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Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… The judge's feature is generally begun at the defendant's first court visit or at a hearing if and when proof exists (Israel et al. 2003).

Five Steps of the Criminal Justice System

Entry into the System

Investigation and Arrest:

In this case discernment is made use of in lots of methods, whether it is to ease pressure of state overcrowding in jails, or the possibility of children getting a policeman that sees more damage in an arrest than a caution. Similar to in the wedding cake model example, everybody has their own views and hence have various responses to discernment. Just the courts, policeman, district attorney could decide to let you of a plea offer or caution if it was your first offence compared with…. [read more]

Criminal Behavior Approaches Term Paper

… It has been observed that people facing these disorders from early years of life are more viable to commit crime in later stages of life. Many of these individuals are more probable to face legal problems in later stages of life. Thus, identifying these individuals and treating them in the best possible manner is form of psychological crime control policies. Therefore, procedures and techniques of crime control policies founded on psychological principles object the individual and try to reorganize or stop criminal behavior from that viewpoint. Some strategies need beneficial involvement, re-skilling, or tutoring is psychological in nature. Any policy intended at inhibiting crime by directing persons such as giving rise to realization, encouraging self-awareness, or classifying persons at danger are also psychological. On the…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory and Policy Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

The Prison Industrial Complex

The national correction-commercial complex is an institution governed by a number of participants who have the power to make certain decisions. The participants are not ordinary individual rather, they are other firms established by the government to work under and part of the criminal justice department. The participants include the federal agencies that work hand in hand with the for-profit corporations besides other professional organizations. These participants carry out their duties within an enclosed network and ensure that the kind of information they hold about the correction-commercial complex remains secured (Kraska & Brent, 2011). The key participants have certain principles that they need to follow in order to ensure that there is no bridging of information…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Leadership Strategies Essay

… In short, it is observed that that the role of maintaining strong community relations in criminal justice is lead through leadership and training of subordinates to provide effective service. Any single point of contact between community including traffic, rescue services, and community policing provides an opportunity for improvement in the system (Hess et al., 2014).


The role of criminal justice organizations in relation to leadership, strategy, and formulation of the normal practices adopted during functioning is elaborated in the sections above. The specific examples for organizational behavior, behavioral theories, planning, and community relations is also discussed in the above sections. It is observed that the leadership of criminal justice organizations also requires formulation of a strategy for achievement of their objectives. The working can…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Essay

… Today, the common form of correction system is prisons. The society has deemed it a necessity to separate criminals from the rest of the society. This means that all criminals are locked up somewhere with the aim of removing them from the rest of the society (Roufa,2010).

These key issues in criminal justice administration can be prioritized. The first issue is law enforcement. The police are very important when it comes to criminal justice administration. This is because without the police then there is no way that criminals would face the criminal justice system since the police are the link. Therefore the police are the first priority because they are needed so that the criminals can be caught and hence face the justice system. The…. [read more]

Sweden's Current Justice System Term Paper

… Sweden's Current Justice System

Overview of the Country: Sweden


Sweden is located in Northern Europe it borders the Baltic Sea the Gulfs of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak and lays between Finland and Norway in a strategic location along the Danish Straits linking the Baltic and north Seas. ("Sweden," 2008, NP)


The geographic composition of Sweden includes 3,218 km of coastline and land that is mostly flat or with gently rolling lowlands, and a small portion of mountains in the west. The climate is mostly temperate in the south with cold, cloudy winters and cool partly cloudy summers and is sub-arctic in the north. Sweden also has a very limited area of arable land, 5.93% with only 0.1% dedicated to permanent crops, 1,150 square…. [read more]

Policy Changes in the Criminal Justice System Research Paper

… Policy Changes in the Criminal Justice System in America

Discuss the changes that can be made to improve three parts of the criminal justice system (Crime Prevention, Sentencing, and the prison experience) QUOTE ALL 10 RESOURCES

The criminal justice system in America which comprises of three stages i.e. crime prevention, sentencing and the prison experience has failed terribly in bringing about the necessary changes to the criminals. This is seen in the high rate of violent crimes which are higher in America than other European countries and thus suggest that the system does not work as desired. The sentencing policies that have been used have not helped either. These have just led to exponential growth of the population of inmates and it has created a…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Systems Comprise of Different Elements Capstone Project

… Criminal justice systems comprise of different elements. Many issues are likely to be raised as problem statements when analyzing criminal justice issues. Usually, the issues relate in one way or the other to ensure common objectives for any criminal justice system. For instance, in trying to address the problem such as "comparison between mentally challenged individuals and the normal offenders" issues relating to the arrest of mentally ill offenders will also arise in case of normal offenders. This illustrates the issue of fairness and justice to all, and at the same time addresses issues related to timeliness in the trial process.

The crime prevention and investigation strategies for mentally ill persons and normal offenders will be the same. In both, for instance, the crime reduction…. [read more]

Criminal Gang Enhancements Term Paper

… Criminal Gang Enhancements in Sentencing



During the time period between the years of 1997 and 1998 legislation was focused on crime and most specifically juvenile crime. The work of Matthews and Ruzicka entitled: "Proposition 21: Juvenile Crime" (2000) published by the Capital Center for Government Law and Policy in a California Initiative Review relates that Proposition 21 had as its aim the amendment of both "the Penal Code and the Welfare and Institution Code" and this was specific to the "procedures used in the treatment of juveniles and adults who commit gang-related felonies." (Matthews & Ruzicka, 2000) According to Matthews and Ruzicka this law would bring about serious changes to the way. Proposition 21 would increase penalties related to street…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Mainly Focuses Essay

… Despite the existence of these assorted challenges, most judicial institutions have managed to forge cordial relations and cooperation towards realization of justice to all criminals in a state or country (Gaines & Miller 2013).

My decision to choose the manager for the interview came about owing to his vast knowledge in matters of enforcement of criminal justice. Administration of justice to criminals must follow due process of the law (Neubauer 2011). Hence, the manager notwithstanding his experience and expertise in this unit is more candid to provide information without apprehension. Under the administration of criminal justice, only personnel with vast knowledge and experience in matters of law and criminal justice have direct consent or permission to comment and even proceed to give sensitive information (Neubauer…. [read more]

Criminal Mind Term Paper

… Criminal Mind: Fact or Fiction

There have been many times through history that the population has experienced the wrath of criminals on their daily lives- whether it be on the news, in a magazine or being pick pocketed in the subway, criminal acts are something that the population as a whole struggle to understand. When scholars discovered that criminals may in fact be different people all together, it begged the question: is there a criminal mind? As scholars grapple with both the "yes" and "no" answer, along the way there have been many research studies and conclusions drawn about the answer; but, only through careful exploration of both sides, are readers and people alike to make their decision on the matter.

"Criminal Minds": Fact or…. [read more]

Criminal Profiling in Solving Violent Crimes Research Paper

… Criminal Profiling in Solving Violent Crimes

There is no dearth of television shows and movies dealing with the criminal justice system featuring actual police and investigative works, the penal system, court room proceedings and other aspects of this important mans of imposing law and order in a civil society. From these features, the public has been made aware of what ensues when crimes are committed from the investigation thereto, processing of suspects, prosecution, all the way to incarceration, release, probation and parole. Of particular interest in the criminal justice system is how violent crimes are solved via criminal profiling or oftentimes referred to as psychological profiling. Criminal profiling is the process of using available information about a crime and crime scene to compose a psychological…. [read more]

Criminal Justice - Crime Prevention Theories Term Paper

… Criminal Justice - Crime Prevention


The Nature of Crime Prevention:

Crime is a human invention that derives from the concept of societal laws; without codified laws, there is no such thing as crime, because crime is simply the violation of those established laws. Crime prevention comprises several specific function, such as police intervention, criminal investigation, apprehension, prosecution, and corrections. Collectively, the various functions of the entire criminal justice system also serves another important role as a deterrence to future criminal conduct.

In principle, crime includes everything from technical violations of misdemeanors and other even less serious levels of penal violation that are actually inconsequential in their effect to the most serious types of crimes that threaten the health, safety, and welfare…. [read more]

System of Inquiry Essay


Police Ethics Codes and the Problem of "Professional Courtesy"

In contemporary American policing, every duly authorized federal, state, or local municipal police agency maintains an official code of professional conduct or "code of ethics" (Peak, 2002; Schmalleger, 2008). Generally, police codes of ethics outline the professional responsibility of professional police officers to adhere to high standards of personal and professional conduct in the performance of their official duties. Additionally, many police codes of ethics also apply to the private conduct of professional police officers in their private lives as well (Peak, 2002; Schmalleger, 2008).

Within contemporary American policing, there is a fundamental problem in connection with the existence of unofficial and unauthorized "codes" of "professional…. [read more]

Penal Practices Essay

… Crime, Aboriginality and the Decolonization of Justice

There are reports of huge levels of sending people to jails in Australia as Blagg (2007) mentions. The people from nationalities originally outside Australia are unjustly treated. Thus are more easily imprisoned than a native would be. There is no clear indication if the native is penalized less only by less time in prison or also if the natives are fined in place of imprisoning them. The Aboriginals and the non-aboriginals have different levels of access to as well as support from the court. Some people say that the intensity of crime varies in the areas they are committed but this should still not result into high level of discrimination, in fact discrimination at all, in the justice…. [read more]

Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… There are however issues concerning the extent to which this strategy should be used and its cost implication in regard to crime prevention strategy. In addition, it is possible that prisons may be reserved specifically for selected people considered dangerous and most likely repeat offenders. It is also possible that there would be a situation where a large number of felons would be incarcerated. Therefore, the effectiveness of incapacitation in reducing crime still remains a controversial issue. In the same line, there have been rigorous studies carried out to examine the effectiveness of this concept and mostly focused on creating models to evaluate its effect on a personal level (Zimring and Hawkins 1995). Nonetheless, the process of evaluation and estimation of the benefits of crime…. [read more]

CJ 205 Juvenile Justice Term Paper

… Juvenile Justice System

Do you believe there is a growing common consensus that juveniles are somehow less culpable for their crimes since they have not been in this world as long as an adult or do you believe that there is growing common consensus that juveniles are just as guilty as an adult when they make a conscious decision to commit a crime? Explain.

From the early stages of the development of criminal justice system in the United States, there has been a distinction between adult justice system and the juvenile justice system. Otherwise, there would be no need to talk about juveniles as a separate category. The issue for a long time was different in practice, juveniles being punished in the same way adults…. [read more]

Criminal Law. A Comprehensive Research Research Paper

… This is done through keeping the criminals sentenced in prison. Neocleous, Mark mentions in his "Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power" that death penalties and banishments serve the same purpose. There are many arguments that capital punishment should not be an option as it sends out the wrong message for humanity but certain criminals are needed to be dealt in that way. (Neocleous Mark, 2004) Rehabilitation is another objective of the criminal law. Rehabilitation aims at transforming the criminal into a member of a society who can contribute to the society. The primary focus is on preventing the crime by making the criminal realize that his conduct was inappropriate.

The victim oriented theory is restitution for punishment. The main aim is to…. [read more]

Policing in Criminal Justice Essay

… Criminal Justice - Policing


Does the exclusionary rule control police misbehavior?

The exclusionary rule controls police misbehavior, but in a manner that is more indirect than direct. Technically, it does not actually control what police officers do; rather, it imposes certain penalties after the fact that are intended to deter future misconduct. The exclusionary rule is powerless to prevent police officers from violating constitutional protections or the established rules of criminal procedure designed to guarantee constitutional rights in any specific instance.

However, by excluding evidence obtained in violation of constitutional protection, the exclusionary rule prevents improperly obtained evidence from being used at trial. In that way, the exclusionary rule provides an incentive for police to comply with established constitutional principles in general,…. [read more]

Activities of the U.S. Criminal Research Paper

… According to a New York Times article, the number of violent and property crimes in the United States had begun to plummet significantly in 2010, with a prevalence in small towns, to what appeared to be "the lowest rate in nearly 40 years" (Oppel, 2011), and this amazed experts who, based on historical lessons, had foreseen that criminality would naturally increase along with the accelerating economic crisis.

Despite this generally positive state of affairs, New York City stood out through its astoundingly proliferating patterns of rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary and larceny cases, while admittedly downgrading to -18,64% in murder cases and -13,19% in motor vehicle theft cases. In fact, whereas a uniformly spread, steady growth rate shared by some types of crime is not…. [read more]

Restorative Justice Research Paper

… This theory is also interested in labeling of people.

An analysis of how this article relates to the labeling g theory

The article shows that both victims and offenders are more satisfied with as compared to courts. This is because it looks at the needs of both the victims and offenders and at the same time the involved community and not just punishing the offender. Victims take an active role whereas the offenders are expected to take responsibility for their actions. According to the labeling theory, criminal behavior is not something innate but involves a process of learning and socializing in groups they are in. It also emphasizes that one's behavior is influenced by labeling meaning that positive labels produce positive behavior while negative labels…. [read more]

Criminal Justice System Research Paper

… Pennsylvania introduced a criminal code which prevented the torture and some other cruel forms of punishment awarded to the criminals, by replacing the corporal punishments with prisons and jails. However these reforms could not last for long as right after the death of William Penn they were reverted back in 1718. The lawmakers however had to face heavy pressure from Quaker group and these reforms were then reinstated in 1880s. The changes in the policies in Pennsylvania had led to a drop in the crime rate. Henry Fielding and Patrick Colquhuom were among the most prominent figures that made significant reforms in the criminal justice system. (Justice to All: The Story of the Pennsylvania State Police, 1920)

The criminal justice system is comprised of three…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Is the Coordination of Putting Term Paper

… Criminal Justice is the coordination of putting into practice and associations exercised by state and local governments which are aimed at sustaining social power, dissuade, controlling misdemeanor and permitting those who disobey laws with illegal punishments. The most important organizations alleged with these tasks are law enforcement, magistrates, defense attorneys and local penitentiaries and jails which govern the process for arrest, charging, arbitration and penalty of those who are found responsible. When giving out blame through the criminal justice method, government must keep inside the outline of laws that defend individual privileges. The chase of criminal justice is like all types of righteousness, justice or progression, basically the chase of an idyllic. All through the history, criminal justice has taken on a lot of unusual…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Substantive vs. Procedural Law Essay

… Criminal Justice

Substantive vs. Procedural Law

Substantive law includes laws that "create, define and regulate legal rights and obligations" whereas procedural law governs and defines rules law enforcement agencies use "to enforce substantive law" (ICMBA, 2007). Examples of substantive law include the rules governing contract law, which determine whether agreements are binding and enforceable (Kubasek, Brennan & Browne, 2006, p. 31). Procedural law tells law enforcement agents and other representatives how to obtain relief for violations of the law when breaches of substantive law occur (Kubasek, Brennan & Browne, 2006, p. 32).

Related to these two concepts according to Kubasek, Brennan & Browne (2006) are substantive and procedural due process; the former requires that laws that "deprive individuals of liberty" or their freedom, or property,…. [read more]

Ethics in the Justice System How We Treat Minorities Versus Whites Research Paper

… Ethics in Justice System-How we treat Minorities vs. The whites.

Ethics in the Justice System- How We Treat Minorities vs. Whites

Ethics or the moral philosophy is the study of right and wrong. The Criminal Justice System is comprised of numerous participants who include police, prosecutors, defense counsel, probation officers and judges (Ohio Commission on Racial Fairness, 1999, p.36). When it comes to the process of procedural fairness, Americans are highly sensitive. The single most important source of popular dissatisfaction with the American legal system is the perception of unfair or unequal treatment (Burke and Leben, 2007, p.4). The public's dissatisfaction with the judicial branch can be alleviated by the judges paying critical attention to the key elements of procedural fairness. They should also be…. [read more]

Bootcamp Programs Term Paper

… Criminal Justice

Bootcamp Programs

For the past two decades significant money and time have been put toward the implementation of prison boot camp programs, sometimes called shock incarceration. Often costing more money per inmate per day, shock incarceration programs hope to save money in the long run by reducing recidivism and prison overcrowding. Mixed reviews in the media have called attention to flaws in these programs, both in their inception and inability to meet their own goals (Burton & Marquart, 1993). However, some programs do seem to work. This study intends to review the available research and data to establish whether prison boot camps are more successful than general incarceration for young adults.

The idea of shock incarceration is to "shock" young, usually first time,…. [read more]

Is Retribution a Useful Form of Punishment in Deterring Criminals? Research Proposal

… Retribution for Criminal Punishment

Every wrongful action is paired with a measure of consequence, and every crime is associated with a form of punishment. This concept is not only historically relevant, but has been ingrained into nearly all corners of human culture. The basic principle of punishment is the intentional infliction of harm in response to what is deemed an act of wrongdoing (Golash, 2005). The fundamental practice of punishment appears to have been in place as a means for justice since the existence of civilization itself. The oldest form of punishment is retribution, which encompasses "an eye for an eye" logic. Retributive punishment is characterized by punishing the perpetrator for their crime at a level that is proportionate to the seriousness and moral severity…. [read more]

U.S. Constitution Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Thesis


The objective of this research is to examine police procedures such as searches, arrest and interrogations, as well as criminal trials and sentencing regulated by the Constitution in the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments. Most of these provisions of these amendments apply to states through the Fourteenth Amendment. The Constitution provides general guidelines or rules that apply to criminal cases. This work will discuss and analyze the rights, due process, protections and safeguards included in these amendments and the impact these amendments have upon today's criminal justice system and criminal prosecution.

Constitutional Amendments that are at focus in this study are those listed and stated as follows:

Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure…. [read more]

Poor Grammar Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… Thus, law enforcement agents may apply unrestricted justice on minorities as the occurrence of minority groups increase rulers' insight of threat and fear of crime. Furthermore, the relationships between legal agents such as police officers and minorities are harsh since police nature support the well-being of the rulers (Chambliss and Seidman, 1971:53).Thus, the decisions of police in order to arrest minorities can be independent of genuine conduct and more reliant upon their subordinate group status such as favoritism based on group individuality (Chambliss and Seidman, 1971:53).

Identification of Different Perspectives of Individual Rights & Public-Order Advocates

The individual rights advocates are those who search to protect individual freedoms within the process of criminal justice. For example, legalize marijuana, ACLU, Anti-death penalty groups, NAACP.

While on…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Juveniles Research Paper

… (Johnson and Tabri, Page 2 -- 3)

People think that juveniles with life sentences would improve their health and their character if the possibility of parole existed to be something for them to work towards while imprisoned. LWOP is another form of death. Others who argue against LWOP for juvenile declare that LWOP diminishes the health of juveniles in many ways, many of which, lead to premature death.

According to Monahon (2009), juveniles are vulnerable because of their size, lack of experience in the system, and lack of peer support groups. Compared to youth in juvenile facilities, juveniles incarcerated in adult prisons are five times more likely to be sexually assaulted, and almost twice as likely to be attacked with a weapon by inmates or…. [read more]

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