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Justice and Security Free Balance Essay

… Changes in technology and mass communication with the effects these have on the justice and security areas

Issues involving individual's rights and the needs of the justice system when maintaining order and public safety have been a controversial topic for many years. The Constitution has many who think it should be written to today's requirements in the world. The First Amendment is one of the hardest hit when it comes to public safety and individual's rights. When a person is out protesting, they could cause a riot due to the words they say. The two topics that this happens with are religion and abortion. Many street preachers who will say the God's words to any who will listen and many do not want to listen…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Field Research Paper

… Criminal Justice Field

Define what an experiment is and how it is useful in the field of criminal justice research.

Since the beginning of the discipline, quantitative methods have supplied the primary research methods for studying the division and causes of crime. Quantitative methods provide many ways to attain data that is useful to many facets of society. The use of quantitative methods such as survey research, field research, and evaluation research can help criminologists to assemble dependable and valid data. The data can be used by criminologists and other social scientists in order to make causal statements about variables that are being researched (Weisburd, 2000).

Some scholars think that experimental research is the best kind of research to use to evaluate cause and effect.…. [read more]


Criminal Behavior Approaches Term Paper

… It has been observed that people facing these disorders from early years of life are more viable to commit crime in later stages of life. Many of these individuals are more probable to face legal problems in later stages of life. Thus, identifying these individuals and treating them in the best possible manner is form of psychological crime control policies. Therefore, procedures and techniques of crime control policies founded on psychological principles object the individual and try to reorganize or stop criminal behavior from that viewpoint. Some strategies need beneficial involvement, re-skilling, or tutoring is psychological in nature. Any policy intended at inhibiting crime by directing persons such as giving rise to realization, encouraging self-awareness, or classifying persons at danger are also psychological. On the…. [read more]


Criminal Investigation Investigative Task Force Research Paper

… Once the item has been collected, it has to be stored properly (Burgess, Roberts, & Regehr, 2009). Failure to store the item in the proper manner can damage the investigation, and even render the evidence unusable (Deflem, 2006). The chain of custody must be clearly transferred from the person who collected the evidence to the person responsible for storing the evidence, in order to establish that the evidence has not been damaged or tampered with in any way (O'Hara & O'Hara, 2003). During the time the evidence is stored, it will be considered to be protected, but if anyone on the task force or from any agency needs to take the evidence out of storage for examination, testing, or other study, the chain of custody…. [read more]


Criminal Profiling as an Aid Research Paper

… Furthermore, there appears to be a professional bias against profiling, which exists not only among law enforcement professionals, but also among psychiatrists and psychologists. In general, mental health professionals had a negative impression of profiling. "Fewer than half of the forensic mental health professionals felt that either profiling or criminal investigative analysis was reliable, was valid, or had enough scientific support to be admitted into court. Perceptions were especially negative among those who received the version of the survey using the term profiling. These forensic mental health professionals rated profiling to be significantly less reliable and valid than those who were given the term criminal investigative analysis for the same process. These findings support the position that profiling is likely to be viewed more favorably…. [read more]


Criminal Investigations Term Paper

… Criminal Investigations

Over the last several years, the issue of criminal investigation procedures has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a number of legal cases will depend upon the quality of evidence that is collected and the kind of analysis that is conducted. To determine the best practices there will be a focus on: the various types of evidence that is collected, how it should be examined, the information that can be provided, potential contamination issues and the various categories. These elements will show how the data that is collected is impacting the outcome of legal proceedings.

Discuss the various types of evidence and how they are collected

There are many different kinds of evidence collected by law enforcement. These include: physical,…. [read more]


Criminal Justice for Possible Outcome Essay

… When a practice or program is believed a priori to be effective, it is challenging to obtain resources or support for trails that might dilute experimental effect in the name of science.

"Evidence and Liberty: The Promise of Experimental Criminology," by Lawrence W. Sherman (University of Cambridge, UK). I found this article to be of interest because found the tension between bottom-up and top-down policy guidance fascinating. And from the perspective of the local justice systems, it seems that operational guidance based on the review of experimental evidence would sit better -- giving a feeling of more control and the ability to make decisions for one's own community -- than a generalized policy based on a meta-analysis which, though the approach is empirically robust, would…. [read more]


Criminal Offending Essay

… In such a case, the perceived unfairness and failure to accept the unfair sanction nullifies any deterrent effect produced by strong social bonds, and this means, the unfair sanction may have little or no influence on the future behavior of the offender (Leana & Nicole, 2008). For poorly bonded offenders who perceive sanctions to be unfair and accept the accompanying shame, the sanction will be irrelevant or possibly produce a deterrent outcome to future offending. On the other hand, the poorly bonded offender who denies the shame is likely to respond defiantly and engage in future criminal activities, because of unfair and stigmatizing sanctions. Therefore, the outcome of a sanction determines continuity or discontinuity of criminal activity in the future. In addition, defining the sanction…. [read more]


What Justice Term Paper

… ¶ … Justice mean to me?

What exactly does Justice mean, and how does it apply to a criminal justice professional? Justice as such refers to a sense of fairness and impartiality, an evenhandedness, righteousness, and also objectivity and independence in making up one's opinions. Justice is the concept which must predominate when laws are being made, and for a layman, justice would mean that he would be safe and secure in the knowledge that he would be protected adequately by the law, and by the sense of justice that law must uphold, no matter what. If, for example, an incident occurs when someone does someone else bodily harm, then it is just and fair that the person should be stopped, and made to pay…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Process Term Paper

… Criminal Justice Process

A felony is a group of crimes that are commonly known as the most serious types of offenses. The major element of a felony is that being found guilty of a felony will consequence in incarceration for at least a one year period of time. In addition, the detention will be served in a prison facility rather than a county or local jail. Criminal fines may also be imposed for felony charges that range in amounts that are in the thousands. Felonies normally included serious offenses liken those of homicide, rape, arson, burglary, robbery, larceny, escaping from a prison, and assisting in a felony. A person who is found guilty in any court for committing a felony crime will then be known…. [read more]


Criminal Justice - Evaluations Evaluation Methods Thesis

… Criminal Justice - Evaluations

EVALUATION METHODS in CRIMINAL JUSTICE Introduction: As in the case of any other professional industry, policing and other criminal justice administration functions must maintain a system of agency evaluation to assess the effectiveness of its programs. Evaluations encompass effectiveness with respect to achieving specific strategic objectives, supervisory controls, program design, methodology, and fiscal efficiency.

In professional business administration, the criteria for evaluations generally relates primarily to profit margins and secondarily to most other elements of the venture.

Within government administration, there is no profit margin per se, although fiscal responsibility, resourcefulness, and optimization remain important concerns. However, because the measure of fiscal efficiency in government is operating within available budgets, performance is the primary measure of success and the criteria used…. [read more]


Criminal Identification Procedures the Dawn Term Paper

… Of all the constitutional guarantees, the Fourth Amendment casts the longest shadow on proposals designed to take samples from all individuals brought into custody (Kaye 2001). For all methods of sampling, there is a sharply diminished expectation or invasion of privacy compared to the traditional search for contraband or instrumentalities of a crime, and the normal reasons for a warrant and individualized suspicion are attenuated (Kaye 2001).

"Where the primary purpose of DNA sampling upon arrest is the acquisition of a permanent personal identifier for individuals who are in custody, the traditional 'true identity' exception to the warrant requirement for fingerprinting, photographing, and the like, as well as the 'special needs' line of cases support the collection of the DNA records" (Kaye 2001).

With convicted-offender…. [read more]


Criminal Justice -- Sentencing Essay

… 2). The PSI report would also give information about the crime, including a narrative of the facts and any mitigating or aggravating circumstances of the crime (Steverson, 2012, p. 2). In addition, the PSI report would give current information about the victim(s) and information about the restitution, including: the type, amount and recipient (Steverson, 2012, p. 2). Finally, the probation officer sometimes includes a recommendation about sentencing in the PSI report (Steverson, 2012, p. 2).

Procedure after Sentencing and Possible Appeal

After sentencing, Hernandez would be taken into custody (if not already in custody) and handed over to the custody of the Federal Corrections Department to begin her sentence. Hernandez entered her plea in the Western District of Texas (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010), so…. [read more]


Criminal Misdemeanors Division Judge Search Term Paper

… Criminal Misdemeanors Division Judge

Search, arrest and interrogation in law

The case in this study is a classic example of responsibilities to observe the law intertwined among several players with the organizers of the event and the politicians who pushed for the commencement of the event coordinating with the police department to ensure the successful and peaceful execution of the racing event. There were hiccups to the taking off of the event but with the prevailing of the politicians, the event took off but under the conditions that the police department had given, with the fear of disruption and possible stampede and injury from the impending demonstration by pressure groups. These are groups who had organized to interrupt the event and cause chaos in order…. [read more]


Incorporating Restorative and Community Justice Into American Sentencing and Corrections Article Critique

… Restorative Justice

Evidence

Evaluation

Bibligoraphy

In criminal justice, new interventions targeting crime control and reduction are constantly being developed and implemented. The recent intervention that is notable is Restorative Justice. This paper will thus critique this particular emerging intervention and focus on answering questions like: What is Restorative Justice? What is Community Justice? Should Restorative and Community Justice Be incorporated into the Criminal Justice System?

In criminal justice, new interventions targeting crime control and reduction are constantly being developed and implemented. The recent intervention that is notable is Restorative Justice. Regardless of the enhanced attention provided recently to the concept of restorative justice, the principle still stays rather bothersome to specify as many feedbacks to criminal habits could fall under the supposed corrective umbrella. The…. [read more]


Criminal Justice and Criminology the Chicago Alternative Research Proposal

… ¶ … Criminal Justice and Criminology

The Chicago alternative policing strategy came into effect in the year 1993. The strategy initially took place in five police district then moved to include the entire city. The need of this strategy was to revise the way police departments conducted their operation in the entire city. It is a long-term strategy where now police officers do have long-term duties in each of the 279 police units. The entire police squads in the city have training on problem solving techniques based on the steps formulated by CAPS. There are steps that any police officer needs to adhere to based on the strategy the processes are focusing on the victims, focus on the location of crime, attention given on offenders…. [read more]


Criminal Justice System the Civilized Essay

… "Usually the flow of cases begins with the police department. If individuals are arrested, charges must be placed by the District Attorney's Office. These cases must be heard and adjudicated by the Court System. Before or after conviction, some individuals are sent to either County or State Prisons. (West, 2009)" The initial flow alone sees a defendant going through a minimum of three government agencies thus making it more critical to fast-track some of the process in order to close the case. Again in doing so, the defendant might not be able to truly put up a viable defense and he or she might be wrongfully accused.

There are varied ways of improving the criminal justice system in order to strike a balance between speedy…. [read more]


Society's View of Criminal Justice Essay

… There is also evidence that suggests that the criminal justice system protects its own, such as police officers receiving a slap on the wrist or no punishment at all for serious offenses even in the face of overwhelming evidence. There are those who argue that the criminal justice system has too much power and without the proper checks and balances can exert its own form of justice without probable cause or regard for personal rights.

To believe in the criminal justice system, we have to believe that everyone receives a fair trial and that sentences are comparable across the board. Violent and non-violent offenders should be approached differently and the outcome of criminal cases should not be swayed by money, influence, power, or politics. In…. [read more]


Plea Bargaining Pleading for Justice Essay

… Fisher (2007) then goes on to argue for adding another bargaining chip to the defendant's arsenal. This chip would be agreeing to a reduction in the standard of proof required for a criminal trial in exchange for concessions by the prosecution. Gray and colleagues (2012) would argue, however, that the standard of proof is already significantly reduced by the Silver Platter Doctrine instituted by the U.S. Supreme Court in United States vs. Calandra (1974). Of particular concern is the use of evidence obtained in violation of Fourth Amendment protections against unlawful searches and seizures during grand jury hearings. An indictment or the threat of an indictment allows prosecutors to effectively use illegally-obtained evidence during plea bargains. Gray and colleagues went further and claimed that the…. [read more]


Criminal Justice/Forensics Undercover Thesis

… Criminal Justice/Forensics

Undercover" is a term that has made its way into the public vernacular, thanks in large part to movies and television programs. Undercover, at its fundamental level, means pretending to be someone else- the construction and portrayal of a false identity for an ulterior purpose. In the case of undercover police investigations, this ulterior purpose is to enforce the law. This is done by using a false identity to infiltrate a criminal group in order to gather evidence and build a case. This can be a long-term project- some cases have had an undercover operative on assignments that lasted for years. The purpose of this research paper is to show that undercover police officers are more likely to commit criminal acts than police…. [read more]


Choosing Study Designs in Criminal Justice Research Term Paper

… If the ethical issues are set aside for the purpose of discussion, then an example of an experimental study design would be randomizing police responses to domestic violence calls. A comparison could be made on outcomes depending on whether a regular patrol or community policing unit responded to the call. A number of demographic variables would have to be collected for each encounter so that potential confounding factors could be controlled for. For example, the socioeconomic status of the entire neighborhood and the residents involved in a domestic violence response could be controlled for, thereby increasing the validity of the findings. In addition, experimental studies often provide findings about cause and effect relationships that can be generalized to the wider population.

Meta-Analysis Study Design

If…. [read more]


Ethical Dilemmas in Criminal Justice Term Paper

… For example, they receive little remuneration that does not gather for their daily needs alongside he poor working conditions. This affects their job morale and their psychological well-being. Therefore, William should consider providing his team members with better working environment alongside motivating agents such as remuneration to ensure their mental well-being (Hudson, 2003).

The present status of the correctional facility is undesirable as it is characterized with overpopulation, scarcity of the basic resources, and demotivated staff. As such, William, should focus on lobbying for strategies that aim at preventing further increase in the number of inmates. Such strategies include presenting the actual statistics to the involved stakeholders to ensure the reduction of the number of the inmates sent to a correctional facility. Alternatively, William should…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Discuss the Ethical Issues Term Paper

… Criminal Justice

Discuss the ethical issues that are of concern to research in criminal justice and how would you resolve them?

In criminal justice research, the primary ethical concerns are avoiding any procedure that may harm the respondents, honoring commitments to respondents and respecting reciprocity, remaining objective and professional in reporting procedures, and protecting the confidentiality and privacy of respondents. To avoid harmful procedures, researchers must analyze possible effects of procedures, and determine any possible long-term or short-term negative effects. If such effects are discovered, full disclosure must be given to the respondents, and those individuals must then give informed consent. To honor commitments and respect trust, researchers must ensure all promises to the respondent are kept, and not use the information given in an…. [read more]


Ethics in the Justice System How We Treat Minorities Versus Whites Research Paper

… Ethics in Justice System-How we treat Minorities vs. The whites.

Ethics in the Justice System- How We Treat Minorities vs. Whites

Ethics or the moral philosophy is the study of right and wrong. The Criminal Justice System is comprised of numerous participants who include police, prosecutors, defense counsel, probation officers and judges (Ohio Commission on Racial Fairness, 1999, p.36). When it comes to the process of procedural fairness, Americans are highly sensitive. The single most important source of popular dissatisfaction with the American legal system is the perception of unfair or unequal treatment (Burke and Leben, 2007, p.4). The public's dissatisfaction with the judicial branch can be alleviated by the judges paying critical attention to the key elements of procedural fairness. They should also be…. [read more]


Restorative Justice Approaches Reduce Youth Essay

… Retributive Justice

From the criminal law perspective, retributive justice aims at treating youth offenders in formally controlled systems. The concept behind the disciplinary approach shows a consistency with the paradigm of punitive justice. The core theme of retributive justice is that the country is the victim of a criminal act, and the focus is on the youth who violated the laws and interests of the country. When the juvenile justice system operates under the retributive justice approach, focuses upon the offender and the public fear of criminal activities (Wenzel et al., 2008). Therefore, this results to the placement of the crime victims and their sympathizers, including their families in a passive position.

In most of the cases, retributive justice leads to youth offenders being put…. [read more]


Victims and Criminal Justice Victimization Essay

… Thus, many victims' rights groups have been started that have the purpose of ensuring that all people who have been the victims of criminal activity are able to realize the same rights as a victim that White, middle class people are. The provision of victims' rights has even swung to criminals in some cases when they are the victims of heinous crimes committed against them by either other criminals (many times during a prison sentence) or their victims (Van den Wyngaert, 2011).

There have actually been studies conducted that look at victims' rights from the perspective of the victim as the suspected criminal is being processed through the criminal courts system as mentioned in the second part of the question. This secondary victimization is described…. [read more]


Do African-American Women Receive Harsher Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System for Crimes? Thesis

… Racial Bias in Sentencing

Do African-American Women Receive Harsher Sentencing in the Criminal Justice System for Crimes than Caucasian Women?

A ic/Research Question

The proposed research will explore racial bias in the criminal justice system. It will explore consist of a paired analysis of sentencing practices between Caucasian women and African-American women for similar crimes. It will explore the research question: do African-American women receive harsher sentencing in the criminal justice system for crimes than Caucasian women?

The United States prides itself on the maintenance of a fair and equitable justice system. Formal laws and policies are in place to make certain that one group or another does not receive partial treatment due to factors such as sex, race, gender, or religion. The justice system…. [read more]


Racial Equality Race Research Paper

… Eating and breathing are pleasurable and necessary activities to maintain natural life and are both based on inequality of resources. Instead, we are force feeding our beliefs to a body that does not need them or in reality want them.

The only way to truly eliminate racism is to look at both sides of race. How can we escape this mess if we are constantly throwing new piles of trash on top of old ones? If we amend the Constitution for every way in which folks are different (i.e., unequal), the document is going to get cluttered, if it has not already reached this point. Race needs to be embraced and celebrated. One must consider what is the purpose of having many races on earth.…. [read more]


Ethical Considerations and Professional Responsibility in a Criminal Justice Agency Term Paper

… Ethical Considerations and Professional Responsibility in a Criminal Justice Agency

Owing to the distinguishable contribution of police officers in any given society, a number of professionals working in the field of criminology and sociology have emphasized the significance of comprehending the duties of a police officer. Going by this tradition, the respective analysis challenges the behavioural actions and moral obligations of the police officer. Most importantly, the objective of the respective study is to assess and bring together the present level of information present in the research related to the culture and ethics of police. Paoline (2004) carried out the most recent research in the topic of police culture and highlighted for officers, seven typologies that can be used as a viable support for the…. [read more]

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