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Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Republic Term Paper

… political unrest and civil strife reappeared constantly. Strong parties developed along conservative and liberal lines; the conservatives favored centralism and participation by the church in government and education, and the liberals supported federalism, anticlericalism, and some measure of social legislation and fiscal reforms. Civil war frequently erupted between the factions. ("Colombia," Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed., 2003)

All of the social and political unrest drives heartfelt and heated personal feeling of right and wrong and good and bad. Like Cuba the heat of the revolutions and civil wars can still be felt in the present generations and this as well as the diverse population of ten feed unrest.

Both nations facing divergent populations, political and social strife and extreme levels of abject poverty still represent…. [read more]

Cultural Distance Essay

… This means it would be less expected to acknowledge a higher organizational culture as McDonalds (Tallman, 2007). In any case, the popular fast food organization devised a workable plan to succeed and survive the Nippon market courtesy of some strategies.

The first issue of the company was that the Japanese social order is well-known for consuming rice throughout the day as a "filling" dish. As a result, McDonald's presented new items made of rice in the business sector, such as Chinese fried rice, curried rice with a fried egg burger and chicken. After the launching of these new items, the organization devised a workable plan to be considered from the Japanese social order (Parvis, 2007). Besides Japan, there is a hoisted feeling of commonality, something…. [read more]

Work Values Cross-Cultural Comparison Research Paper

… 231).

Redding (1993) defined the Chinese concept of guanzi as a network of personality defined bonds that allow business relationships to develop in the societal context. Therefore, it functions as a defining in-group. According to Luo (1997) guanxi "contains implicit mutual obligation, assertion, and understanding, and governs Chinese attitudes toward long-term social and business relationships" (p. 43).

Comparison of U.S. And China

Both china and the U.S. have dedicated significant funds to the development of nanotechnology, as will be explained in detail below. While two countries are investing in nanotechnology for several reasons, one overarching tenet of both approaches falls under the rubric of "economic competitiveness." Thus, the definition Woo-Cumings puts forth in their characterization of industrial policy holds particular significance in its emphasis on…. [read more]

Management Style Term Paper

… Feminine styles of management have been called "social-expressive," meaning that personal attention is given to employees and a positive working environment is created. In contrast, the masculine management style is described as instrumental and instruction giving.

Management cultures have clearly changed over time. In the 1960s, great value was placed on narrow expertise, on mastering prescribed skills and on conforming to the corporate norm. There was no requirement for integrating an employee's workplace and private-sphere responsibilities (Claes, 1999).

In today's organizations, hierarchies have given way to less formal structures. The economy is more diverse, innovation and fast information exchange are the focus, and great value is placed on breadth of vision, as well as on the ability of managers and employees to think creatively. Top-down…. [read more]

Cross Border Marriage Term Paper


The following study will research and examine cross-border marriages in the country of China to mainland Hong Kong, which will be a study of the direction of the migration, flows involving women leaving poorer regions to go to richer ones. This work will specifically examine cases of inter-regime marriages between Hong Kong and mainland China and as well will examine when this trend started and will analyze the cultural, socioeconomic and geopolitical factors that lead to cross-border marriages between local-born Hong Kong men and mainland Chinese women. This work will examine the rationales behind the intermarriage of individuals with very different attributes and as…. [read more]

Counseling People From Other Cultures Term Paper

… 2). Consequently, Latinas tend to drop out of high school at alarming rates, and even when they do remain in school, they do not perform up to their potential. Given the powerful messages they receive at home and the marginalized conditions they endure in school, it is little wonder these young people are placed at a disadvantage. As Vives (2008) emphasizes, "As a result of this harassment, [Latina] students often stay home, cut class, or don't contribute. They can't concentrate on school work and suffer lowered self-esteem and self-confidence" (p. 2). Furthermore, bilingual services are non-existent or poor at many schools and this leads to disillusionment. There is a pervasive negative attitude of school personnel toward non-English languages and the people who speak them. A…. [read more]

Risk Factors Analysis Term Paper

… Internationalization Risk Factor Analysis

Although the multinationalization of corporation began in earnest following the end of World War II, multinational companies were active in Europe from the 14th century and since around the fin de siecle in the United States. Today, though, a growing number of enterprises of all types and sizes have found their markets saturated at home and are seeking expanded business opportunities abroad. This trend, of course, has been fueled by recent innovations in telecommunications and transportation that facilitate such expansions to foreign countries. In their haste to launch a subsidiary in a foreign country, though, some corporate managers may be overlooking some of the fundamental risks that are associated with internationalizing their operations. To gain some fresh insights into the types…. [read more]

Cultural Differences of UK and China Affect Multiple Chapters

… Cultural Differences of UK and China affect Next's Marketing Strategy for the China Market


Cultural Differences of UK and China affect Next's Marketing Strategy for the China Market

This research is based on primary as well as secondary data. The research methodology for the purpose of this research consists of survey of online available various clothing & footwear retailer's practices. Additionally, we conducted a survey through questionnaire attached in the appendix. The participants involved managers and other decision makers of Next Plc. By circulating the questionnaire, we found out that different people have different perceptions about the cultural differences of UK and China pertaining to the Next Plc's marketing strategy. This research also includes different comments of Next Plc Managers and conclusions are based…. [read more]

Cultural Perceptions of Time Term Paper

… The regional or ethnic subsets I will examine are: the Bantu-Kongo of modern Nigeria, the Nguni Zulus of modern South Africa, and the Akan of central and southern modern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern modern Cote d'Ivoire,. Additionally I will discuss other regional affiliations of Africa based on the importance of the issue the history of the particular culture gives testament to.

The Bantu-Kongo region is defined as: "Kongo" refers to a cultural, linguistic, and historical group of people that is descended from a larger body of Bantuspeaking communities who migrated south from the Benue-Cross river region of present-day Nigeria into the equatorial forest of West Central Africa and beyond." (Fu-kiau 1994, 17)

The three factors to be analyzed as foundational to the…. [read more]

Roman Republic Term Paper

… At that time, and throughout the history of the empire, the wealthiest territories and largest cities (except Rome) were in the east, which was and remained a Greek-Hellenistic culture rather than a Latin one. Even then, Octavian-Augustus did not proclaim himself emperor, but merely first citizen and first counsel. Throughout the Early Empire, up to the point when the emperors relocated the capital from Rome, there remained an influential group of conservative aristocrats who looked backward to a restoration of the Republic. Among these were historians like Tacitus and Suetonius, whose portraits of the early emperors could hardly have been less flattering.


In considering the Late Roman Republic, there would be a wide variety of primary and secondary sources from which to choose.…. [read more]

Marketing Analysis for the Olde Distillerie Term Paper

… Marketing Analysis for the Olde Distillerie

The spirits industry the world over has been faced with some tough challenges in recent years as more and more consumers make the switch to wine and beer. The Olde Distillerie has not been immune to these trends either. This company is a small independent Scotch whisky distillery based in Dumfrieshire, South-west Scotland. As a consequence of the stagnant/declining UK market, the company has decided to investigate the sales potential overseas. The purpose of this study is to provide the first stage (secondary data) of a comprehensive research program by identifying one market that can subsequently be explored in greater depth through primary research. The market environment for four potential countries is provided to this end (i.e., Eire the…. [read more]

Roles and Experiences in Cross-Cultural Literature Review

… Roselli & Singer (2010) emphasized the importance of recognizing and understanding differences between China and the West in regard to ethical standards and decision-making. The importance of this lies in the fact that business relations with China are crucial given their prominence in international commerce (Roselli & Singer, 2010). These researchers developed a model for effective cross-cultural decision-making that is made up of five steps including: refining of the problem, the analysis of possible solutions to the problem, the determination of the solution for implementation, taking the most appropriate action, and reflection on the outcomes (Roselli & Singer, 2010). It is further demonstrated by the researchers that cross-cultural ethical reasoning is most effectively taught through classes that emphasize4 participation and the application of ethical theories…. [read more]

Interventionism From the Perspective Case Study

… These studies serve as the foundation for this present analysis.

Other studies have shown that foreign military intervention can easily be conducted even if they are in violation of the United Nations charter and lack authorization of the Security Council (Cassese 1999). This shows that countries can and do act on their own in engaging in interventionism. The motives for doing so are what this study plans to investigate.

A number of Western countries support humanitarian interventionism but they have not yet intervened in Syria. The reality behind humanitarian interventionism is that there are clear political, geopolitical, and economical consequences to every foreign intervention. Intervention is not merely a humanitarian crusade but rather a highly explosive affair that can cripple countries' infrastructures and have global…. [read more]

Racial Ideology of Latinas as Evidenced in Discourse Analysis Literature Review

… Racial ideology of Latinas / Lit. review

Racial Ideology of Latinas in Discourse Analysis

Racial Ideology of Latinas

Latina Discourse -- Fiction and Non-Fiction

In her book Borderlands: The New Mestiza (1999), author Gloria Anzaldua, a self-proclaimed "borderland Chicana," writes about her experiences living on the border between Texas and Mexico. She describes the experience as being challenging and frustrating because of the conflict of the borderland. She refers to this way of living as being a "marginal person," existing in a perpetual state of transition and ambivalence. She expresses the frustration of what it is like to have the steady influence of different cultures while lacking the ability or the security to claim one of those cultures for herself. She infuses her expression with…. [read more]

Ngos and Human Rights Essay

… For example, "L'Association Mauritanienne des Droits de l'Homme (AMDH)" in Mauritania, was mainly composed of high school and university students, teachers, and lawyers. The NGO focused its activities on three main areas of violations of human rights including mass killings of black soldiers, massive Mauritian repatriation from Senegal, and the deportation of members of press and soldiers to the desert (Appiagyei-Atua 2002). The NGO used press campaigns and provoked international communities to denounce the killings and pressure Mauritius government to create a commission of inquiry. The NGO is an example of African NGOs that promoted human rights concerns by undertaking fact-findings, investigation of violations of human rights.

The fight for human rights and freedoms in Africa has centered on gathering international support to pressure governments…. [read more]

Starwood Hotel Chain Expand Their Research Paper

… Kaye and Taylor (1997) studied the expatriates have been used in Beijing's partnership hotels and found evidences of culture shock included in this, followed with a powerful inverse relationship between adjustment issues and inter-cultural sensitivity. Intercultural conflicts which are present in the bicultural teams in Russia-U.S. joint ventures were studied by Weldon and Jehn (1996), whereas, the management process for the development of British-Sino partnership was also evaluated by Rimington (1996). All the previously discussed findings were verified by Selmer (1998) (Selmer, 2004). Similar conditions should be expected to surface for western expatriate for Starwood when expanding to the Kazan region.

Other 2 dimensions of socio-cultural adjustment would be the general adjustment and interaction adjustment. With the duration of time, considerable research has been conducted…. [read more]

International Marketing in a Global Environment: Examples Dissertation

… ¶ … International Marketing in a Global Environment: Examples from the Proportion of Immigrants in the Society

The paper will be organized so as to present firstly an overview of the international marketing generally. The study will then explore and summarize how international marketing strategies can be explored in an international context with a focus on the cultural challenges that exist in Dublin, Ireland. This will be thoroughly augmented with a methodological approach that uses statistical (albeit limited due to the sample size) techniques to analyse responses on a survey, qualitative analyses will also be employed. The discussion and findings will concentrate on the assumptions and actions defined within previous sections of the paper that will be integrated with the survey results so as to…. [read more]

Globalizing Trends Essay

… ¶ … Globalizing Trends on the National Culture of the United States

Globalization has a number of different meanings, with economists regarding globalization as a process that is more completely integrating the world marketplace, while political scientists may consider globalizing trends as a gradual move from conventional definitions of the state that are characterized by territorial sovereignty and the development of nongovernmental actors in the world order (Farazmand, 2002). Likewise, many academicians view globalizing trends as being so many steps towards a so-called "borderless world" while other analysts consider the trends as being fueled primarily by the private rather than the public sector (Farazmand, 2002). Irrespective of the precise definition that is used, a common feature of globalizing trends is the issue of national borders…. [read more]

Occupational Health and Safety Research Paper

… In the catering industry, those high-risk situations are readily apparent from historical data and from any time-series data obtained by taking "snapshots" of the industry over time.

In 2001, the OSHC conducted a survey regarding the conditions of kitchen workers in Chinese restaurants (Kuen, 2005). A total of 471 kitchen workers, including chefs, cooks, assistant cooks, grill cooks, dim sum cooks, and material preparation cooks, from 159 different Chinese restaurants participated in the survey (Kuen, 2005). Of the kitchen workers surveyed, 80% were injured on the job and more than 60% took sick leave due to accidents at work (Kuen, 2005). The work-related injuries included cuts, burns, musculoskeletal problems, and stab wound from shrimp or fish (Kuen, 2005). Health problems of kitchen workers were predominantly…. [read more]

Global Marketing Strategies and Management Book Report

… 5% of its total fiscal revenue that year. But the quarterly revenue (for the second quarter) for the fiscal year 2012, that amounts to $7.9 billion, has revealed that China alone now holds about 20% of Apple Inc.'s total revenue. The combined revenue for the two quarters of 2012 reportedly has been around $12.4 billion from sales that have been made within China. This amount is expected to double by the end of the fiscal year 2012. This would report an almost 100% increase of revenue generated by Apple Inc. from China as compared to the revenue of $13.3 billion for the whole of the 2011 fiscal year (Gupta, 2012). The following chart shows how much progress Apple Inc. has made from each of the…. [read more]

International Marketing Management Essay

… International Marketing Management

Part (a) Discuss the breadth and scope of international marketing research. What are the main additional complexities faced by the international marketing researcher? (50% of the available marks)

The many paradoxes that international marketing researchers face underscore the critical nature of the information they provide. One of the most significant paradoxes is that of contending with the perception of globalization creating large, undifferentiated markets (Cayla, Arnould, 2008) which actually hide nuances and specific unmet needs that can translate into significant value for those segments and audiences. International market researchers must have a passion fro delving into how consumers in each foreign country, region and community vary in terms of how they perceive value in the products or services being researcher. In succinctly…. [read more]

Spirituality and Depression What Is Spirituality? Thesis

… Spirituality and Depression

What is Spirituality?

The absence of an adequate definition of spirituality is perhaps one reason why researchers have difficulty identifying the role of spirituality in the treatment of depression. What is spirituality? Every culture, every school of thought, even every individual can differ on this point. For the purposes of this paper, we will work with a variety of perspectives concerning "spirituality" -- but at the same time we may assert a kind of working definition that will help guide our review of the literature which follows. According to Bernard Fellay (2011), a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church, spirituality may be defined as "a sense of God."

However, as the modern age is distinctly more secular with regard to science than…. [read more]

Moral Legal Political and Practical Dimensions of Assassination Term Paper

… Moral, Legal, Political, And Practical Dimensions of Assassination

Political assassination is a very old and hard to tackle problem, which caused innumerable victims throughout history. Due to the many forms of political violence and murder which exist, it is very hard to define and to categorize as an act. The variety of motives and causes of political assassinations also make classification difficult. It is generally supposed that the most common motive is the struggle for political power between different opponents. In this case, the target of the assassination is usually a very powerful or influential individual, who hold a very important political position: a king in the older times or a president in the more recent periods. However, political assassinations happen for many other reasons…. [read more]

Integrated Marketing Campaign of Mc Donald in UK Organization Dissertation

… ¶ … technology has evolved a great deal, thus resulting in an increase in media freedom and globalization. Moreover, human life in the post information technology has become much faster pace than ever before. Ever since the human civilizations had established, man is looking for ways to relax one physically and mentally. Over a period of time the market for leisure and tourism had gain much strength due to increasing demand of travel and tourism and the need to maintaining a quality life. The primary reason for this increasing trend of travelling, both international and domestic, originates to the increase in globalization (Grant, 2005).

As civilizations have evolved and technology has made human lives faster, man has started to value quality of life more and…. [read more]

Voss Water International Marketing Plan for the Turkish Term Paper

… Voss Water

Today, Turkey is emerging as an increasingly important nation that serves as a bridge between the Middle East and the European Union and points beyond. Turkey's full membership in the European Union appears to be a matter of when rather than if, and the Turkish population has enjoyed the economic benefits of a secular state seeking to become a full partner in the international community. Cities such as Ankara and Istanbul are becoming a cosmopolitan amalgam of the best that Europe, the Middle East and Asia have to offer, and the growing Turkish middle class is eager to spend their discretionary income on Western goods that communicate good taste and top-notch quality as evidence of their new affluence. In this environment, there are…. [read more]

Vietnamese Americans Neither American or Vietnamese How Do They Adapt to Belonging to Dual Cultures Term Paper

… Vietnamese Americans: Neither American nor Vietnamese. How Do They Adapt to Belonging to Dual Cultures?

When Vietnamese people first entered the United States in the post-war years, they faced an enormous set of challenges as well as pronounced cultural differences. Thereafter, their children faced a different set of challenges. These second-generation citizens have to be both Vietnamese and American at once -- and this is no easy task. Furthermore, while the Vietnamese American population represents an important Asian group in the U.S. today, there remains a paucity of current research concerning its unique history or culture (Doan, Huer, & Saenz, 2001). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe what it means to be both Vietnamese and American in the United States today. A…. [read more]

Human Rights in China Essay

… ¶ … Human rights in China

China's human rights condition has long been questioned by the world. The large population of the People's Republic of China is facing problems in civil, political, cultural and religious freedom. China's population is one of the world's largest and its economic strength is entirely dependent on the masses. For such a large population the international community has expressed its concern over the human rights conditions. China has been asked to relax the strict authoritarian manner of government and bring it towards democracy and human rights.

I have chosen the human rights conditions of china for this position paper. China has always protected its sovereignty and has maintained that the internal affairs of the country are to be solved internally.…. [read more]

Foreign Aid vs. Economic Growth Dissertation

… The nation specific studies too have not succeeded in the production of conclusive results. The example being the bivariate Granger causality test performed by Dhakal et al. (1996) that involved four Asian nations (India, Nepal, [1: The most up-to-date analysis is the one conducted by Burnside and Dollar (2000) with the sponsorship of the World Bank that concluded that the foreign aid only works well under favorable and good policy environment. These favorable policies include low inflation, liberalized financial sector, zero or very low deficits with a regime which is open trade and a government which is open sector friendly. This proposition/analysis has however been refuted on methodological grounds as well as contrary findings by other scholars. The literature that explores this is Hansen and…. [read more]

Burger King Case Study

… Burger King Beefs Up Global Operations

Having perfected the relatively complex process of make-to-order and precisely cooked hamburgers to customers' specific requirements, Burger King established itself as a leader in the Quick Serve Restaurant (QSR) industry in the North American market. The concentration on consumers having the opportunity to "have it their way" Burger King was ahead of the mass customization trends now so prevalent throughout many industries that are profitably operating today (Daniels, Radebaugh, Sullivan, 2011). This strategy of mass customization is known for its exceptionally high percentage of variable costs and unpredictability of quality levels due to wide variation of processes in the preparation of food and delivery of services (Taylor, Lyon, 1995). Despite these significant obstacles to making mass customization work in…. [read more]

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