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Criminal Investigations Term Paper

… Criminal Investigations:

The process of investigating, reporting, and prosecuting criminal offenses requires both legal and ethical preparations in order for successful prosecution of a case. The need for legal and ethical preparations is fueled by the fact that there is an unbelievable amount of work that needs to be done in relation to the statements, items, evidence, and witnesses before a case is presented in a court of law before a judge or jury. While there are various types of crimes, several ethical aspects must be considered from the start of the case i.e. when an investigator arrives at the crime scene. Ethical considerations are vital to decisions that incorporate force, discretion, and due process that need individuals to make enlightened moral judgments. Actually, the…. [read more]


Ethics in Justice Administration Introductory Research Paper

… Not only do the officers have to accomplish their duties professionally, but the job requires each scenario handled ethically and morally. Although ethics and morals are two different subject matters, they have a correlation and supplement each other interchangeably. An individual's morals concentrate on the actual behavior while ethics is a study of those morals. Ethics refers to the system of moral values based on the principle of right and wrong. Police officers play an important role in the administration of justice; therefore, they should view themselves as retrospective and abide by the law.

The term ethics has many definitions, but a review reveals that most of the definitions apply the same concept. For instance, ethics are "principles of accepted rules of conduct for a…. [read more]


Justice, Crime and Ethics Prepping Research Paper

… Many prisons in the United States have adopted this Panopticon model and have begun functioning under the fact that all humans, even prisoners, have the right to be treated with human dignity. Using the model set forth by Bentham, criminal justice and psychological experts have seen that the condition of a prison certainly adds to a prisoner's pain and suffering during confinement. Bentham suggested that even those who had been undoubtedly scarred by a criminal and injured in any capacity would have suffering that -- no matter how great -- would never measure the pain and suffering of a prisoner who would spend the rest of his life or an extended time in the confines of a cell. Bentham's views and visions of utilitarianism in…. [read more]


Ethical Treatment of Prisoners Essay

… There were fifty-two executions in the United States in 2009 and forty-six in 2010, with over 3,000 people waiting on death row for their sentences to be carried out. In most cases these never will be because of lengthy appeals and delays in the courts so for most of those convicted the death penalty is actually a sentence of life imprisonment without parole. Death row inmates are overwhelmingly male, from a lower class background, and on average over 40% have been black in 1977-2009, even though blacks were only 12-13% of the population (Bureau of Justice Statistics 2011). Thirty-six states and the federal government allowed capital punishment, which is mostly done by lethal injection rather than by hanging, gas or electrocution.

Since inequality is more…. [read more]


Ethics in Criminal Justice Maintaining a High Term Paper

… Ethics in Criminal Justice

Maintaining a high degree of ethical behavior within the criminal justice system is essential in promoting trust within the community. Police misconduct such as raping detainees does irreparable harm to that trust. In order to eliminate instances of police misconduct, it is imperative to institute strict procedures to address the issue. Only by addressing the issue will the protection of civilians be assured and trust be maintained.

There is perhaps nothing more damaging to the standing of the police within a community than when an atmosphere of mistrust arises due to police misconduct. When this mistrust arises as a result of an officer committing a crime against a citizen while on duty, it is even worse, particularly when that crime is…. [read more]


Ethics Criminal Justice Research Paper

… There are some organizational policy ethics impacting the criminal justice system, which are more generalized due to their being universal among all government agencies. For example, gender discrimination, sexual harassment, and equitable pay are all issues that play a role in criminal justice administration. Corruption in law enforcement and in the judiciary, as well as in correctional institutions, is also a managerial issue. Regulations can be in place to prevent ethical infractions, but ultimately criminal justice leaders need to be committed to preventing ethical infractions from taking place and using disciplinary procedures when they do happen. Unfortunately, criminal justice officials often do have conflicting duties, roles, and ethical frameworks to work with and within (Banks, 2012).

Ethics is one of the most fundamental aspects of…. [read more]


Ethical Decision-Making in Criminal Justice Essay

… Others consider the pursuit of fair legal procedure as a more critical basis for judgment rather than the pursuit of social justice.

Smith (1998) presents the "social justice" argument in his discussion of ethical decision-making in the practice of law. He discusses that lawyers may indeed be considered ethical while at the same time, they do not uphold the belief on and concept of social justice. However, in the world of criminal justice, the author admits that "most criminal lawyers represent the poor," which reflects that criminal lawyers are not only beholden to upholding fairness in legal procedures, but also consider it a moral imperative to seek social justice for the "poor and powerless" (538-9).

Maute (2002) offers a different opinion about this issue of…. [read more]


Ethics in Law Enforcement Essay

… The "Law Enforcement Code of Ethics" was created by the Peace Officers' Association of the State of California in 1956, and has generally be adopted and used by a number of law enforcement agencies.

In the first paragraph, the officer is sworn to "…protect the innocent against deception" and to protect the "weak against oppression or intimidation" (Riverside Sheriff, CA). Protecting the innocent "against deception" is ironic because police use deception as a commonly, court-approved strategy, and "intimidation" is part of the everyday process of interviewing and interrogating. In the second paragraph, the officer is pledging to be "honest in thought and deed in both my personal and official life," and obviously deceiving suspects is not honest. The third paragraph reminds officers to enforce the…. [read more]


Ethics and Professional Behavior Essay

… These tools provided in the seminar will enable them to effectively identify and handle all the possible ethical issues that may arise in the course of their work (Joycelyn M. Polock, 2010 ).

The five areas of ethical conduct that will be looked at are value statements that they should always remember, the codes of conduct that they should always strive to abide by, the Mechanisms to discuss difficult cases still within the ethical dimension, ethical modeling process and ethical communication channels and standards. These shall have embodied the vast concept of ethics within the criminal justice system and will have modeled the law enforcers into behaving in an ethical manner as well as passing down the ethical behaviors to other officers within the system.…. [read more]


Ethics in Law Enforcement Essay

… How Determinism and Indeterminism Apply to Police Ethics

Law enforcement officers are faced with crime every day, and they are faced with a belligerent public who does not appreciate nor chooses to understand the difficulties that they face. When a young person first enters law enforcement, they usually go through some manner of academy. This academy trains the prospective officer in all of the areas that will be critical to their performance as law enforcement officers. Most young recruits come out of that training idealistic, and they want to serve the public in the best possible manner (Gilmartin & Harris, 1998). When considering this fact in consort with a deterministic ethical stance, those young officers have usually been raised in a law-abiding environment and they…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Field Research Paper

… Criminal Justice Field

Define what an experiment is and how it is useful in the field of criminal justice research.

Since the beginning of the discipline, quantitative methods have supplied the primary research methods for studying the division and causes of crime. Quantitative methods provide many ways to attain data that is useful to many facets of society. The use of quantitative methods such as survey research, field research, and evaluation research can help criminologists to assemble dependable and valid data. The data can be used by criminologists and other social scientists in order to make causal statements about variables that are being researched (Weisburd, 2000).

Some scholars think that experimental research is the best kind of research to use to evaluate cause and effect.…. [read more]


Ethics in Law Enforcement Essay

… It also destroys the public's confidence in their law enforcers and defames all law enforcement departments.

When law enforcers are given the power to use force or other such liberties, it is because they are expected to act ethically and responsibly. That is why normally departments upon recruitment look into an individual's previous moral and ethical background. They view their past conduct, as Aristotle claims that a person's actions reveal his character. However, it has been noticed that actions are not always the best judge of someone's character. As is evident in the study conducted by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist employed by Yale University, that moral judgments are tested and pressurized by external sources. Therefore he concludes that in pressure situations people often rely on…. [read more]


Criminal Justice: On September 18 Term Paper

… The reason for the suitability of this theory of punishment in this case is the fact that its central precept is that punishment should be in proportion to the harm.

Importance of Code Ethics in the Criminal Justice System:

One of the most essential and fundamental aspects in guiding practices and lessening misconduct by personnel in criminal justice is the importance of code of ethics. Ethics is basically described as moral philosophy, which focuses on examining issues of right and wrong and how people ought to live. The qualities of right and wrong are in turn considered as moral judgments that are assigned to people's conduct and actions. A code of ethics is vital in all criminal justice processes because it provides the professionals in…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Law Enforcement Essay

… Most communities have a skewed view of the law enforcement professionals, which makes it difficult for professionals to operate (Barker, 2011). Secondly, the professionals face a challenge with attending to the vast population with their limited numbers. This slows the efficiency of crime prevention through patrols and other means. Additionally, there is the challenge of the societal creations that bring about the criminal acts. Reaching the agents of the crime manufacturing in the society is difficult; thus, the professional finds it hard to attend to matters concerning the crime prevention process.

In combating these challenges, the professionals can take various models of operation. These strategies to curb the issues challenging the professionals include, empowering the community, which simplifies the relation between the professional and society.…. [read more]


Ethics in the Justice System How We Treat Minorities Versus Whites Research Paper

… Ethics in Justice System-How we treat Minorities vs. The whites.

Ethics in the Justice System- How We Treat Minorities vs. Whites

Ethics or the moral philosophy is the study of right and wrong. The Criminal Justice System is comprised of numerous participants who include police, prosecutors, defense counsel, probation officers and judges (Ohio Commission on Racial Fairness, 1999, p.36). When it comes to the process of procedural fairness, Americans are highly sensitive. The single most important source of popular dissatisfaction with the American legal system is the perception of unfair or unequal treatment (Burke and Leben, 2007, p.4). The public's dissatisfaction with the judicial branch can be alleviated by the judges paying critical attention to the key elements of procedural fairness. They should also be…. [read more]


Ethical Concerns in Criminal Justice Research Paper

… Many accusations of police brutality have ultimately been found to be false and created for the betterment of the suspect's situation and these are the majority. However, there are still cases of genuine police brutality that occur throughout the United States. According to researchers, police force is reported in 24% of encounters between officers and suspects or witnesses (Krupanski 2012). Perhaps the most famous incidence of police brutality occurred in Los Angeles, California in 1991 when officers were filmed brutally beating Rodney King (Byers 2002). Cases have been reported in every state of the union about police misconduct to varying degrees including beating suspects, torture, and even murder. Lawyers for the defense will often use any and all errors in judgment of police officers to…. [read more]


Ethics, Terrorism, and the Future Essay

… Proper training can limit the negative effects of ethical dilemmas. Setting rules that are straightforward need to be laid out so that would-be police officers will feel comfortable balancing their individual conscience with their police assignments. In order to allow this to occur as naturally as possible in an environment where training can still be enforced, these officers in training should be put in situations where they will be forced to not only think and react on the spot, but have the opportunity to make a mistake if necessary. For example, a would-be police officer can be sent to an assignment under the pretenses that it is a real setting, but allow this to be a closely monitored setting. Being directly faced with the problem…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Career Essay

… How does this contribute to building theory?

Building of theory cannot be in a vacuum. It is from existing set of beliefs or views that an individual comes in to formulate a theory that either concurs with or seeks to challenge the paradigm and perpetuate a varying paradigm shift.

What is a variable?

A variable in research is an entity that can be altered like the values or the characteristics of the entity. They are used to find out if the change of the variable would necessarily mean the alteration in the results of an item.

Explain the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable. Provide an example of each.

The independent variable is the value that is being manipulated and changed in…. [read more]


Ethical Dilemmas: Forensic Psychologists Assessing the Competency Essay

… Ethical Dilemmas: Forensic Psychologists Assessing the Competency of Inmates to Be Executed

For most psychologists, working with patients in order to improve their mental health is a goal that presents no ethical conflicts; it is seen as an unmitigated positive to improve a patient's mental health. However, there is one area where a psychologist improving a patient's mental health is not in that patient's best interest: helping make a mentally ill patient competent so that the inmate can be executed. The current state of U.S. law prohibits the execution of the mentally ill. However, in the context of this prohibition, mental illness is narrowly defined. Rather than prohibiting the execution of any person diagnosed with a mental illness, the prohibition only applies to those people…. [read more]


Ethical Systems Ethical Formalism Essay

… 35). John Locke, Thomas Hobbes and many of the Founders of the United States believed that the social contract with the state also guaranteed certain basic natural rights such as life, liberty and poverty. Modern theorists might also add housing, health care and education to the list as well, such as the Economic Bill of Rights proposed by Franklin Roosevelt. Natural law supporters, from St. Augustine to Gandhi to Martin Luther King would argue that "an unjust law is no law at all," and indeed that the individual has a moral duty to disobey (Pollock, p. 66).

Ethics of virtue. What is good is that which conforms to the Golden Mean. Aristotle defined virtue in a teleological rather than a deontological way when he stated…. [read more]


Justice System Juvi Death Penalty in Roper Term Paper

… Justice System Juvi Death Penalty

In Roper v. Simmons the Supreme Court of the U.S. struck down the juvenile death penalty, making it unconstitutional for any American body including state and federal justice systems to utilize the death penalty in any penalty phase of a trial that's defendant was younger than 18 at the time of the commitment of the crime that warrants the death penalty. The court in the majority opinion, written by Justice Kennedy stated that the decision was heavily weighted by international legal opinion.

The opinion of the world community, while not controlling our outcome, does provide respected and significant confirmation for our own conclusions." -- Justice Kennedy, writing for the majority in Roper v. Simmons (1)"[T]his Nation's evolving understanding of human…. [read more]


Ethics in Decision-Making Clegg Research Paper

… "In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).

For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by…. [read more]


Ethical Dilemma Confronting Unjust Authority Case Study

… Ethical Dilemma: Confronting Unjust Authority Case Study

Ethical dilemma

An ethical dilemma denotes a case in where one experiences a mental conflict whereby ethical obligations conflict in a way that any resolution is ethically intolerable. This implies that all the available options cannot be determined by guiding moral principles. An example is a situation whereby one has to decide between not to steal and to provide for a family that you cannot be able to provide for without stolen money (Garber, 2008). In such a case, stealing might be considered to be wrong by one person because of the fact that this person is using a wrong way to provide for his family. Conversely, someone else might consider it differently since this man has a…. [read more]


Ethical and Moral Behavior Term Paper

… ¶ … ethical and moral behavior and why such behaviors are necessary in the enforcement of the rules of the criminal justice system

Relationships of Criminal justice system, ethics and morality

The principles of criminal justice lead to acts which are similar to crime in content, and a distinction can be made with crime only if it is understood that criminal justice is moral while crime is immoral. This question has been asked from ancient times and even Saint Augustine had stated that without justice, kingdoms are only great robberies. Thus there is a use of force by both the state which is enforcing justice and the criminal who is committing the crime. The only distinction of the two uses of force is that the…. [read more]


Capital Punishment Analyzed by Utilitarian Ethics and Kantian Research Paper

… Death Penalty Philosophy

Capital Punishment Analyzed by Utilitarian Ethics & Kantian Ethics

The death penalty is the most extreme of punitive consequences, with its application representing the greatest of finalities in law enforcement and criminal sentencing. An issue which has garnered intense debate for decades and which has divided individuals along party lines and philosophical dispositions, the use of capital punishment is defended by its advocates as an effective way to deter violent crime and as a critically potent way to punish the worst of offenders. Its critics regard it as barbaric, unconstitutional or generally a violation of human rights. The United States is the only Western democracy in the world which still employs the death penalty in its criminal justice system. A careful analysis…. [read more]


Ethics Program Imagine Company Toyota Essay

… Conclusion

For an organization to be classified as either successful or beaten depends on how the company channels the varied talents and energies of its employees towards achievement of its goals. Organizations need to invest in employee engagement to company success. Effective motivation strategy should include providing a good working environment, good pay and participation of employees in decision making. This creates the feeling of importance and enables employees to commit towards achieving organizational objectives and enhance successful training and implementation of an ethics program. Top managers should avoid the common mistakes that arise during designing and implementation of an effective ethics program. For example, during training, managers should not offer long hours of lecture instead organize employees in small discussion groups. Another common mistake…. [read more]


Is Criminal Behavior Due to Nature and Genetics or Is it Nurtured Through the Environment? Term Paper

… Criminal Behaviour

Chapter I Introduction

Review of Researched Considerations

Chapter III Conclusion

CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR'S ROOTS

Very simply, the law treats man's conduct as autonomous and willed, not because it is, but because it is desirable to proceed as if it were."

Not So Simple

Has the jury reached a verdict?"

Yes and no, your Honor. Although we, the jury, acknowledge the defendant did commit the crime and deserves a 'guilty' verdict, we find the defendant 'not guilty', as we do not feel he should not be held accountable for his criminal behavior. Due to evidence presented regarding his genetic make-up, along with evidence revealing the defendant experienced a horrendous environment while growing up, we are convinced his actions were beyond his ability to control them.…. [read more]


Right Versus Right Decision-Making in Criminal Justice Administration Essay

… Ethical Decision Making in Law Enforcement Management

In general, ethical decision making in public policy and law enforcement involves right-versus-right decisions rather than right-versus-wrong decisions because all of the stakeholders involved represent valid and just objectives. In many respects, that makes public policy and law enforcement decisions more difficult than other types of decisions because ignoring a right is much more difficult than ignoring a right. Typically, these types of decisions must consider the interests and concerns of employees, citizens, and publicly elected officials.

Right-versus-Right Analyses

In principle, right-versus-right analyses incorporate four types of questions. First, the approach must consider the various identifiable consequences of every decision option, including the different types of consequences that affect different classes of individuals (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008). In…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Managers Essay

… At the same time, many of these guidelines were applied to American law enforcement based upon specific ideas which are relevant to the U.S. This means that the theories are combination of various practices learned from incidents that occurred nationally and techniques from different nations. (Vodde, 2009) (Seelke, 2009)

For example, Great Britain has influenced the kinds of practices that are utilized. This is taking place in the areas of: limited police / government, placing a higher value on protecting individual liberty, a tradition of local law enforcement and a decentralized system of enforcing the law on the regional level. These areas are important, as they are illustrating how other countries have impacted the basic structures and foundations which are utilized throughout the U.S. This…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Administration Taking Into Account Term Paper

… Criminal Justice Administration

Taking into account the fact that criminal justice administrators are faced with right-versus-wrong decisions and must balance the wants and needs of their employees, the politicians and the citizens, this work will describe the ethical decisions-making process that criminal justice administrators engage in when attempting to determine a course of action and will discuss the potential perceptions to the employees, the politicians and the citizens and how this influences the administrator.

Criminal Justice Administration Overview

It is pointed out in the work entitled: "Sentencing Values and Sentencing Structures," published in the Judicial Studies Institute Journal that "In a dissenting opinion in which she disagreed with the Court's analysis, Judge Higgins said: 'The judicial lodestar, whether in difficult questions of interpretation of humanitarian…. [read more]

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