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Criminal Justice Trends Essay

… It is also because of the technological advancement in the last decade that public is increasingly getting awareness about the important societal issues. The easy access to Internet has made it really easy for the citizens to be informed regarding the different kinds of criminal justice services provided to them. The facts and figures related to crime and arrest on the national and communal level has made it an easy thing for the people to get information regarding court trials, illegitimate offenders and governmental efforts for the safety of public. However, it is essential to mention here that without the participation of citizens, governmental efforts for public safety cannot be successful. For instance, law enforcement agencies cannot prevent crime if people do not help in…. [read more]

Administrative Law and Due Process Essay

… The revolution that has occurred with regard to interpretation of due process cases has become even more complex with the burgeoning outsourcing of government functions to private entities. The considerations are of both authority and responsibility since the source of any deprivation of constitutional rights must be determined, and as in American Manufacturers Mutual Insurance Company v. Sullivan (1999), issues such as extent and aggravation of harm resulting from the privatization must be considered.

b. Access to agency information is necessary to ensure that the appropriate implementation of policy. In Shapiro v. United States (1948), the Supreme Court upheld the policy that regulated agencies must retain and release upon request to government regulators those records necessary for policy enforcement and protection of the public. Noncompliance…. [read more]

Criminal Law Due Process Research Paper

… It also depends on factors of law that pertains to the rights of the individuals. These factors are used by judges to determine what due processes are required for each case.

Due process protects citizens against abusive actions that can come from government officials in respects to legality of law. The abusive actions can deprivation of rights, such as not making the citizen aware of rights when trying to make an arrest for a crime. It can also be the official making claims without proper evidence to prove guilt beyond reasonable doubt. The fair procedure requirement of due process also works to ensure innocent citizens are not required to answer for crimes they did not do.

The functions of due process in criminal law are…. [read more]

Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior Research Paper

… Broader social structures such as parenting practices, peer groups, education and the overall family structure also play a role (Holmes et al., 2001). Prior research on the relationship between family environment and child behavior illustrates that a child's well being is greatly impacted by a positive and caring parent-child relationship, a stimulating home environment, and consistent disciplinary techniques (Merton, 1968). Studies have shown that children are at a fifty percent greater risk of engaging in criminal acts, if they were neglected or abused (Holmes et al., 2001). This has been one of the most popular arguments as to why children develop antisocial or delinquent behaviors and go on to engage in offender behavior later in life.

Social learning theory has been cited as way to…. [read more]

Criminal Profiling as an Aid Research Paper

… Furthermore, there appears to be a professional bias against profiling, which exists not only among law enforcement professionals, but also among psychiatrists and psychologists. In general, mental health professionals had a negative impression of profiling. "Fewer than half of the forensic mental health professionals felt that either profiling or criminal investigative analysis was reliable, was valid, or had enough scientific support to be admitted into court. Perceptions were especially negative among those who received the version of the survey using the term profiling. These forensic mental health professionals rated profiling to be significantly less reliable and valid than those who were given the term criminal investigative analysis for the same process. These findings support the position that profiling is likely to be viewed more favorably…. [read more]

Criminal Justice System Normally Essay

… The neighborhood police departments are through far from common law enforcement agencies. The underlying state sheriff's departments are normally specialized police department.

Police system within the criminal justice system is normally charged with maintenance of order accompanied by the preventive approach that pertains to policing (Cole & Smith, 2009). They also ensure enforcement of the prevailing departmental vice laws accompanied by the emphasizing on the rest of the offenders. They also ensure society policing that stresses addressing communal problems accompanied by the existing vicinity concerns. Conversely, court is mainly charged with the prosecution and defending of the prevailing populace interest (David, 2008). Moreover, it also acts as custodians of the existing constitution and ought to be mindful of the right of the prevailing accused beneath…. [read more]

Criminal Law Essay

… A judge, who may or may not be appointed by voters, usually determines the sentencing. Crimes warrant different sentences.

Depending on the state, criminal justice sentencing exists for punitive (punishment) purposes, for preventative purposes, or for public safety purposes. In some cases, sentencing is purported to exist for rehabilitative purposes too. The philosophy underlying criminal law is important but not as important as the practical applications of criminal law.

Criminal law is defined in local statutes, state constitutions, and federal legislation. Each of these sources offers important written sources for American criminal law. Lawyers in the United States serve on state bar associations because they need to be thoroughly versed in the laws of their particular jurisdiction. In almost all cases, criminal responsibility is rarely…. [read more]

Due Process, Truth, and the Criminal Justice Term Paper

… Due Process, Truth, And the Criminal Justice System

Due Process is one of the most important founding principles underlying the U.S.

A criminal justice system. It derives from the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution (which applies to federal government action) and has traditionally been applied identically to state actions by the identical provision contained in the Fourteenth Amendment (Schmalleger, 1997). The specific wording that appears in both amendments prohibits the deprivation of "life," "liberty," and "property" by the government without the "due process of law." Due process also requires grand jury indictment, and prohibits double jeopardy and compelled self-incrimination, and therefore, is one of the most influential concepts defining criminal procedure in the enforcement of penal laws in the U.S.

Supreme Court interpretation continually directs…. [read more]

Criminal Gang Enhancements Term Paper

… Criminal Gang Enhancements in Sentencing



During the time period between the years of 1997 and 1998 legislation was focused on crime and most specifically juvenile crime. The work of Matthews and Ruzicka entitled: "Proposition 21: Juvenile Crime" (2000) published by the Capital Center for Government Law and Policy in a California Initiative Review relates that Proposition 21 had as its aim the amendment of both "the Penal Code and the Welfare and Institution Code" and this was specific to the "procedures used in the treatment of juveniles and adults who commit gang-related felonies." (Matthews & Ruzicka, 2000) According to Matthews and Ruzicka this law would bring about serious changes to the way. Proposition 21 would increase penalties related to street…. [read more]

Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… The judge's feature is generally begun at the defendant's first court visit or at a hearing if and when proof exists (Israel et al. 2003).

Five Steps of the Criminal Justice System

Entry into the System

Investigation and Arrest:

In this case discernment is made use of in lots of methods, whether it is to ease pressure of state overcrowding in jails, or the possibility of children getting a policeman that sees more damage in an arrest than a caution. Similar to in the wedding cake model example, everybody has their own views and hence have various responses to discernment. Just the courts, policeman, district attorney could decide to let you of a plea offer or caution if it was your first offence compared with…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Management Research Paper

… It could be anything from a new virus shutting down nuclear test facilities in Europe and the Mideast to individual cases of identity theft onto tracking where felons have hidden their ill-gotten gains. These are all crimes that forensic computer experts are called in to examine as a part of helping convict criminals." (Texas Wesleyan University, 2011)

It is reported that careers in criminal justice include those in the following professional occupational fields: (1) legal field; (2) corrections field; (3) law enforcement field; (4) Inspector or Compliance Officer. (Texas Wesleyan University, 2011)

A Profession in the Legal Field






Political Officeholder


Claim Examiner

Legal Investigator


Compliance and Enforcement Inspector

Corporate Investigator


Title Examiner

Patent Agent

Legislative Assistant

Source:…. [read more]

Criminal Justice: On September 18 Term Paper

… The reason for the suitability of this theory of punishment in this case is the fact that its central precept is that punishment should be in proportion to the harm.

Importance of Code Ethics in the Criminal Justice System:

One of the most essential and fundamental aspects in guiding practices and lessening misconduct by personnel in criminal justice is the importance of code of ethics. Ethics is basically described as moral philosophy, which focuses on examining issues of right and wrong and how people ought to live. The qualities of right and wrong are in turn considered as moral judgments that are assigned to people's conduct and actions. A code of ethics is vital in all criminal justice processes because it provides the professionals in…. [read more]

Criminal Sanctions in America Essay

… This marked the beginning of various reforms marked by passing of various acts aimed at empowering determinate sentencing. The indeterminate sentences that existed were quickly replaced by clear-cut imprisonment terms. "Supervised release" replaced the early releases that were formerly granted through parole and the rehabilitative capacity of offenders was no longer considered in determining the length of sentences (Cassel, 2004). By the end of 1987 the new sentencing system was effective and criminals were no longer eligible for parole and whenever an offender was sent to prison it was mandatory for such an individual to complete at least 85% of their term. The possibility of being released within the remaining 15% of the term also depended on the behavior of the offender (Getty, 2007). The…. [read more]

Criminal Investigation Scenario: Criminal Scene Investigators Term Paper

… Criminal Investigation Scenario:

Criminal scene investigators are usually mandated with the task of actively processing a crime scene in order to collect evidence that would be used in arresting and prosecuting suspects. In this scenario, these investigators were involved in active processing of a crime scene where Clyde Stevens was found lying on the floor unresponsive and pronounced dead from an apparent stabbing. Steven's body was found with a large butcher knife protruding from his back by his neighbor, Mary Ellis. In order to collect enough evidence for the crime, the investigators carried out a search in Ellis' walk-in-closet and the bedroom of her adult son. These efforts resulted in the identification of a blood fingerprint adjacent to a light switch in William's bedroom. Through…. [read more]

Due Process Model and Crime Control Research Paper

… Criminal Justice

Two Models of Criminal Justice II

In the United States there are two competing models of the criminal justice system: the "crime control" model and the "due process" model. These two models were first described by Herbert Packer in the 1960's and while they both seek to maintain a peaceful and orderly society, they approach the idea from two very different points-of-view. The "crime control" model seeks to keep society safe by controlling the existence and proliferation of crime. The emphasis of the "crime control" model is on the speed and efficiency by which the many criminal cases are solved. Packer's other model of the criminal justice system is known as the "due process" model, and takes an entirely different approach to crime.…. [read more]

Criminal Procedure Term Paper

… Criminal Procedure

Since John was in custody, what are the procedural steps the police were required to take once John began to incriminate himself?

According to Siegel (2008), "the Fifth Amendment guarantees people the right to be free from self-incrimination." Therefore, the police officers in this case should have read the Miranda rights to John as provided for under the Fifth Amendment. On being read the Miranda warning, John should have realized that his right to remain silent was protected under the country's constitution. He should also have realized that any self-incriminating statement he made at that point could be used against him in a court of law. In this particular scenario, John is already in police custody and thus the relevance of the Miranda…. [read more]

Due Process and the Significance Term Paper

… 106).

The Uniqueness of Due Process

While Due Process had its inception in the Magna Carta, what made it so unique in America was precisely this balance of power between states and central government. When that balance of power tilted in favor of central government, thanks to the interpretations of the Fourteenth Amendment by successive Courts, the Due Process Clause ceased to be so unique. The history of America stopped being the story of a 13 colonies asserting their independence from a tyrannical crown and became another story of an empire; the states lost whatever power they had. They might resist, but the Civil War illustrated what would happen if they did. It is no surprise that the Fourteenth Amendment came directly on the heels…. [read more]

Is Criminal Behavior Due to Nature and Genetics or Is it Nurtured Through the Environment? Term Paper

… Criminal Behaviour

Chapter I Introduction

Review of Researched Considerations

Chapter III Conclusion


Very simply, the law treats man's conduct as autonomous and willed, not because it is, but because it is desirable to proceed as if it were."

Not So Simple

Has the jury reached a verdict?"

Yes and no, your Honor. Although we, the jury, acknowledge the defendant did commit the crime and deserves a 'guilty' verdict, we find the defendant 'not guilty', as we do not feel he should not be held accountable for his criminal behavior. Due to evidence presented regarding his genetic make-up, along with evidence revealing the defendant experienced a horrendous environment while growing up, we are convinced his actions were beyond his ability to control them.…. [read more]

Criminal Law Foundations Evaluation Essay

… Protection of the privacy needs of the citizens has an adverse effect on the criminal justice and the legal systems. It makes the criminal justice become unable to execute effectively its activities, increasing the likelihood of unidentified crimes. The increase in the crime rates translates its effect to an increase in the cases handled by an adult and juvenile courts. The provision of benefits such as speeding of the trials and having attorneys representing the victims and suspects of the crime often reduces the resources and time required for the success of the whole process; hence, enhanced management of operations in the juvenile and the adult courts (Baron, 2003).


In summary, the fourth, fifth, and the sixth amendments play a role in influencing the…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Justice Policies

Criminal Justice and Policies

M2D1: Applying Due Process and Crime Control

Habert Packer was the core founder of due process model and crime control model that aimed at reducing the alarming rate of crime in America. Crime control model emphasizes more on human freedom and calls for the suppression of crime. The model puts human interest first and encourages efficiency, finality and speed to apprehend any criminal with less effort on human rights. On the other hand, due process model encourages freedom but insists more on reliable data and evidence to support a criminal act for the release of the individual. Unlike the model of crime control, it emphasizes on human rights whenever the person has committed crime (Cole, 2012).

Patriot Act…. [read more]

Criminal Law. A Comprehensive Research Research Paper

… This is done through keeping the criminals sentenced in prison. Neocleous, Mark mentions in his "Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power" that death penalties and banishments serve the same purpose. There are many arguments that capital punishment should not be an option as it sends out the wrong message for humanity but certain criminals are needed to be dealt in that way. (Neocleous Mark, 2004) Rehabilitation is another objective of the criminal law. Rehabilitation aims at transforming the criminal into a member of a society who can contribute to the society. The primary focus is on preventing the crime by making the criminal realize that his conduct was inappropriate.

The victim oriented theory is restitution for punishment. The main aim is to…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Take Home Exam Term Paper

… Certain theories may be more appropriate to discussing and curtailing certain crimes -- for instance, the developmental theory of subcultures seems uniquely appropriate to the drug culture, where by uprooting the organizational structures that financially reward drugs, drug networks can be circumvented. Developmental theories of drug control also stress that while the control of sellers and users through the criminal justice system is necessary, rehabilitating and social procedures must be implemented so addicts receive treatment and the social, contributing causes to drug abuse such as poverty and hopelessness are eliminated or curtailed.

Question 5: Barriers to effective policing have long occurred because of abuses of police authority and corruption within the department that is not adequately supervised by internal affair reviews. But beyond a crisis…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Juvenile Justice Gang Term Paper

… The office of juvenile justice and delinquency prevention should have seminars to train law enforcement officials to forestall the formation of gangs (TheAttorneyStore, 2013). This can significantly eradicate/limit number of gangs involvement in criminal activities. The Office of the Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention should come up with programs that prioritize recruitment of faith-based organizations as well as community members and representatives from community-based organizations to come up with engaging activities for at-risk juveniles. The program should also encourage multiagency collaboration at neighborhood, community and federal level. The program should finally stress the importance of partnering with the private sector. Community businesses stand to flourish when juvenile involvement in gang activities is reduced (TheAttorneyStore, 2013). To counter juvenile hate crime, respective states should come up with…. [read more]

Criminal Offending Essay

… In such a case, the perceived unfairness and failure to accept the unfair sanction nullifies any deterrent effect produced by strong social bonds, and this means, the unfair sanction may have little or no influence on the future behavior of the offender (Leana & Nicole, 2008). For poorly bonded offenders who perceive sanctions to be unfair and accept the accompanying shame, the sanction will be irrelevant or possibly produce a deterrent outcome to future offending. On the other hand, the poorly bonded offender who denies the shame is likely to respond defiantly and engage in future criminal activities, because of unfair and stigmatizing sanctions. Therefore, the outcome of a sanction determines continuity or discontinuity of criminal activity in the future. In addition, defining the sanction…. [read more]

Criminal Investigations Term Paper

… Criminal Investigations:

The process of investigating, reporting, and prosecuting criminal offenses requires both legal and ethical preparations in order for successful prosecution of a case. The need for legal and ethical preparations is fueled by the fact that there is an unbelievable amount of work that needs to be done in relation to the statements, items, evidence, and witnesses before a case is presented in a court of law before a judge or jury. While there are various types of crimes, several ethical aspects must be considered from the start of the case i.e. when an investigator arrives at the crime scene. Ethical considerations are vital to decisions that incorporate force, discretion, and due process that need individuals to make enlightened moral judgments. Actually, the…. [read more]

Rights Accused 1.Fully Essay

… Additionally, the due process of law also prevents illegal interrogations and gives the accused the right to remain silent. The accused also has the right to a pretrial and to be informed of the charges that they are facing. It also gives them the right to a fast and speedy trial. All these rights in the due process of the law mean that the accused cannot be charged without a credible reason and neither can they be denied their freedom without due cause. Additionally, it specifies how the legal process should be conducted to prevent it from being tilted in a direction that favors the prosecution giving them excessive time to collect evidence Nicholaidis, 1989()

Due process also ensures that the accused person gets a…. [read more]

Due Process in the American Legal System Essay

… ¶ … Due Process in the American Legal System

The United States is the country of laws. The country was established in opposition to what was perceived as the lawlessness of the British colonial rule in America. The framers of the Constitution of the United States -- as well as those who added important Amendments later -- worked hard to make sure that the rights of all citizens are protected. It was enshrined in the Constitution that no person, agency, or institution, including the government can violate inalienable rights of any citizens. Even criminal proceedings should follow due process of law. For example, the Fourteenth Amendment states that "No state shall . . . deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process…. [read more]

Law in England Essay

… Attractive, too, is the fact that both new evidence and considerations of law can be presented for Appeals. The Appeals court sounds more attractive in the Civil System. Furthermore, granted the fact that enormous controversy and shortfalls exist with the jury system, the Civil law seems to do better by omitting this institution from its practice. If the Judge is learned, energetic, and alert to the case and its demands as well as scrupulous and integral, the fact that he was loaded with so much responsibility may be advantageous. On the other hand, the fact that so much power is invested in one individual may prove disadvantageous to the system. Finally, the awkwardness and slow moving process of the civil system (taking far longer than…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Administration Taking Into Account Term Paper

… Criminal Justice Administration

Taking into account the fact that criminal justice administrators are faced with right-versus-wrong decisions and must balance the wants and needs of their employees, the politicians and the citizens, this work will describe the ethical decisions-making process that criminal justice administrators engage in when attempting to determine a course of action and will discuss the potential perceptions to the employees, the politicians and the citizens and how this influences the administrator.

Criminal Justice Administration Overview

It is pointed out in the work entitled: "Sentencing Values and Sentencing Structures," published in the Judicial Studies Institute Journal that "In a dissenting opinion in which she disagreed with the Court's analysis, Judge Higgins said: 'The judicial lodestar, whether in difficult questions of interpretation of humanitarian…. [read more]

Law Enforcement Essay

… Such is the case here.

All occupants of vehicles are considered seized under the Fourth Amendment, according to Brendlin v. California (2007, 551). This traffic stop became a bit more problematic when the officers ordered the occupants to show their hands, thus revealing an active suspicion of a possible danger to the officers. The order to show their hands though, would be consistent with the need of officers to ensure a minimal protective posture against harm during routine traffic stops as discussed in Knowles v. Iowa (1998, 525). Given this jurisprudence, it is unlikely that the officer's request would be found unreasonable under the Fourth Amendment.

The question of excessive privacy intrusions during a traffic stop was also examined in Knowles and the justices found…. [read more]

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