that the officials had violated his Fourth Amendment Rights…. [read more]

Movie Training Day Research Paper

… Moving Training Day

Training Day

In the moving Training Day, Officer Jake Hoyt (Ethan Hawk) and Detective Alonzo Harris (Denzel Washington) serve on a narcotics unit that Harris commands. He is a highly decorated officer inside the LAPD (who is known for his good police work and strong track record of convictions). Hoyt is a young officer who wants to become involved in undercover work and advance his career. Set on Hoyt's first day, the movie discusses the issues surrounding the role of police authority and how it is exercised. To fully understand the way that these ideas apply to field of criminal justice requires: comparing select aspects of the movie with key law enforcement procedures. Together, these elements will highlight the way these practices…. [read more]

Is Community Policing Effective Yes? Term Paper

… ¶ … community policing effective? Yes or no?

Is Community Policing Effective?

Community policing is not a novel idea. It is done in other countries and it has been done in this one in the past, it just was not called the same thing. It involves putting an officer or officers into a neighborhood or designated area of the city on a permanent assignment, instead of just sending that officer where ever he or she needs to go on each specific call that comes in. Once the officers are in the neighborhood, they spend time there, just patrolling and watching to see what kinds of things are going on in the community. They stay on that assignment indefinitely, and the people of the community get…. [read more]

Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners Research Proposal

… Our use of qualitative research will be used to buttress our hypothesis and narrow the question prior to studying the data quantitatively. For example, a focus group might be formed with the purpose of looking at a specific behavioral pattern based a single group or experience. The group makes judgments, remarks, and gives opinion -- all which are qualitative. We would then takes the qualitative data and uses it to form additional hypotheses and to develop a more quantitative approach to the problem. Typically, quantitative research uses larger samples that can be statistically analyzed and verified; while qualitative research uses smaller samples that may be used to generalize research. Our position will be based on time, budget, and approvals for an adequate data set (Cresswell,…. [read more]

Improve Treatments of Women Offenders When Sentenced Term Paper

… Treatment of Women Offenders: The Problem

The issue of the treatment of Women offenders when they are sentenced requires knowledge not only of the process which incarceration necessitates but also an in-depth understanding and knowledge of other related factors. These may include psychological and emotional aspects as well as physical and social issues. These issues constitute a complex problem area that has been discussed to varying degrees in numerous studies and reports.

There are many suggestions and ideas as to improving the conditions and situation of women entering correctional facilities. However, this paper will attempt to elucidate and detail the extent of the problematic areas which affect women offenders entering prison. The paper will also ascertain from literature the central focal areas where problems exist…. [read more]

Benefits of Merging Probation With Parole Research Paper

… ¶ … Merging Probabtion and Parole

In the United States, the parole and probation systems have been implemented with two main goals in mind: To promote rehabilitation rather than mere incarceration; and to offer an alternative to incarceration in already overcrowded prisons. Further, probation offers an economic alternative to incarceration. In comparison, an individual under probation supervision costs only approximately $1,250 per year, as opposed to $30,000 to keep the same individual incarcerated for a year. The probation and parole systems are, however, not handled in the same way across the United States. Some have different types of legislation and rights for parole and probation officers, others have similar legislation and rights, while a third group of states have integrated and streamlined their probation and…. [read more]

History of Crime Measurement Essay

… National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS)

Since 1973, National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS) has been gathering facts and figures about the private and domestic victimization. This is done through a constant survey of a nationwide representative sample of housing addresses. This endeavor has 4 major purposes including the development of complete information concerning the sufferers and crime consequences, guesstimate of the number and kinds of unreported crimes, provision of standardized measurement of selected crimes and authorization of assessments over time and areas. The surveys also gather necessary demographic information including sexual category, age, race and earnings for crime evaluation within diverse subpopulations.

In short, the victimization surveys are extensively used for measuring the "frequency and characteristics of particular types of crime and the demographic profile of…. [read more]

Parole Board Robert, the Chair Case Study

… ¶ … Parole Board

Robert, the chair of the parole board, is under pressure to relax the standards for parole because of the Governor's fears that if current overcrowding suits are successful, it will result in inmates being released under a federal process outside of the parole board's control. However, Robert is concerned that relaxing the current standards could result in the release of inmates more likely to re-offend than Robert feels is acceptable for a parole risk. The ethical dilemma appears to be whether Robert reduces the parole eligibility requirements, which would result in the release of more dangerous inmates than Robert feels is acceptable, or whether he does not reduce the parole eligibility requirements, which could result in the state losing control over…. [read more]

Ex Offenders the United States Research Paper

… Programs offered on a community or a state level go on to make the patient feel more secure about their place in the society. The patient feels encouraged and motivated if he attains support and advice on how to reintegrate. There are many programs present today which aim at making the transition from prison to home easier. One such program is the R.I.S.E program that is present in Philadelphia

R.I.S.E program

This program has been started with the name of RISE in Philadelphia and is short for reintegration services. This program was basically initiated to aid the transition from incarceration back into the community. It goes on to use direct services and partnerships with other agencies in order to successfully integrate the ex-offenders back into…. [read more]

Punishment Compared With the Effectiveness Essay

… It has not yet been established what works within correctional treatment. Furthermore, it has not changed or altered anything we already know. This is because the motive of incarceration is criminal justice, not correction of behavior (Logan and Gaes, 1993).

Rehabilitation for a lack of better word is a 'fankle' when considered as set of practices and concepts. Fankle is a Scottish word which means 'tangle' loosely. The annoying part or the teasing part of fankle is a job which is too time consuming and wearisome. It's an important one though, so tying them up together is imperative in the end (McNeill, forthcoming).

The purpose of correctional rehabilitation is to instill a positive change in folks. It's the model which is used mostly in treatment…. [read more]

Agency/Organization in Which You Worked Essay

… S. Cyber Security and carries out covert investigations through undercover law enforcement methodologies.

Child Exploitation Section

Child Exploitation Section is responsible for fighting the sexual exploitation of children and the production and distribution of child pornography. CES's sophisticated investigative techniques target the internet violators. CES utilizes the latest technology to gather the evidence and track the activities of individuals and organized groups who are involved in exploiting the children through emails, chat rooms, websites and file-sharing applications. Hence, CES coordinates with the law enforcement agencies in major investigations and assists the field offices in identifying the violators. Major initiatives of the Child Exploitation Section are:

Operation Predator for targeting the criminals involved in child pornography and child sex tourism

The National Child Victim Identification System…. [read more]

Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Research Paper

… In Corley, 2009). Moreover, it is evident that correctional expenses creates a major percentage of state budgets because the increasing populations exert more stress on respective State budgets and they have no alternatives other than to consider parole as a measure to cuts costs, where States like California and Colorado have opted for these measure. California comprising the largest convicted population, considers releasing 3,000 inmates regularly to ease the prison population by 6,500 and this will see the state attempt to reduce the 20 billion dollar budget deficient as approximately 11% of the overall state spending goes to prisons constituting about 8.6 billion dollars annually. When the programs fully take off, the officials estimate approximately to save about 500 million dollars annually (Watkins, 2010).

The…. [read more]

Information Technology (IT) Risk Management Cyber Crime Research Paper

… it Risk Management -- Cyber Crime

Over the last several years, the issue of cyber crime has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because it is seen as tool which can be used to conduct espionage, terrorism or criminal activities. The results are that the more rouge nation states and other organizations are taking an active part in these activities. According to the U.S. Internet Crime Complaint Center, they received a total of 336,665 reports of cyber related activities occurring last year. This is accounting for $559.77 million in losses. (Liu, 2013)

What makes these figures so troubling; is they are from just one organization which is monitoring the scope of cyber related crimes. When this is applied around the world, these statistics…. [read more]

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