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Criminological Theories Criminology Term Paper

… Criminological Theories

Criminology theories have been the subject for great dispute along the years especially due to the continuous need for the discovery of the nature and causes of criminal behavior. To this end, such matters have become objects of analysis for different disciplines such as sociology, psychology or even biological studies. Nonetheless, the controversies and conflicts in theoretical approaches still persist in trying to find both explanations and solutions to crime orientated attitudes in the society.

Despite the multitude of views on the matter, there are some points which give consistency to the argumentations and make their comparison possible. On the one hand, the field of analysis points to one major premise which deals with the human nature. The basic question revolves around the…. [read more]

Criminological Theories Application Essay

… Conflicting moral messages have a potential of disorganizing a cultural system.

Law enforcement agencies have used myriad crime control policies in trying to contain crime in neighborhoods with disorganized cultural systems in New York City. The major challenges that they have faced over time is that offenders change the manner in which they commit crime when new programs are established to counter their activities. In 1969 Bronx experienced rapid increase in indoor crime which primarily took place in the evening hours when people were coming back home from work. In a bid to contain this wave of crime the police intensified sweeps of randomly selected city blocks. Plainclothes police officers meanwhile patrolled the streets. These initiatives help in reducing offenses that were committed during the…. [read more]

Criminological Theory Self-Control Theory vs. Differential Association Research Paper

… Criminological Theory

Self-Control Theory vs. Differential Association Theory

The term 'deviance' is a difficult one to assess objectively. Its implications are of an act, pattern of behavior or psychology which reflects a clear and significant divergence from sociological norms. However, this is a definition that is inherently riddled with philosophical problems. Particularly, it is unclear exactly how these divergences are defined and who is entitled to define them. Yet, it is also typically clear that in cases where criminal behavior, violence or depravity of an extreme nature have occurred, some degree of deviance may be easily identified. This denotes that while there is a cause to define deviance as a way of understanding those divergences which reflect a direct danger to society or civil order,…. [read more]

Criminological Theory and Social Policy Essay

… Criminological Theory and Social Policy

Describe how certain theories are related to how social policies are created

Classical and rational theories of criminology view crime as a 'choice' made by rational human beings. Viewed as such, punishment must be swift and certain, so that potential criminals comprehend that if they act in error, there will be consequences. Crime should be dealt with fairly, regardless of the person's social status, so they understood that the law is fair, and can make an intelligent calculus to see that the pain of punishment is greater than the pleasure of committing a crime. This theory can still be seen in the use of the death penalty, whereby the ultimate penalty is supposed to prevent capital crimes or 'broken window'…. [read more]

Criminological Theory Thesis

… Criminological Theory

The relationship between unemployment and crime is complex and can be discussed at length. Let us instead explore how unemployment might cause or inhibit a criminal behavior; how crime might lead to unemployment; and what third variables might affect both unemployment and crime, thus making their apparent relationship spurious. What theory or theories can help explain this relationship?

On one hand, the link between unemployment and crime may seem obvious -- people who are unemployed are more desperate for money. They lack legitimate means to make a living, thus they seek a life of crime. According to classical criminological theory, the benefits of being a criminal outweigh the benefits of being law-abiding. Additionally, being 'let go' from a job can increase an individual's…. [read more]

Criminological Theory Into Murder Essay

… Criminological Theory Into Murder


An Psychoanalysis of Australian Serial Murderers and their Modus Operandi

This essay attempts to analyze the psychology of serial murderers by concentrating on serial murders committed in Australia during the seventeen year period from 1989 to 2006. After establishing an acceptable definition of what constitutes a serial murder, the essay focuses on data collected and collated by National Homicide Monitoring Program (NHMP) in a research conducted under the aegis of Australian Institute of Criminology and concludes that the nature of serial murders in Australia were not much different from serial murders committed in other countries. Psychological traits of Australian serial murderers and their modus operandi also had much in common with serial murderers worldwide. As these murders attract high voltage…. [read more]

Legalization and Regulation of Prostitution From a Criminological Perspective Term Paper

… Criminological Perspective: Legalization of Prostitution Ecdriesbaugh

Legalization of Prostitution: Criminological Perspective

Existing laws jeopardize the lives of sex workers. Prostitutes go into darker and deeper corners to avoid criminal prosecution, and as a consequence, complicate the outreach worker's efforts to interact with them. Predators know these prostitutes will not report any abusive or violent behavior, and therefore, view the street prostitute as fair game to hunt, rape, mutilate, and kill whenever they have the inkling to do so. Sex workers are particularly vulnerable to sexual assault, but first let us start with the fact that there is nothing good or dignified about prostitution. It is distasteful, somewhat animalistic, demoralizing, and degrading to the human spirit; however, sex work does provide an opportunity for people to…. [read more]

Application of Criminological Theory Research Paper

… Criminological Theory

Adults -- and especially adult educators -- have long been concerned with the miscreant behavior of youth. This concern may stem from the fact that our nation's future rests on the development of its younger individuals -- the idea being that the delinquent of today is the criminal of tomorrow if proper action isn't taken to ensure that any delinquent behaviors and/or antisocial behavior is stopped (Shoemaker). Whatever the reasons are, when juveniles engage in deviant behavior, adults are left asking, why would they do this, and moreover, what do we do now?

As the principal at a school dealing with delinquent or even criminal behavior, questions arise as to the cause of such behavior: is this nature or is it nurture? Is…. [read more]

Conference Theory Term Paper

… Conference

Theories to support conference themes and their application, reflecting updates for more current literature on the theory bases, and synthesizing and evaluating how the practices of public administration today and in the future relate to or integrate with the four or five theory bases.

Some criminological theories attempt to differentiate issues to provide "distinctly different theories of crime for women," questioning whether prevailing themes are applicable to the female offender population (Proctor, 2004, p. 61). Because many of the prevailing theories of crime and criminology evolved within an andro-centric schema, it may be necessary to revise such theories, accommodate for them, or develop new theories. As Fletcher, Shaver, & Moon (1993) put it, "women's experiences in the criminal justice system cannot be fully comprehended…. [read more]

Criminological and Criminal Justice Research Comparative Article Review

… ¶ … Criminological and Criminal Justice Research

Comparative research

Comparative research is a technique in the social sciences that seeks to draw comparisons across different cultures or countries.

What led to its use in criminology?

The comparative methodology is not new to research studies in the social science field. In 1889, E.B. Taylor recognized the profits of comparative research in his presentation to the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain. Nonetheless, with a couple of prominent special cases, his call for comparative studies went unheeded by non-anthropological analysts until the mid-1950s (Bennett, 2009). At that point, scientists in psychology, political science and sociology started utilizing comparative approaches to develop and test theories in their disciplines. Not until the late 1970s and early 1980s did criminologists,…. [read more]

Sociological Theories of Crime Essay

… The weakness of this argument is that it doesn't explain why definitions for illegal actions are more attractive than definitions of legal acts. Where did it start? Is it based on pure ignorance?

Neutralization Theory

The neutralization theory takes the position that criminals actually become non-criminals in their self-image, and then they move back to being criminals. Steven Briggs and Joan Friedman suggest that those committing crimes actually "…fluctuate back and forth between criminal conduct and law-abiding conduct" (Briggs, et al., 2009). David Matza and Gresham Sykes, developers of the neutralization theory, suggest that after committing a crime (and before returning to a law-abiding mode) the criminal that just mugged someone might say, "It's not really my fault -- my dad abused me my whole…. [read more]

Criminological Research Surpasses the Mere Essay

… This helps to generate focus and awareness of current or past issues.

2. Reviewing the literature serves as a big part of the paper because it serves to provide gaps in information, what is current or traditional, and what new information is being researched or investigated. Reviewing acts as the mechanism for inquiry and serves to guide the writer to how they want to pursue the research topic. A good example of this would be: Look for comparable studies that have been performed or articles that discuss the problem or question.

3. Clarify the issue or question, more importantly, identify the goal or purpose of the study. This step not only allows for clarification for the reader, but it also helps to narrow the focus…. [read more]

Psychological Trait Theory in Criminology Research Paper

… Consequently, some psychologists believe that certain personality types or predispositions may be linked to criminal activities and tendencies.

According to the work of Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, a tendency toward criminal behavior is likely to develop because of personality disorders when the emotional development process goes wrong. Personality theorists have tried to examine the effects of personality development on criminal behavior through conducting personality tests to various groups of criminals and non-criminals. These studies have found that some crimes like sexual offenses of violence involving serious deviant acts can be associated with mental illness or disorder.

Psychological Traits and Characteristics:

While psychologists and criminologists alike have developed theories to explain crime and criminal behavior, they have also examined psychological traits and characteristics that describe…. [read more]

Labeling Theory Criminality Essay

… He further asserts that it is the othering of individuals who do not belong to groups which society considers normal, creates a situation wherein people are more likely to behave in criminal ways. There is a lot of logical argument in the perspective that labeling an individual has to do with being not necessarily criminal, but being beyond what the society considers to be normal. . Consider that for many years and in many countries, homosexuality was a criminal offense. People who performed homosexual acts were criminals because they participated in a lifestyle that was not accepted by the social majority.

Criminologists who support the labeling theory of their field believe that by providing those who break the law with labels which are unflattering is…. [read more]

Biological and Psychological Theory of Crime Essay

… Biological and Psychological Theory of Crime


Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) came up with the crime theory that has undergone several testing, retesting, evaluation, writing and rewriting in order to demystify the reasons behind the occurrences of crime. In theorizing, Lombroso argued that most criminals arise as a result of biological throwbacks (Robert, 2010). As such, Lombroso attests to the Darwinism theory, whereby what one generation does gets enhanced in the next generation.

In his studies, Lombroso identifies three different kinds of criminals based on different identification criteria. The first kind represents the criminals-by birth group (atavists) (Robert, 2010). This group carries all the criminals classified as "born criminals." This class represents a criminal group more primitive than the other human types. They represent…. [read more]

Crime Theories Psychological Essay

… Except in situations where the victim was killed for financial gain, rational choice theory cannot account for many violent crimes, mass shootings, or acts of terror.

Rational choice theory is not the only psychological theory of crime, and nor does it need to stand alone. It can be used in conjunction with other theories of crime to provide a better understanding of criminal behavior and how to prevent crime. Personality theories and trait theories can round out the rational choice theory by shedding light on individual differences. Cross-cultural understanding of norms such as attitudes towards authority can also be examined and used within a rational choice framework. Psychosocial theories of criminal behavior ranging from social structure theory to strain and conflict theories can also be…. [read more]

Integrated Theory Sexual Assault Essay

… This theory states that sexual assault is actually an act of violence and sex is only the weapon through which the violence is committed. Susan Brownmiller stated that just the same way that wife battering takes place in the homes and the hands, or other objects can be the weapons used to commit the act, sexual assault is the same Bachman, Paternoster, & Ward, 1992()

Integrated theory of sexual assault

By looking at the three theories that attempt to explain sexual assault above, it can be seen that rape is motivated by several factors. Rape is motivated by some sort of aggression in the men and also by the desire for men to fulfill their own sexual desires. However, these theories fail to acknowledge that…. [read more]

Routine Activity and Trait Theories Research Paper

… Loughner's mother described him as a loner who talked to himself, which are characteristics of schizophrenia's early signs. The suspicions of methamphetamine use and the confessions of marijuana and cocaine use are evidence of self-medication. Additional symptoms of schizophrenia is distorted thinking, such as the act of the mass shooting. Where biochemical changes and alterations in the prefrontal cortex of the brain have been observed in schizophrenic patients (Steinberg, 2012), the diagnosis can link the cause of the crime to the psychosis.

Where psychosis is a factor of schizophrenia, Loughner's mental health was a huge part of his actions. The forcing of him to be medicated is appropriate because harm could come to him or society without treatment, but for him assisting in his own…. [read more]

Criminological Theories Term Paper

… Criminology Theories and THEIR IMPACT on BEHAVIORS

This paper examines two criminology theories and holds them against the current social phenomena of adolescent substance abuse. The writer explores the theories and explains how they relate to the theories.

As mankind continues to study the criminal element, it continues to develop theories that can be applied to criminal behavior. Two well-known criminal theories are labeling and social bonding. In each of these theories there are markers to help explain some of the behavior patterns when it comes to adolescents and substance abuse. It is important to understand how these theories contribute to the problem, so that future attempts can be made to proactively prevent substance abuse.

Labeling Theory

There have been several studies on how the…. [read more]

Theories of Delinquency: Conflict and Labeling Theory Research Paper

… Like conflict theory, Becker suggests that the way that crime itself is defined and the way that criminality is conceptualized is relatively arbitrary and exists to reinforce social norms that serve those in power. Becker's theory differs from conflict theory, however, in that he does not necessarily see economics as the only root of these sources of criminological definition.

Take, for example, so-called juvenile delinquency. Many crimes are considered crimes simply because they are perpetuated by young people, such as staying out late and loitering. The definition of the crime creates the criminal, since for many young people; there may be nowhere else to go but a city block to hang out after school. Labeling teens as delinquents effectively disempowers this social class and stymies…. [read more]

Shoplifting and Social Process Theory Essay

… Offender's in these situations may justify that the victims are offenders also.

To test the theory, the first step would be to research previous studies concerning shoplifting, the hypothesis studied, how the studies were conducted, and the findings of the researchers. By comparing and contrasting the hypothesis, methods, and findings, conclusions can be drawn about what has been studied, the limitations in the studies, findings of the studies, and further research that was recommended. From this literature review, a hypothesis can be developed-based recommendations and findings of previous research and careful analysis of comparison of the previous studies that could possibly build on existing knowledge. The hypothesis would determine the appropriate design.

The next step is to consider the appropriate method of the study based…. [read more]

Theories of Crime Essay

… ¶ … respect to the State of Connecticut's juvenile diversion programs, the best way to ensure that these are producing the desired goal is to determine how such programs impact the tendency toward juvenile delinquent or, in eventuality, adult criminal recidivism. A study on the program would use one diversion program as a pilot, with all individuals entering into this program being part of the experimental group. A control group would be comprised of a set population of individuals entered into traditional juvenile detention settings.

Using a meta-analysis design to assess outcomes, the research study would compare the proclivity amongst members of both the control and experimental group toward criminal behavior and incarceration. It is anticipated that those in the experimental group would be less…. [read more]

Crime Theory in the World Essay

… Mr. Keenan might have been driven to these acts by the need to relieve anger or tension. In terms of the differential association theory, he might also have experienced a particular type of conflict that drove him to his destructive actions.

I am not sure that the neutralization theory or social control theory are as relevant as the others here, since these appear to be more relevant in terms of social interaction. Mr. Keenan worked alone, which implies that those theories assuming individual delinquency rather than delinquency in terms of group norms, would be more applicable.

Studying theories of crime helps the criminologist to obtain a sense of the background and underlying reasons for criminal activity. This in turn can help to fight crime in…. [read more]

Social Control Theory of Juvenile Term Paper

… Rather, the potential weaknesses in Hirschi's theory might be that they fail to account for other factors that might be significant in contributing to the development of the individual in terms of his or her relationship to society. Possible counterexamples to Hirschi's theory would include deviant behavior, juvenile delinquency, and criminality among individuals who exhibit high levels of all of the specific elements of connectedness described by Hirschi. In that regard, one would have to consider the proverbial straight -- A student or "model citizen" who is discovered to be leading a double life as a criminal or who suddenly perpetrates crimes that would have seemed completely out of character and that completely contradict the apparent connectedness of the individual to society and community.

Therefore,…. [read more]

Theories of Criminal Behavior Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Behavior Theories

Theory of Criminal Man: Renowned Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso created theories that have not always been understood, according to professor Mary Gibson (University of New York). Basically Lombrosos' theory altered the role of the criminologist when he theorized that some humans are born criminals, and an individual that would be a potential career criminal would have "a small skull, low forehead, protruding jaw, and jutting ears" (Gibson, 2006, p 29). The fact that crime may well be "rooted… in biological factors" has not been entirely dismissed by modern criminologists, Gibson explains, and this is a theory Lombrosos authored that has changed society's approach to understanding human behavior.

Control Theory: This theory posits that people with weak social bonds are most likely to…. [read more]

Criminology Theories Essay

… Criminology

Identify two criminological theories covered in this course that operate at multiple levels of analysis. Compare and contrast those theories with respect to how well they explain criminality at the different levels. Which theory do you think is more effective at this task? Why?

One of the most meaningful remarks made about criminological theories is that "each theory says something new and/or different about crime. For a theory to make it mark on criminology… it must make a point that other theories have not made previously. Again, theories tend to build upon one another and thus typically are not completely novel. Still each theory tries to carve out its own special niche -- to make the case that previous works were mistaken, omitted a…. [read more]

Criminology Personal Criminological Theory Term Paper

… Criminology

Personal Criminological Theory: How to Explain the Occurrence of Crime, and Why People Commit Crime?

People commit crimes for many reasons; this paper is based on the assumption that people commit crimes because they experience some type of wanting, or have needs that have not been fulfilled whether as a child or as a young adult. While not all children that suffer will grow up into criminals, early sociological and psychological theories suggest children at risk for criminal behavior include those children that do not have their basic needs met when young, and thus turn to deviant behaviors to fulfill some gap they perceive or believe they have mentally or emotionally (although in some cases physical needs must also be addressed) (Ashworth, 2003). These…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory Term Paper

… For example, synthesized theories work to help prevent crime, and to help understand the criminal mind. That alone is a large indication of why they are so important to the study of criminality. The need to understand criminals has been in the minds and hearts of criminologist and police officers for countless years.

Early on, it was difficult to understand why someone performed a specific action, because many of the advances in understanding of the human brain and body that advanced these synthesized theories had not been made yet. That was why, early on, demonic possession was the most popular synthesized theory. Back in 5000 B.C., people didn't have any way of understanding how the human mind worked, much less understanding how the chemicals and…. [read more]

Criminological Theories Philosophical Approaches Essay

… Specifically, social control theory postulates that the reason people do not commit crimes are because of their investments in social institutions and the benefits they receive from being a member of various social and vocational organizations. There is a calculation of benefits and rewards, when deciding whether to lead a law-abiding life or a life of crime. Someone who decides to obey the law has decided that the benefits he or she receives from a legitimate job and social approbation are greater than those derived from criminal activity. In contrast, someone who decides to become a criminal is not receiving any benefits from being a member of legitimate society, and thus instead chooses a criminal path.

The differing views of these philosophies also affect the…. [read more]

Criminology - Theory Understanding Crime Assumptions, Variables Essay

… Criminology - Theory


Assumptions, Variables, and Methodology:

comprehensive theory of crime would probably include elements of the major criminological perspectives and assume only that crime is caused by multiple contributing factors that combine to surpass the individual's existing control mechanisms at a given time. Therefore, biological predisposition, necessity, opportunity, social learning, and social class or position, would all be considered. On the other hand, a modern theory of crime might de-emphasize social strain theories and exclude class conflict theories. In the contemporary United States, class struggle is no longer a likely explanation for most crime, particularly since most violent crimes are committed by perpetrators who share their victims' relative social and economic status in society (Schmalleger, 2007).

The variables considered would include those…. [read more]

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