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Cross-Sectional Study to Determine Factors Term Paper

… South Africa is being chosen because the scarcity of physicians in some parts of the country means that nurses receive extensive medical training because there may be times when they are the only medically trained person within hundreds of miles. Hasina Subedar, head of the South African Nursing Council, states, "The pitch is 'pack your bag', we'll do the rest. As long as the nurse agrees to work in an American hospital for two years, everything else from green cards for the entire family to airline tickets to apartments are taken care of" (CBS News, January 17, 2003).

One option which has been overlooked by many during this period of "healthcare hysteria" is the cadre of skilled, intelligent and available licensed practical nurses. These nurses…. [read more]

Nurses Will Continue to Wrestle Essay

… This approach helps to improve the accuracy of the findings by allowing actuaries to see the impact of specific theories on everyone. (Kalisch, 2011, pp. 82 -- 88)

The results of the study are that the majority of respondents felt that long hours and the lack of teamwork made the situation worse at a facility. Those organizations that focused on these areas through the teamwork approach were able to improve: communication, mutual respect, collaboration and reduce the workload on everyone. Over the course of time, this helped to decrease the total number of errors inside a facility by having higher staff to patient ratios. Evidence of this can be seen with the rakings of importance from respondents in the below table. (Kalisch, 2011, pp. 82…. [read more]

Dentistry Essay

… Dentistry

What factors would you take into account, when examining a patient for the first time, in order to assess their level of susceptibility to periodontal disease?

Non- Modifiable Risk Factors



Socioeconomic Status (SES)


Modifiable Risk Factors


Diabetes Mellitus

Initial Examination

Prediction of Future Periodontal Problems

Steps to Treating Periodontal Disease

Periodontal diseases are serious bacterial infections that destroy attachment fibers and supporting bone that hold teeth in place in the mouth. Approximately fifteen percent of adults between 21-50 and thirty percent of adults over age fifty have this disease (Peterson, 2008). A risk factor is an environmental contact, facet of behavior, or an innate characteristic which is associated with a disease. The association may or may not be causal, though…. [read more]

Population Article Critique

… Children with normal hearing (NH) were recruited from databases of past research participants, fliers in community centers and child care centers, advertisements in newsletters, and word of mouth. (165)

Conclusions criteria were exhaustive: (a) permanent bilateral hearing loss of any type (sensorineural, mixed, conductive); (b) better ear pure-tone average (PTA) (500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, and 4000 Hz) between 25 dB HL and 75 dB HL; (c) entry ages between 0;6 and 6;11; (d) no known significant sensory or developmental disorders; and (e) at least one primary caregiver who speaks English in the home.

The statistical method too was appropriate. Linear regression analyses whether a positive or negative significance between the two variables is and an accelerated longitudinal design was used in order to…. [read more]

Obesity Among Adolescent Girls in Saudi Arabia Essay

… Adolescent Obesity in Saudi Arabia

Obesity in Saudi Adolescent Girls

Obesity is a serious health problem in any population, but it is of special concern in younger individuals. The longer a person is obese, the longer that person has potentially to suffer the negative health consequences of being overweight or obese. Thus when children or adolescents are obese, this condition must be considered seriously both by the individuals themselves (as well as by their families) and by health professionals. Given that obesity increases the health costs associated with treating an individual, the concern should be one that affects an even wider audience, that of public health officials,

One of the costs that every national government must contend with in the twenty-first century is that of…. [read more]

City of Alexandria -- Time Research Paper

… 13

Visual Representation of Indicator #4

FY 2011 Income Limits Summary

Income Limits

FY 2011 Income Limit Area

Median Income

FY 2011 Income Limit Category

1 Person

2 Person

3 Person

4 Person

5 Person

6 Person

Alexandria city


Very Low (50%) Income Limits







Extremely Low (30%)









Low (80%)









FY 2012 Fair Market Rents Summary - Alexandria city, Virginia


1 Bedroom

2 Bedrooms

3 Bedrooms

4 Bedrooms

Proposed FY2012 FMRs






Alexandria City, Virginia


% Change






1 Bedroom

2 Bedrooms

3 Bedrooms

4 Bedrooms

Indicator Reponse #5 - Representing…. [read more]

Change This Study Analyzes Outsourcing Dissertation

… There are a number of forms of outsourcing. The important forms of outsourcing are information technology outsourcing (ITO), business process outsourcing (BPO) and human resources outsourcing (HRO). The concept of outsourcing reveals a number of research steams. The idea of outsourcing is still unchanged due to scientific diversity. Basically outsourcing and mainly offshore outsourcing are known as noticeable strategies (Harland et al., 2005; Jahns et al., 2006; see also Paju, 2007). Idea of outsourcing makes cause of discrepancy between the researcher and practitioner. Primarily, the scholars (Domberger, 1998; Kern et al., 2002; Ring and Van De Ven, 1992) observe that outsourcing is a development and natural continuation to Williamson's (1975, 1979, and 1981) researches and others who work on contract and the transaction cost economics.…. [read more]

Huge Cancer Epidemiology Huge Study Term Paper

… When reported, the adjusted effect estimate was included in the analysis in preference to the unadjusted one. If odds ratios were not reported, we computed unadjusted odds ratios from the data presented. Analyses were conducted by using Stata statistical software, release 7.0 (189). Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q test, with a fixed-effects model used if p ? 0.1 and a random-effects model used if p < 0.1. The I2 statistic was also calculated as a measure of consistency between studies (190). Except for the association between breast cancer and the 3801T-C polymorphism, the estimates of effect in the first published study were similar to those for the cumulative meta-analyses.

Study characteristics

Four studies took place in Japan, two in Taiwan, six in the United…. [read more]

Asymmetrical Relationship: Unidirectional Relationships, Thesis

… asymmetrical relationship: unidirectional relationships, or relationships that cannot be reversed without changing their meaning, such as hierarchical relationships.

causation: the influence/instigation of one event by the effects of a prior event, as distinct from correlation (the co-occurrence of events not necessarily linked by causation).

control group: group of subjects in a study where the variable being tested is not manipulated by the researchers or experimental design

cross-sectional study: the measurement and analysis of a number of variables in a defined population at a given point in time

5.experiment: a practical method of determining the validity of a hypothesis, and/or to determine causation in observed occurrences.

6.exploratory study: research undertaken without any prior theory, framework, or extensive knowledge of the phenomenon being studied.

7.longitudinal study: the…. [read more]

Epidemiological Study Designs Thesis

… Epidemiological Study Designs

When doing an epidemiological study there are specific designs that are most commonly used. Cohort studies are done by looking at a healthy group of people and then following them to see if they develop a particular disease over time (Goodman, Buehler, & Koplan, 1990). This helps provide information about both the progression and the onset of a disease. It is a prospective study which can only prevent bias if the study subjects and the researchers neither one have any idea who will get the disease or the odds of each person getting the disease. Studies like this can be very expensive, though, because some people have to be followed for many years to determine when and if they will contract a…. [read more]

Implementation of Electronic Medical Records in Healthcare Case Study

… ¶ … Electronic Medical Records in Healthcare

In the implementation of an electronic medical records system, a team must be designed and delegated with the task of guiding the implementation of the project. The team should comprise of representatives of each department in the organization in order to reduce their resistance to the change and also to create a two-way communication channel with other members of the organization. The team will also be charged with the responsibility of developing a strategic plan for the implementation which should be in line with the goals and objectives of the organization as well as its stated mission, vision and values. A phased approach was chosen for implementation in the organization in the case study and is also deemed…. [read more]

Ethical Leadership Describe Each Study Article Critique

… Ethical Leadership

Describe Each Study

There are some articles that deal with organizational ethical values and the leadership values. These articles are based on research and studies conducted in different areas of the world to find if there is a role of ethical leadership in productivity of organizations. There are many other positive effects of implementing organizational and leadership ethics in a corporation. Following is a brief analysis of each of the five given articles to find what each article studies and what did it find.

The Influence of Supervisory Behavioral Integrity on Intent to Comply with Organizational Ethical Standards and Organizational Commitment

Janie Harden Fritz, Naomi Bell O'Neil, Ann Marie Popp, Cory Williams, Ronald C. Arnett

The research problem, questions, or hypotheses: The research…. [read more]

Nursing I Include Notes and Tips Methodology Chapter

… Nursing

I include notes & tips at the end but just a few pointers to get you started:

Always use the insert header (different first page) option to correctly format your paper

The things struck out in blue are your original phrase- I reworked things in red so you could see the original and the rewrite and decide which you liked better.

I know it looks a little overwhelming but really your content was pretty good it was just phrasing and some unnecessary repetition I scored out.

The demands for cost-savings and improved efficient in health care ( exacerbated by the nursing shortage and graying of the workforce) have created greater reliance on computer information systems to deliver quality health care efficiently.

As such, online…. [read more]

Willingness of Nurse to Report Medication Administration Errors in Southern Taiwan a Cross Sectional Survey Article Critique

… authors, Y.H. Lin and S.M. Ma (2009), selected the title, "Willingness of nurses to report medication administration errors in southern Taiwan. A cross-Sectional survey," which was considered to be a concise and descriptive title for this study.

The authors also present a solid and concise description of their study following traditional guidelines for this purpose, including a description of the study sample, the research purpose and a summary of their findings. For instance, the authors preface their abstract by providing a background of the problem. In this regard, Lin and Ma (2009) report that medication administering errors (MAEs) represent an ongoing threat to the quality of delivered nursing services, but the causes of such errors are multifaceted and differ from individual to individual as well…. [read more]

Tackling Health Disparities in Relation to Obesity Research Paper

… Reference

Cooper, M. (2012, December 12). Census officials, citing increasing diversity, say U.S. will be a 'plurality nation.' New York Times, p. A20.

Gaskin, D.J., Thorpe, R.J. Jr., McGinty, E.E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J.H. et al. (2013). Disparities in diabetes: The nexus of race, poverty, and place. American Journal of Public Health, published online ahead of print 14 Nov. 2013.

Goldschmidt, A.B., Wilfley, D.E., Paluch, R.A., Roemmich, J.N., & Epstein, L.H. (2013). Indicated prevention of adult obesity: How much weight change is necessary for normalization of weight status in children? Journal of the American Medical Association -- Pediatrics, 167(1), 21-6.

Hearst, M.O., Pasch, K.E., & Laska, M.N. (2012). Urban v. suburban perceptions of the neighborhood food environment as correlates of adolescent food purchasing.…. [read more]

Different Preferences in Learning Between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting Dissertation

… ¶ … Preferences in Learning between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting

The way training is delivered in a corporate environment has a tremendous effect on results. This study investigates the role of culture in the learning styles of adult French and American students enrolled in online training programs at an international university. Using Kolb's learning style inventory, the learning style preferences of respondents in both cultural groups will be classified as divergers, convergers, accommodators, and assimilators, reflecting their general tendencies toward learning environments as conceptualized by Kolb (1985). The assumption is that Americans prefer to learn from action-oriented methods and are more comfortable learning from activities that are not job related, such as role plays and games, than do their French…. [read more]

Dealing Effectively With Organizational Change Research Proposal

… Dealing Effectively With Organizational Change

This study seeks to investigate how effectively individuals deal with organizational change. This literature will show how changes within organizations can be a stressful event that effects the emotions of employees, thus having implications on the degree of support and attitudes towards change when various strategies and tactics are utilized. A sample of 69 respondents; both military and civilian responded to an employee satisfaction / organizational change survey. Participants of this study consisted of 52 active duty military personnel and 17 civilian government employees; all with diverse backgrounds. All 69 personnel are affiliated with two separate Medical Readiness organizations.

Dealing Effectively With Organizational Change


Organizational change is a growing area of importance for modern organizations' strategic development. Effective organizational…. [read more]

Nursing in the Contemporary World Essay

… Cross-sectional research design refers to scientific study of different individuals with similar characteristics at the same time.

Name, define, and explain data collection method.

Cross-sectional research design would adopt survey research procedures or data collection method in order to come up with extensive information on the research question. Survey research method involves interviewing and administration of the questionnaire to the study population. It also applies the use of written surveys to unveil the hidden reasons behind the research question. After administration of the questionnaire or execution of interviews, it is crucial to examine the data and information in order to deduce the trends in relation to the research question. The first advantage of using survey data collection is that it allows for examination of a…. [read more]

Adult Liver Transplantation a Study of the Lived Experience of Patients Waiting Chapter

… Post liver transplant patients how does lifestyle modification such as physical activity compare to sedentary lifestyle affects patient quality of life within 4 months

Overview of Evidence

Search Strategy

Quality of Life in Post Liver Transplant Patient

Quality of Life for Those with Liver Issues

Pivotal Examinations Linked to Physical Activity in Transplant Patients

Physical Activity and Quality of Living

Interventions: Dietary Counseling After Transplantation

Quality of life measures.

Strong point of the Evidence

The purpose of this quality improvement project was to look into post liver transplant patients and to see how does lifestyle modification such as physical activity compare to sedentary lifestyle affects patient quality of life within 4 months. Quality of life has been shown to improve dramatically after liver transplant, as…. [read more]

Group and the Nature Essay

… (Watson, Clark & Stasik, 2011, p.433). The PANAS-X is composed of scales that measure negative emotions including fear and irritability and general positive emotions including activeness, alertness and interest. Additionally, it measures sadness, guilt, hostility, joviality, and self-assurance. Each subject was diagnosed in a structured clinical interview with current DMS-IV diagnoses.

A number of bivariate analyses were conducted to determine any correlations between the DSM-IV diagnoses and responses from the PANAS-X. An inference that can be made from the results of this study is that different emotions interact in a complex way to construct a certain DMS-IV emotional disorder diagnoses. While the study design is very reliable and the authors ensure the inter-reliability of the professionals who make the diagnoses, the ex post facto nature…. [read more]

Harris, M.B. and Franklin Article

… This study fell under the category of quasi-experiment because it utilized a treatment and a comparison group. It also used a pre and post test model. Therefore, this was a pretest posttest nonequivalent group design. This increases generalizability of the results. This study was not a true experiment because it did not randomly assign individuals to groups (because of ethical issues).

16. This study had two limitations that threatened the internal validity of the study. The first threat to the internal validity was that of the selection mortality rate. Four participants dropped out of the comparison group and one dropped out of the treatment group, due to transferring schools. The second threat to internal validity was that of unseen differences between the two groups. The…. [read more]

Proposal Plan Term Paper

… Virginia Legislature

Should the age at when a juvenile can be tried as an adult be lowered from 16 to 14 years old in the state of Virginia?

Currently, the Virginia General Assembly is considering legislation that would reduce the age at which a juvenile can be tried as an adult from 16 years to 14 years old. Lawmakers must tackle the difficult task of balancing the welfare of juvenile offenders with protection of public interests. This research examines the difficulties faced by lawmakers. The following outlines the proposed work plan of the study.

This decision will have a significant impact on a vast number of people. Therefore, a multifaceted approach will be taken in order to make the best decision for everyone involved. It…. [read more]

Nursing Education Level and Patient Outcomes Extant Thesis

… Nursing Education Level & Patient Outcomes

Extant literature on negative patient outcomes in the healthcare industry have closely linked this phenomenon to different factors, among which include staffing adequacy, quality of care given to patients, and reported patient satisfaction to care given them. It is interesting to note, however, that negative patient outcomes could also be linked with the educational level of nurses providing patient care, which actually assumes the position that negative patient outcomes occurs when nurses are not competent enough to provide good "clinical judgment."

This relationship between nursing education level and negative patient outcomes is explored in the study entitled, "Educational levels of hospital nurses and surgical patient mortality" by Linda Aiken et. al. (2003). This article is a good example of…. [read more]

Psychosocial Hazards or Risk Factors Term Paper

… The ERI appears to be the stronger of the two models although the DCM has explanatory value for specific occupations." Further, MacArthur and MacArthur (1999) note that the DCM and the ERI measure independent factors.

2. The Proposed Case Study: Objectives and Hypotheses

As noted previously, there is a current lack of theory about the nature of stress, and a dearth of information on the interaction between stress and health reactions. As such, this research proposal attempts to determine how specific work events lead to health and emotional problems. Further, it attempts to contribute to the theoretical knowledge of how psychosocial stresses can lead to workplace issues.

Given that Calnan et al. suggest that Siegrist and Peter's earned reward imbalance model seems to be "stronger"…. [read more]

Sleep Deprivation the Effects it Has on Adolescent Obesity Research Paper

… Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Adolescent Obesity

The Harvard School of Public Health reports that "dozens of studies spanning five continents have looked at the link between sleep duration and obesity in children." (2013, p.1) Key to maintaining good health is a good night's rest and while this is widely acknowledged researchers are demonstrating that individuals who get too little sleep are at a higher risk for gaining weight and obesity than those individuals who sleep seven to eight hours each night.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this study is to examine the issue of adolescent obesity and to determine is sleep deprivation effects adolescents in a manner that results in them having obesity. Obesity among adolescents is growing at an alarming rate.

Research Questions

The…. [read more]

Adolescent Substance Abuse Term Paper

… The evaluation was rated using an interrater agreement assessment, however, the chances of error still exist and these have been considered by this assessment which determined the minimum error for author 1 to be (=0.76) and (=0.78) for author 2. The calculation was designed to incorporate the chances of mistakes made by author. In the final step, both authors discussed their findings and reached to a logical conclusion (Tripodi et al., 2010).

Summing up the entire discussion, the issue of focus was to successfully complete the treatment procedure. To achieve this purpose, treatment made use of qualitative analysis by using factors such as rate of resistance and frequency and degree of drinking. The time period between one month and one year after conclusion of treatment…. [read more]

Nurse-Patient Ratio on Care Quality Research Paper

… Staff Safety

While incident reports may be susceptible to underreporting, the same is probably less true for needle stick injuries since the risk of blood borne disease is on the minds of everyone today. Patrician and colleagues (2011b) examined the same military hospital data and looked at the interaction between NPR and nurse skills mix (RNs vs. LPNs vs. NAs) and the incidence of needle stick injuries. The rate of needle stick injuries was equivalent between the three types of units examined, which were medical-surgical, step-down, and critical care; however, higher NPR (except for step-down units), percentage of RNs, civilian RNs, and night shift was significantly associated with a lower risk of needle stick injury. These findings suggest that NPR is important for staff safety…. [read more]

Modulators of Child Development Outcomes: Annotated Bibliography Essay

… Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 274-91. Using the developmental-ecological model the authors of this study evaluated possible predictors of violence among boys attending fifth and seventh grade in inner-city Chicago schools. Parenting style and poverty were among the many variables examined; however, the variables included in the study explained only a percentage of the violence, which implies the existence of other, unidentified contributors to youth violence. Parenting practices and the concentration of poverty and crime were strong predictors of youth violence. This study highlights other factors, aside from single-parent households, that influence child development outcomes. Both Latino and African-American boys were included in the study, but not girls. The limitations include a small sample size and considerable overlap of contributions from variables.

Bubier, J.L., Drabick, D.A.G., &…. [read more]

Cholesterol & Hypercholesterolemia Treatment Thesis

… Those with abnormal levels (total cholesterol more than 200 mg/dL or HDL less than 40 mg/dL), will go on to have a test called fasting lipid profile (in which the person being tested refrains from eating for 8 to 12 hours, usually overnight, prior to the test) (Anderson et al., 2001). The fasting test will indicate whether or not total cholesterol levels fall within the normal range (between 140 and 200 mg/dL), are moderately high (between 200 and 240 mg/dL), or if they are in the very high range (240 mg/dL or greater) (Anderson et al., 2001). This blood test also reveals the levels of LDL, HDL, and triglycerides; according to guidelines released by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the optimal level for LDL…. [read more]

Fathers Essay

… In the actual performance of the study, the order of mother and father were reversed (the first visit to the laboratory, for instance, was conducted with mother first, whilst the father was the next visitor who preceded); this was done so as to prevent possibilities of an ordering effect.

Another positive factor was the fact that all possible precautions were taken to prevent nervousness occurring on the part of parent and/or child so that the situation remained as relaxed and natural as possible. To illustrate: snacks were provided to relax children, and if stress or discomfort continued, a break was taken until all parties agreed to continue. Parents were also given a task during one of their play periods with the objective of helping to…. [read more]

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