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Criminology Identify Key Indicators Essay

… This is coupled with reward factors that reinforce criminal behaviors and criminal identities like those of the "hustler," as Copes, Hochstetler & Williams (2008) found in their research.

The varied consequences associated with high levels of criminal propensity are both short- and long-term. Over time, the development of a criminal identity can become practically immutable, which is why it is important to monitor adolescent behavior and intervene when possible, as the adolescent mind grows and changes rapidly. Criminal behavior and propensity can change, too. Life course criminology reveals the key points of interest at different stages of development (Wright, Tibbetts & Daigle, 2008). Biological consequences are not as apparent, but when it is considered that certain brain structures and functions can become solidified after the…. [read more]


Criminology Clearance and Crime Rates Unaffected Term Paper

… Criminology

Clearance and Crime Rates Unaffected by Changes in Detective Work

The FBI Uniform Crime Reports for 2001 indicated that the clearance rate for homicides was 65% (Richardson and Kosa 1). The clearance rates for other types of crimes -- such as assault, theft, or rape -- were all much lower than this. For the uninitiated, clearance rate refers to the rate at which police departments are able to gather sufficient evidence to charge and arrest an individual. Clearance rates are not the same as conviction rates, nor do they necessarily imply a one-to-one correlation with crime rates. Nonetheless, increasing clearance rates is generally perceived to be a good thing, primarily because it means that police are solving a greater number of crimes. The arrested…. [read more]


Treatment vs. Punishment Treatment Concept Research Paper

… In this research, recidivism was the new contact with the criminal justice system after release from the last DHS supervised residential treatment placement (McCollister et al., 2009). The critical was critical in integrating three definitions: new arrest for felony crime, new conviction for felony crime, and incarceration with the Michigan Department of Corrections

According to this research, 1978 persons took part in the experiment. About 83% of the participants were males while the remaining 17% females. The study also focused on the inclusion of 62% of the participants from the white race while other racial groups made-up 38%. According to the findings, there is a continuous reduction or decline in relation to the number of juvenile justice youths released from the treatment aspect. The decline…. [read more]


Prison Overcrowding Is Indeed Ghost Writing

… Mechanisms for early release can help reduce overcrowding in prisons and also facilitate integration and social rehabilitation. Policies and legislations should be put in place to provide for possibilities of early release and parole and the conditions for the former. Early release should be structured in such a manner as to make it a part of the normal process of enforcement of the sentence. Prisoners who wish to apply for parole may be encouraged to do so by the necessary authorities.

There is available empirical data indicating that crowded prisons are stressful and create conditions contrary to any aim at rehabilitation. This has increased efforts of finding ways of reducing the overcrowding. A lot of effort has been directed towards making changes to the design…. [read more]


Criminal Justice for Possible Outcome Essay

… When a practice or program is believed a priori to be effective, it is challenging to obtain resources or support for trails that might dilute experimental effect in the name of science.

"Evidence and Liberty: The Promise of Experimental Criminology," by Lawrence W. Sherman (University of Cambridge, UK). I found this article to be of interest because found the tension between bottom-up and top-down policy guidance fascinating. And from the perspective of the local justice systems, it seems that operational guidance based on the review of experimental evidence would sit better -- giving a feeling of more control and the ability to make decisions for one's own community -- than a generalized policy based on a meta-analysis which, though the approach is empirically robust, would…. [read more]


Several Readings to Discuss 1 General Opinion Issue or Similarity Article Review

… ¶ … universality of the Western interpretation of human rights.

In Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A Quest for Consensus edited by Abdullahi Ahmed an-Naim (1992), the articles are mostly concerned with reworking the notion of human rights in an effort to achieve consensus on a 'new,' 'more universal' (or cosmopolitan) view of human rights, as "the lack or insufficiency of cultural legitimacy of human rights standards is one of the main underlying causes of violations of those standards" (1992, p. 19). Subsequently recognizing the fact that the prominent view of human rights is a Western one, an-Naim points out that, over the course of history, groups in power (or dominant classes within a society) typically uphold views and perspectives of cultural values and norms…. [read more]


Rosa Lee of All the Individuals Examined Term Paper

… Rosa Lee

Of all the individuals examined in Leon Dash's Rosa Lee: a Mother and Her Family in Urban America, Patty is perhaps the most difficult case in terms of treatment and recovery from her drug problem. More than any other single factor, Patty's environment, both in her adulthood and in her childhood, has contributed to her drug dependency. The bond between Rosa Lee and her daughter is so strong that it has resulted in them choosing similar life paths. Dash repeated relays the idea that Patty's single most important goal throughout her childhood was to be like her mother. Rosa states, "She was just doing what she had seen me do and wanted to imitate me. She's been like that her whole life," (Dash…. [read more]


Convicted Felons Return to the Community Research Paper

… Convicted Felons Return to the Community

Deviance is both a sociological and psychological component of the human organism that expresses itself in numerous ways at numerous times. Further, if we look back at the way philosophers have defined abnormality and deviance, from Plato through Kant and into the 20th century, we find that there are really three classifications of abnormality and within these three classifications a variance on a continuum of low to high:

Perceived harmfulness -- usually to society as a whole (Plato) or to the actualization of the individual (Kant).

The degree of social consensus about whether the action is abnormal or deviant; what real harm is done? Is this utilitarian -- the most harm to the most people qualifies as the most…. [read more]


Gun Violence in Australia Case Study

… This brings the focus to whether the national level of government should get involved. The local jurisdictions under federalism are obligated to handle their own affairs and therefore the court rulings will delegate the penalty should a suspected violator indeed violate the jurisdictional law regarding gun possession.

Lawson provides an account regarding the National Committee on Violence (NCV) findings on the correlation between the level of violence in society and the level of poverty and lack of education in the population. Therefore, Lawson points to indigenous and destitute populations or those struggling with unemployment, and with a lack of education or reading of violent rhetoric as the driver of violence in society.

According to Lawson (1999), in the aftermath of public shooting violence during the…. [read more]


Arguments for Racial Profiling Thesis

… Racial Profiling

Rodriguez argues that racial profiling at the U.S. borders unfairly targets people of color and is used by politicians to exploit whites' fears. It is not that these arguments are entirely without merit, but Rodriguez misses some key points about racial profiling, in particular at the U.S.'s borders. His claims stem from a deep-rooted philosophical dispute with the way in which the modern world works. A more pragmatic view of racial profiling recognizes the value it serves as a law enforcement tool. Law enforcement agencies utilize racial profiling to help identify the most likely suspects, improving the protection of American citizens against a wide range of crimes. While the ethics of racial profiling can be endlessly debated, the outcomes cannot. Racial profiling, when…. [read more]


Strategic Analysis NYC Parole Department Capstone Project

… According to Singh (2010) the discretionary powers of the parole board and judiciary should be brought in line with a framework to minimize the threats of misuse. The systems should be transparent and provide adequate support for willing prisoners. The technical requirements of the parole system should be simplified in order to achieve maximum results. The prisoners should be communicated regarding the benefits of system and required obligations. A strategic approach to create a disciplinary motive can be incorporated through the approach to grant parole release. At the same time it is also required that technical violations of the system should be treated through training and awareness of technical obligations rather than sending back to prison. The purpose of technical obligations should be aligned with…. [read more]


Future Role of the Juvenile Term Paper

… This shift in focus is largely due to a popular view of a juvenile justice system that coddles the young offender" (1998, p. 372). Certainly, no lawmaker wants to be perceived as being "soft on crime," and if the general public perceives a threat from young offenders, then laws must be changed in response.

This "get-tough-on-juvenile-crime" movement came during a period when growing numbers of youthful offenders were becoming involved with the juvenile justice system each year. These trends were also occurring during a period when the juvenile justice system had fewer supports to work with, including community-based resources designed specifically for children and families (Brookins & Hirsch, 2004). According to Brookins and Hirsch, "During the last decade of the 20th century, juvenile violence spread…. [read more]


Anti Terrorism Measures Effective Essay

… These vehicles may be parked near buildings, in garage parking, or near a potential target These and other situational factors must be considered in any anti-terrorist plan. They also should be filtered through the considered judgment and interpretation of security personnel. Of course, to the extent practical, people should be made aware of these factors. Indeed, it is well advised to train employees, particularly security personnel, to be cognizant of these factors. Going beyond awareness, relevant policies and procedures in how to react to these indicators are crucial to an effective anti-terrorism response. Obviously, this is easier said than done. However, short of direct intelligence or mind-reading abilities, these are the best security practices available to date. Above all, it is important to maintain vigilance…. [read more]


Police Reform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil Thesis

… 2) This particular research will also be of immense help for policy formulators in metropolitan police departments and in police departments of small vicinities, in making effectual judgment regarding relevant development.

3) The material along with the conclusion of this particular study will certainly enhance and modernize the methodologies of the investigations linked to job performance and challenges related to police development in Brazil.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Section 1: Police and Crime in Brazil

Since the last ten years the focus of the Brazilian establishment concerning the protection of the civil society has been on the conglomeration out of three immense spectrums: (a) the police department, essential constituent of numerous problems and possibly the recurrent performer in every region of urban space; (b) violent…. [read more]


Elder Abuse Phenomenon Correlating Relationship to Elder Mortality Term Paper

… Elder Abuse Phenomenon Correlating Relationship to Elder Mortality

Elder abuse has received increased scrutiny from the law enforcement and healthcare community in recent years. This increased attention is due in part to the increasing number of elderly in the United States and the passage of various laws designed to improve the reporting of such episodes of abuse as well as the prosecution of those who abuse the elderly. Unfortunately, elder abuse is particularly difficult to detect in some cases and studies have shown time and again that many elderly people are highly reluctant to admit to such abuse for fear of reprisals from the abuser or the possibility of being institutionalized if existing domestic living arrangements are disrupted. The purpose of this study was to…. [read more]


Juveniles and Reduced Recidivism Research Proposal

… Reducing Recidivism Among Juveniles

Research topic and its importance

This study focuses on modern juveniles, aka court-referred youth, within the justice system. An individual who engages in illegal or proscribed activities, banned by federal, state, and/or local codes, is defined as a juvenile delinquent (Granville, 2007). The matrix of authorities involved in the juvenile correction system include the Department of Juvenile Corrections, the police, probation, prosecutor, court, and detention (Nissen, 2006). From a historical perspective, the intent of the juvenile justice system has been to prefer rehabilitation vs. punitive measures such as incarceration (Granville, 2007). This general consensus is founded upon the premise that juvenile offenders, as individuals lacking adult cognitive development and understanding, are not wholly responsible for their illegal actions (Binder, 1988).

B.…. [read more]


School Shootings by Adults Term Paper

… Most of members attending this conference were school staff members who had personally experienced the school shootings. In this five days period, the participants discussed together around 18 school shooting incidents.

Several findings were concluded by FBI experts in this conference; the most surprising from which was that profiling the cases is not the right method for controlling school shootings. The experts were not able to make clear agreement on the point that associating some set of characteristics to the attackers can provide any help in preventing these schools. Indeed, the experts were of the view that drawing a checklist to detect the shooters can be dangerous. This is because such characteristics will unfairly label some innocent students as violent.

Therefore, instead of making such…. [read more]


Budget and the Criminal Justice System Essay

… The United States is experiencing financial instability and an ongoing recession that has crippled the ability of the government to fund new policy changes. For policy changes to take place, they must keep in mind the need to budget and provide policy changes as the cheaper option. This is how the gap between criminal justice research and policy development can be closed.
While it may take great effort to implement successful changes brought on by research findings, criminal justice research can play a key role in how people within the American criminal justice system protect and serve the public. The ongoing issue of overcrowding has seen the American prison system shift in policy development because of the increased expenses of more prisoners. This will hopefully…. [read more]


Social Welfare State and Juvenile Research Proposal

… ¶ … Social Welfare State and Juvenile Crimes

Youth Offenders and Social Welfare: An Evaluation of the Relationship between the Social Welfare State and Juvenile Crimes

Despite some reductions in various types of juvenile crime during the late 1990s and early 2000s, the problem of youthful crime has once again resurfaced as a national priority. When something is made a priority, though, it is by definition supposed to get better, but this has not been the case with youth offenders and the lower socioeconomic background that characterizes the lives of the majority of them. According to Everett and Chadwell (2009), U.S. Department of Justice statistics indicate that juvenile crime remains a national social problem in the United States today. In fact, Everett and Chadwell report…. [read more]


Community Safety and Crime Reduction Essay

… This could have a reassuring component on members of the public. With the increased utilization of public spaces as a result of increased public confidence, crime rates are more likely than not to decrease as criminals avoid crowded areas for fear of apprehension. Thus in my opinion, the installation of CCTV cameras in areas that were previously regarded criminal dens could help redeem the image of such areas by bringing down crime rates. Closely related to this, it can also be noted that visible CCTV cameras could also induce members of the public to basic precautions in an attempt to enhance their safety. For instance, it would be highly unlikely for an individual to scout for an isolated spot to answer a call of nature…. [read more]


Criminal Psycholinguistics as a Predictor Literature Review

… A significant amount of queries were made using a variety of key words and phrases. Further studies were uncovered using the citations listed in the articles since this topic is a very specialized area of forensic science.

Research Analysis

The cases were read and summarized for the most relevant of ideas pertaining to the question at hand. They were then organized depending upon date as well as from general information to more specific information, so that they may be examined and/or delivered together. Areas for future investigation include assessment of the claim that criminals are melancholy and an investigation into whether or not technology will deem psycholinguistics irrelevant or useless as claimed within that article "Speaking of Crime: The Language of Criminal Justice." Moreover, the…. [read more]


Marketing Plan Aimed at Launching the Biometric Term Paper

… Marketing Plan Aimed at Launching the Biometric Fingerprint Door Lock on the Australian Market

ADEL Group (Shenezen IDEAL Microelectronics Co. Ltd.) was founded in 1993 and defined the profile of its security intelligent products through the following quality principle: "Exquisite design, exquisite manufacture, satisfy needs, shoot for the best." Despite having Chinese origins, ADEL provides its merchandise on an international scale and cooperates with several American companies like: ATMEL, BEL, Dallas Semiconductor Corporation, Veridicom. The company operates in the business environment according to its slogan "Wisdom, Ideal, Perfection" and proves the accuracy of this guiding principle through the 70 state, 8 invention, and 2 international patents it boasts. In what future perspectives are concerned, ADEL's expectancies are very high as the corporation aims at becoming…. [read more]


Correlation Between Juveniles and Crime Research Paper

… ¶ … Juveniles and Crime

The Interaction of Biological and Social Learning Theory as the Cause of Juvenile Delinquency

Although most individuals typically have a concept of conventional moral behavior, the presence of deviant behavior and criminal acts are represented in every society and culture. One concept of crime that has gained increased attention from researchers and media outlets in modern time is the distinction of juvenile delinquency, which refers to criminal acts or offenses performed by children, adolescents, or individuals below the age at which ordinary criminal prosecution is possible. Risk factors such as socioeconomic class, family environment, and peer influence have emerged to highlight the increased probability a youth individual will commit criminal acts. From these risk factors, theories have been developed to…. [read more]


Punishment Program Research Paper

… Once a person is labeled a criminal, society takes away his opportunities, which may ultimately lead to more criminal behavior. To curb such tags for behavior that may not be criminal, the program aims at placing emphasis on what is regarded as criminal without the state coming up with its own definition of crime. Thus, most people are left from becoming labeled as criminals and it only those who are known and proved to have committed a certain crime are tagged as criminals.

Success of the Program

The program is pitted to be a success in any state; in my opinion, it has not undermined the existing mandatory minimum sentences that are in place since this would have created a "soft on crime" impression that…. [read more]


Teacher Perceptions of Student Achievement Based on Student Appearance Research Paper

… Teacher Perceptions of Student Achievement Based on Appearance

Perception is around us at all times; it was integral in our evolutionary behavior from ape to man; it allowed us to make judgments based on values, prior knowledge, and cultural norms. Perception is really two types of consciousness: phenomenal (observable) and psychological. However, the reality is that both types are often subjective. We may observe something and take away a variety of messages that may or may not be correct about the event; or psychologically, we may have such a bundle of preconceptions that we are unable to get past the historical and act on the present and potential. Our cognitive selves, though, have evolved to make these judgments and search for ways to categorize new…. [read more]

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