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Importance of Cross-Cultural Management Chapter

… ¶ … Cross Cultural Management

The concept of cross-cultural management research has often been defined using Hofstede's definition of culture. According to Hofstede, culture is the collective programming of an individual's mind which effectively distinguishes people belonging to a given group or even category from the rest of the people (Hofstede, 1997, p. 5).This definition is based on a comparison between cultures. According to McCracken (1988) culture is used in the determination of the various coordinates of productive activity as well as social actions as well as specifying the behaviors as well as objects that arises from both.

The definition of culture

Culture comprises of values, origins, roles as well as materials that are associated with a particular group of people. The concept of culture…. [read more]

Cross Cultural Age of Globalization Essay

… It however does not provide sufficient feedback or closed loop reporting for any organization to chart their course through the nuances of a culture. The continual learning processes that are by nature repetitive must be completed if an organization is going to learn to adapt to a given culture. Abiding by a series of practices alone, even if they are foundational to a political culture, may provide a basis for a given organization or entity to establish relationships in a given country or region. Yet it is in the internalization of the nuances of a given culture that any organization truly assimilates itself, and in so doing understands the correct measures or metrics of progress. The foundational elements of national political culture is just one…. [read more]

Cross Cultural Management Cross Term Paper

… Cross Cultural Management

Cross-Cultural Management

The article this analysis is based on, Learning to 'Do Time' in Japan a Study of U.S. Interns in Japanese Organizations, presents a theoretical framework for analyzing the impact of U.S.-based interns travelling to Japan to work in corporations there with specific focus on studying how time is perceived differently between their Japanese managers and their U.S. intern counterparts. Tomoko Masumoto 2004. (p. 19) defines the framework as focusing on how the expectations of time itself vary between the two groups, measures the time taken to adapt and become productive, and also defines how space allocation and use of space correlate to the Japanese perception of time. This shared space and socialization aspect of the study presents a culture shock…. [read more]

Cross Cultural Management International Companies Essay

… For instance, upon the launch of the Big Mack (Big Mak in Russia), the clients, unaccustomed to finger food, did not know how to eat the sandwich. One man came to eat it with a spoon, while others took it apart and ate layer by layer (McDonald's Website, 2011). Another cultural barrier encountered was the sense of pride and the general reticence with which the Russians perceived the Westerners. In order to reduce this negative perception, the managerial team at McDonald's implemented two strategies

Donating part of the revenues cashed to charity causes (McDonald's Website) and Collaborating with local providers to get fresh produce but also to produce the food items (Kramer, 2010).

Both of these strategies were aimed at creating a favorable public image…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communication With Increased Competition Essay

… However, this alone cannot guarantee effective communication, but it will allow people to mindfully attempt to understand strangers and the way these strangers are interpreting their messages. In doing so, people can respond in a manner that results in effective communication. Therefore proper control of uncertainty and anxiety provides an avenue for effective communication, though effective communication depends on the conduct of a person in such situation (Gudykunst, 2005).

Self-concepts and AUM

Self-concept is used to refer to a personal views, they comprise of personal identity as well as social identity. Self-esteem of a person can either be positive or negative feeling a person has about himself/herself. According to Gudykunst, (2005) personal identities are the main generative ways for interpersonal behaviour; whereas social identities are…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Management Term Paper

… This is not inherently a bad thing; indeed, most of the time it is a good thing. One of the reasons that we have survived (in evolutionary terms) as a species is that we are the neurological capability of understanding that tigers, lions, and bears all belong to the category of "things that can eat me if I don't run away." Such ability to group experiences together is an essential part of human intelligence.

But it does have its downside: An essential cognitive element of categorization is simplification of the elements of each member of the category, so lions and tigers and bears all become (more or less) "fast things with big teeth" and French engineers become categorized with American engineers as non-Japanese workers.

A…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Differences Risks of Outsourcing Term Paper

… Cross-Cultural Differences (Risks of Outsourcing)

What has played the role of an important foundation in seeking to identify the driving forces behind the success of offshore IS project is the agency theory. As a result, the contribution of relational concepts in leading the project towards success has not been given much attention in text books and literature. Thus, this analysis attempts to deal with the gap by bringing together the literature on culture along with the "social embeddedness" standpoint to relate the reasons and the process of how the relational elements have an impact on the longevity and productivity of offshore information system projects that are quite critical by their nature (Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009).

This paper outlines cultural variations that are both interpersonal…. [read more]

Cross Cultural Management Expectancy Theory Essay

… Cross Cultural Management

Expectancy Theory

The expectancy theory proposes that individuals receive motivation from their conscious expectations.

Individuals are more productive when they are sure that their expectations are realizable.

This theory focuses on the individual's outcomes and not their needs

Employee motivation determines how much the employee wants are rewarded as a valence.

Victor Vroom from the Yale School of Management postulated the expectancy theory in 1964. This theory proposes that individuals receive motivation from their conscious expectations of things that will happen when they do certain things, and these individuals are more productive when they are certain that their expectations are realizable (Malcolm, 2010). Unlike the other theories, this one focuses on the individual's outcomes and not their needs. The theory provides that…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communication in Business Cultural Differences Research Proposal

… Cross-Cultural Communication in Business

Cultural differences have always required a degree of awareness and sensitivity in the business environment; in the age of rapidly increasing globalization, the issue becomes even more important. In conducting business transactions with prospective foreign partners or presenting proposals to investors, awareness of cultural practices and expectations can make the difference between successful and unsuccessful negotiations.

Within modern business management in organizations, the increasing integration of individuals from many different national, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds necessitates a corresponding awareness of various perspectives, norms, and expectations on the part of management and human resources. Whereas the successful effort to accommodate culturally oriented idiosyncrasies as much as possible is conducive to effective operational business management, the failure to do so can undermine even…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Perspectives - Apple's Sweatshop Essay

… 6). But Apple's own audits in 2007 showed that Foxconn had hired "15-year-olds" and had "falsified records" to hide violations (Duhigg, p. 6).

Meanwhile Apple joined the Fair Labor Association (FLA) in 2011; the FLA is a group that monitors factories in the supply chains of affiliated / international companies. The FLA staff conducted 3,000 hours of investigations into conditions in three of Apple's Chinese factories, and surveyed "more than 35,000" Foxconn workers over a 12-month period (Hyatt, 2012). The results of those probes included these findings: a) all three factories exceeded the FLA standard of 60-hour work weeks; b) 64% of employees said "…compensation does not meet their basic needs"; c) overtime pay is determined in "30-minute increments"; which means that if a person…. [read more]

Cross-National Management: Questions Term Paper

… A second challenge is that high levels of employee attrition are likely, given the frustrations back-of-the-house staff may feel at what they see as their unjustly subordinate status. They may feel that it is they who really keep the hotel running, versus the showier positions of the front-of-house staff. Their benefits are likely not as generous as those of the front-of-house staff, and as hourly employees, they may feel justified 'jumping ship' for a few extra dollars offered by a competitor. This is a problem because all employees demand a financial and time investment for the company, regarding training.

A third challenge that will arise is the training itself. At one hotel chain, it was discovered that new hires from the Russian population did not…. [read more]

Concise Analysis of Cross Cultural Management at IKEA Term Paper

… Bringing in external expertise would mean more resources. Whereas the undertaking may be costly, the associated benefits are likely to outweigh the costs.

Management across Cultures Relative to Expatriates

Managing expatriates can be a challenge for HR practitioners in the international setting. It is essential to focus on not only cross-cultural training, but also orientation, performance expectations, motivation, and compensation (Lucas, Lupton & Mathieson, 2006). Expatriates must be equipped with adequate information on what to expect in the foreign environment. They must also have or be aware of important performance aspects, particularly in terms of roles and responsibilities as well as skills, experience, knowledge, competencies, and attitudes (Woods, Barker & Troth, 2012). Most importantly, an appropriate compensation method should be used to ensure expatriates are…. [read more]

Opportunities to Improve the Cross-Cultural SWOT

… 3. There is a lack of coordination and alignment of efforts between Hilton's IT support services and end-users.


1. Growing middle class and upper-middle class consumers in emerging nations, especially China, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia and others all represent potential new customer bases.

2. Innovations in human resource training approaches have created an opportunity to apply these to the company's cultural-awareness and cross-cultural training requirements (Hampel & Hauck, 2004) as well as which languages should receive special focus.


1. Skyrocketing fuel prices are driving airlines ticket prices up, causing many consumers to postpone or cancel international travel plans (Seymour, 2010).

2. Ongoing threats of international terrorism continue to plague the aviation as well as the travel and tourism industries (Moss, Ryan…. [read more]

Global Business and Managing Across Cultures Essay

… In the communication conflict is one party drops in the defensive behavior the other party is likely to respond in the same way and the real essence of communication is then achieved. In this way mutual communication is created and problem is then defined in the more realistic terms. Thus, the solution to the problem then can be achieved through understanding, using creative alternatives and producing intelligent results. No matter how much complex is the problem and situation if it's well communicated and understood among the parties involved it can be solved in the best possible time with minimum possible resources being waste.

Expatriate management

Organizations dealing in global businesses have to make up the management policies especially the Human resource policy for skill development…. [read more]

Management Style Term Paper

… Feminine styles of management have been called "social-expressive," meaning that personal attention is given to employees and a positive working environment is created. In contrast, the masculine management style is described as instrumental and instruction giving.

Management cultures have clearly changed over time. In the 1960s, great value was placed on narrow expertise, on mastering prescribed skills and on conforming to the corporate norm. There was no requirement for integrating an employee's workplace and private-sphere responsibilities (Claes, 1999).

In today's organizations, hierarchies have given way to less formal structures. The economy is more diverse, innovation and fast information exchange are the focus, and great value is placed on breadth of vision, as well as on the ability of managers and employees to think creatively. Top-down…. [read more]

Cross Cultural Business Essay

… , "Long-term vs. short-term orientation refers to the extent to which a culture programs its members to accept delayed gratification of their material, social, and emotional needs. Hofstede's research shows country scores on a Long-term Orientation Index (LTO) for 23 countries. East Asian countries (China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea) scored highest." (p. 4)


The determination of price is not necessarily culturally-loaded so much as it is determined by the cost of production and the market demand for a given product. Learning how to accommodate local price demands will be largely a function of coming to understand the dynamics of a new set of local and national economies.


Promotion is a dimension of marketing that is highly culturally dependent. One bit…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Management Relativism Dimension and Applications Research Proposal

… Cross-Cultural Management Relativism

Global business and the growth of multinational organizations has created in the modern era many obstacles and opportunities that are related to difference and commonalities. The way that a different culture communicates, organizes, produces and overall does business can be very different from one culture to the next and though culture is not innate but learned these intricate and sometimes conflicting ideologies will have a great deal of affect on how a multi-national manager and those he is supposed to manage interact and come together to produce a desired outcome. (Hofstede, 2005, 4)

The multinational manager must ultimately transverse through all the differences with a fair minded sense of difference rather than conflict and create a mutual standard that gets the job…. [read more]

Role of Communication in Cross Term Paper

… Instead the cross cultural communication is fostered through the promising vocalization with due emphasis on encouragement, affirmation, acknowledgement and phrasing requests clearly or advancing opinions thoughtfully. The effective cross cultural communication depends upon the elasticity, malleability and liberalism. The awareness, acceptance and dealing with cross cultural differences results in the overcoming the cultural barriers that give rise to the better modes of communication, mutual trust and creative thinking. An efficient manager finds out enough scope for the individuals to take some risks and explore the projects that don't require harmonization with others. Such actions encourage the employees with a strong individualist twist to attract attention to more significant matters like policies or procedures that don't work. The time conscious managers may visualize the people whose…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Negotiation Management Research Proposal

… Crosscultural Negotiation

Crosscultural Organizational Conflict: A Case Study

The improvement of communication technologies, the proliferation of high-speed internet transaction and the inception of free trade priorities into the economic orientation of all industrialized nations has created a condition within which cultures and nations intermingle freely. As this is a relatively new condition, however, many generational and ethnic conditions are coming up against the cultural aspects of this shrinking global village as a great challenge. The offshoot of this reality is that, in an increasingly globalizing economy, we are left with little choice but to embrace a global plurality of cultures and societies. In the commonality of economic interests represented by the integration of cultures, there must also be found a shared ground for cultural exchange.…. [read more]

Cultural Management Starbucks Research Paper

… These cities are multicultural, urban and have significant opportunity for Starbucks to grow. There are many home-grown coffee chains in South Africa as well as independent shops to provide competition. There is political risk, however, in that the current government is perhaps less effective and definitely less inspirational than previous regimes, and the recent death of Nelson Mandela might destabilize the country as well.

Goals & Objectives

There are two major goals for Starbucks to succeed in South Africa. The first is simple market economics -- they want to become the market leader. The second is more complicated. Most African countries are multi-ethnic, and this can pose some challenges. Most foreign retail and fast food companies have very limited presence in Africa. Becoming skilled in…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Negotiation Management Essay

… Cross Cultural Negotiation Management

The contemporaneous business community is evolving at a rapid pace and is as such forcing its collaborators and stakeholders to adapt along. But implementing change is not as easy as presented in the specialized works of university professors and several conflicts arise throughout its implementation. As a result, a new science has evolved and it revolves around studying and proposing solutions to resolving the arising conflicts within the economic entities. An important concept introduced through the study of conflict is that of framing, which basically refers to the interpretation of the conflict from various standpoints. In other words, "each party to a conflict has its own perception and understanding of their agenda, the relevance of various issues, their priorities, and the…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Management Essay

… Mr. Baseball and Multiculturalism

Describe Mr. Selleck's expatriate entry into Japan and his reentry to the U.S.A. How did this global assignment effect his professional career?

Initially, Selleck's character, Jack Elliot, is on the downside of his career, arrogant, and set in his ways. When he is traded to a Japanese Team, the Nagoya Chunichi Dragons, he immediately clashes with his new manager, teammates, and most especially with Japanese culture. Elliot is, indeed, the quintessential "Ugly American," demanding, snobbish, and unwilling to even entertain the thought that anything about another culture might have value.

Finally, everyone has had enough of Elliot's Americanisms, including violence towards his interpreter, and he is suspended. He does a bit of reflecting and realizes it is he who is on…. [read more]

Cross Cultural Social Stratification Essay

… They consider a person's family background, his work, education and other such facets of life to be the key determinants of their social class. In this way, they believe that poverty is not a natural law but it eventually flourishes because people do not put in an effort. In this way, the class stratification provides a platform for individuals to work hard and get the best.

This difference in the outlook of the social class is merely because of the philosophy held by the functionalists. Since they place great importance in the fact that society runs because of its interdependent sectors, the social stratification system is seen to lie on the positive spectrum. The functionalist view of social stratification is put forward by people like…. [read more]

Management Systems for Cross-Border Businesses Sketch Essay

… ¶ … Management Systems for Cross-Border Businesses

Sketch of approach

The scope of the current endeavor is that of assessing the need and applicability of practical management systems in the administration of cross-border business operations. The first step in conducting this assessment is that of introducing the topic, materialized in a twofold direction -- the need for the analysis within the modern day context and the definition of practical management systems.

The second step is represented by the analysis of the available literature, embodied at this level by articles in specialized journals. The journals represent a special means of data collection as they are characterized by two specific features -- they are based on relevant and current data (information contained is often more current than…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Perspectives the Company Essay

… This approach allows for greater consistency in the operations of McDonalds, and keeps its operations within the bounds of U.S. law. However, the approach of following just one code is difficult to reconcile with global operations.

Across Cultures

One of the biggest issues that companies face with international business is corruption, and to be sure this is something that McDonalds deals with, because it operates in so many countries. The approaches to corruption -- and even its definition -- are subject to the whims of the people. In this case, with corruption, there are dramatically different global standards. What may be perceived positively in one country could be perceive negatively in another, especially if there are major cross-cultural differences.

It is important when working across…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Leadership Term Paper

… Cross Cultural Leadership

There is a strong connection between the vision of the organizations and the strategies that they use in order to function in an efficient and efficacious manner. In addition, the organizational vision is connected to the organizational structure. A company's vision reflects its culture, while it is, at the same time supported by it. It is needless to say that the hiring policies and the reward systems are chosen depending on the organizational values. As far as the executive leadership roles and responsibilities are concerned, they are also influenced by the organization's culture.

The alignment of all these elements is not an arbitrary decision, but an element of necessity. The reason for this situation is represented by the need for a coherent…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Issue Cross Cultural Perspective Essay

… Since then, Excelsior has only grown stronger, both in its operations and its profits" (Lewis 2003).

When partnering with Japanese affiliates, Starbucks brought a more American management style to the table. In Japan, there is little argument at board meetings and the focus is on consensus, rather than contention. "Our Starbucks Coffee Japan meetings are much more dynamic -- the U.S. -- based members tend to focus on what the company has done and make concrete suggestions for improvement. The Japanese members talk knowledgeably about the realities we are facing in the market and the long-term" (Starbucks Coffee Japan, n.d.). However, despite these managerial differences, within the training of employees, the Starbucks Company was able to find common connections between its business model and that…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communication and Culture Shock Eckermann, A-K Annotated Bibliography

… Cross-Cultural Communication and Culture Shock

Eckermann, a-K, Dowd, T, Chong, E, Nixon, L, Gray, R & Johnson, S 2006,

Binang Goonj: Bridging Cultures in Aboriginal Health, Churchill Livingstone

Elsevier, Sydney.

The Papadopolous, Tilki and Taylor model of developing cultural competence, pp. 7-23 in Papadopoulos, I (ed) 2006,

Transcultural Health and Social Care: Development of Culturally Competent

Practitioners, Elsevier, London.

Omeri, a. Transcultural nursing: the way to prepare culturally competent practitioners in Australia, pp303-318 in Papadopoulos, I (ed) 2006,

Transcultural Health and Social Care: Development of Culturally Competent

Practitioners, Elsevier, London.


Within chapter five of this text, second edition of Binang Goonj: Bridging Cultures in Aboriginal Health, many questions are immediately brought to the reader's mind. What do the words in the term Culture Shock…. [read more]

What Are the Major Trends in Multicultural Management Both Older and Recent? Term Paper

… Multi-Cultural Management

What are the major trends in multicultural management, both older and recent?

Over the last several years, multicultural management has been increasingly to the forefront. This is because globalization and technology are bringing the world closer together. While at the same time, having a workforce from different backgrounds can help an organization effectively reach out to cliental. (Kelly, 2009) to fully understand what is taking place, there will be a focus on: analyzing the field, examining research on the topic and future directions. Together, these different elements will highlight current and future trends in multicultural management. (Kelly, 2009)

Analysis of the Field

To fully understand what is happening requires looking at the field and how this is influencing hiring, evaluation and promotion strategies.…. [read more]

Cultural Diversity in Workplace Master Level Term Paper

… Cultural Diversity in Workplace

With the concept of globalization continuously rising, various industries nowadays are adapting with the idea of having cultural diversity in the workplace. As organizations are becoming a little less competitive as the globalization becomes the trend, majority of the team-management came up with a viable alternative in organizational development.

Team playing and/or working is an idea, which has penetrated most businesses during the 90's (Mattson, 1998). Groups and teams are powerful ways to organize people around each corporate performance goals (Katzenbach et al., 1993).

Each organizational member's contribution will never match the combined performance in a real team. Usually, the need to form a team arises from the need either to get things done more efficiently, using lesser time and effort…. [read more]

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