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Cross-Cultural Communication in Business Cultural Differences Research Proposal

… Cross-Cultural Communication in Business

Cultural differences have always required a degree of awareness and sensitivity in the business environment; in the age of rapidly increasing globalization, the issue becomes even more important. In conducting business transactions with prospective foreign partners or presenting proposals to investors, awareness of cultural practices and expectations can make the difference between successful and unsuccessful negotiations.

Within modern business management in organizations, the increasing integration of individuals from many different national, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds necessitates a corresponding awareness of various perspectives, norms, and expectations on the part of management and human resources. Whereas the successful effort to accommodate culturally oriented idiosyncrasies as much as possible is conducive to effective operational business management, the failure to do so can undermine even…. [read more]

Management Style Term Paper

… Feminine styles of management have been called "social-expressive," meaning that personal attention is given to employees and a positive working environment is created. In contrast, the masculine management style is described as instrumental and instruction giving.

Management cultures have clearly changed over time. In the 1960s, great value was placed on narrow expertise, on mastering prescribed skills and on conforming to the corporate norm. There was no requirement for integrating an employee's workplace and private-sphere responsibilities (Claes, 1999).

In today's organizations, hierarchies have given way to less formal structures. The economy is more diverse, innovation and fast information exchange are the focus, and great value is placed on breadth of vision, as well as on the ability of managers and employees to think creatively. Top-down…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Negotiation Management Research Proposal

… Crosscultural Negotiation

Crosscultural Organizational Conflict: A Case Study

The improvement of communication technologies, the proliferation of high-speed internet transaction and the inception of free trade priorities into the economic orientation of all industrialized nations has created a condition within which cultures and nations intermingle freely. As this is a relatively new condition, however, many generational and ethnic conditions are coming up against the cultural aspects of this shrinking global village as a great challenge. The offshoot of this reality is that, in an increasingly globalizing economy, we are left with little choice but to embrace a global plurality of cultures and societies. In the commonality of economic interests represented by the integration of cultures, there must also be found a shared ground for cultural exchange.…. [read more]

Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications Anyone Research Paper

… Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications

Anyone who has attended school, held a job, or formed a relationship, which is to say everyone, can readily testify that communicating with others can be a challenging enterprise at times. Even when people hear what is being said, they may not understand it properly because of a wide range of factors that can adversely affect the communication process. In an increasingly globalized world, these problems have been compounded by powerful cross-cultural differences, or at least that is what many authorities would have people believe. In reality, communicating effectively with others involves some fairly straightforward techniques that are equally valid in any setting rather than the complex multidimensional conceptualizations that are being advanced in the literature today. To gain some…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Negotiation Management Essay

… Cross Cultural Negotiation Management

The contemporaneous business community is evolving at a rapid pace and is as such forcing its collaborators and stakeholders to adapt along. But implementing change is not as easy as presented in the specialized works of university professors and several conflicts arise throughout its implementation. As a result, a new science has evolved and it revolves around studying and proposing solutions to resolving the arising conflicts within the economic entities. An important concept introduced through the study of conflict is that of framing, which basically refers to the interpretation of the conflict from various standpoints. In other words, "each party to a conflict has its own perception and understanding of their agenda, the relevance of various issues, their priorities, and the…. [read more]

Cross Culture Negotiation Essay

… Cross-Cultural Negotiation

In the contemporary business environment, cultural conflict has been an important impediment to the success of business negotiations. Culture is an integrated system of learned behavioral pattern of member of society. Cultural behaviors are not from the biological inheritance, culture is a shared customs, beliefs, behaviors, values and artifacts that member of a society used to communicate to one another. Culture is transmitted from generation to generation through parent learning. Pace of globalization and economic development has made businesses to engage in the cross-border transactions, where inter-cultural communication is critical to achieve business success. (Jian-qiu, 2008). However, cultural awareness is one of the most important business tools that businesses use to achieve a success in business negotiations. Understanding the culture of other people…. [read more]

Global Business and Managing Across Cultures Essay

… In the communication conflict is one party drops in the defensive behavior the other party is likely to respond in the same way and the real essence of communication is then achieved. In this way mutual communication is created and problem is then defined in the more realistic terms. Thus, the solution to the problem then can be achieved through understanding, using creative alternatives and producing intelligent results. No matter how much complex is the problem and situation if it's well communicated and understood among the parties involved it can be solved in the best possible time with minimum possible resources being waste.

Expatriate management

Organizations dealing in global businesses have to make up the management policies especially the Human resource policy for skill development…. [read more]

Cross Cultural Management International Companies Essay

… For instance, upon the launch of the Big Mack (Big Mak in Russia), the clients, unaccustomed to finger food, did not know how to eat the sandwich. One man came to eat it with a spoon, while others took it apart and ate layer by layer (McDonald's Website, 2011). Another cultural barrier encountered was the sense of pride and the general reticence with which the Russians perceived the Westerners. In order to reduce this negative perception, the managerial team at McDonald's implemented two strategies

Donating part of the revenues cashed to charity causes (McDonald's Website) and Collaborating with local providers to get fresh produce but also to produce the food items (Kramer, 2010).

Both of these strategies were aimed at creating a favorable public image…. [read more]

Cultural Diversity in Workplace Master Level Term Paper

… Cultural Diversity in Workplace

With the concept of globalization continuously rising, various industries nowadays are adapting with the idea of having cultural diversity in the workplace. As organizations are becoming a little less competitive as the globalization becomes the trend, majority of the team-management came up with a viable alternative in organizational development.

Team playing and/or working is an idea, which has penetrated most businesses during the 90's (Mattson, 1998). Groups and teams are powerful ways to organize people around each corporate performance goals (Katzenbach et al., 1993).

Each organizational member's contribution will never match the combined performance in a real team. Usually, the need to form a team arises from the need either to get things done more efficiently, using lesser time and effort…. [read more]

Intercultural and/or Cross-Cultural Communication Theories, Models Thesis

… Intercultural and/or cross-cultural communication theories, models, and/Or methodologies and a description of at least one research project or study for each theory chosen

Theories, models, and methodologies of face-negotiation and feminist communication theory

Saving face.' 'Face time.' Americans and other individuals from low-context Westernized countries are likely think about the metaphor of 'face' in terms of personally securing dignity and respect. They may think this notion of 'face' is part of a universal cultural vocabulary. However, 'Face - Negotiation Theory' as conceptualized by Stella Ting-Toomey, questions this notion by examining, "face" or "the way that we want others to see and treat us," as a culturally-bound concept (Whitham 1999). According to Ting-Toomey, Americans and other individuals from low-context cultures "equate the concept of face with…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communications Thesis

… Cross cultural Communication (International Business)

Nowadays, with almost every country going global, cross-cultural communication has become an integral part of business. Rosenbloom and Larsen pointed out the growing need for interaction among different countries worldwide, "globalization in the sense of firms from all over the world interacting and dealing with each other is expected to be the normal state of affairs for the majority of businesses" (309). The ability of being able to communicate with other countries has become an essential and indispensable part of business. Nancy Patricia Lee also holds this view as according to her, "the ability to communicate succinctly across cultural, linguistic and national borders is now mandatory for all effective international transactions" (1).

Businesses continue to be affected by globalization. Apart…. [read more]

Cross Cultural Leadership Cultural Differences Essay

… If two people from different cultures could learn the rules of the other and have a better understanding of the potential sources of miscommunication, they could learn to overcome these differences.

The cross cultural team and lead to greater innovation among businesses, but it can also be a key source of conflict as well. The literature examined indicated that researchers have an understanding of the basis for cultural differences and a categorization strategy that can explain these differences. The next step in the research process is to be able to understand these differences in a way that will lead to better cross cultural leadership and more effective communication strategies. This will be the key to global expansion of businesses in the future.


DeGrosky, M.…. [read more]

Cultural Competence in Organizations Essay

… al, 2005). It can assist in shaping the organizational structure and improving business efficiency and in return, increasing performance and profitability of the organization. It can allow organizations to integrate team building and global leadership programs as part of their future policies in order to ensure that every member of the organization works effectively and collaboratively to improve the business performance and efficiency (Goodman, 2012). It can allow the organizations to become aware of the significance of cultural differences and how cultural competence can be incorporated in organizational mission statement and vision.


Cultural competence is an important aspect of organizations and academic institutions as it allows individuals of different cultures to interact and communicate with one another. It creates an awareness of different cultures.…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Training for Global Business Essay

… Legal framework; knowing that various communities are led and ruled under different laws, the manager from the U.S.A. will get it hard to know the rules that guide business in the new country. It is of critical importance to know the laws since the organization or business risks closure due to sheer ignorance of the laws. This will then call for a proper course in the legal system of the land in general and a fine dissection of the laws guiding employment and trade in the country.

The prospect for doing business in Japan keeps growing bigger each day, though the challenge of the variation in cultures between these countries and America is ever present. Globalization has helped solve some of these problems like prejudice,…. [read more]

Cross-National Management: Questions Term Paper

… A second challenge is that high levels of employee attrition are likely, given the frustrations back-of-the-house staff may feel at what they see as their unjustly subordinate status. They may feel that it is they who really keep the hotel running, versus the showier positions of the front-of-house staff. Their benefits are likely not as generous as those of the front-of-house staff, and as hourly employees, they may feel justified 'jumping ship' for a few extra dollars offered by a competitor. This is a problem because all employees demand a financial and time investment for the company, regarding training.

A third challenge that will arise is the training itself. At one hotel chain, it was discovered that new hires from the Russian population did not…. [read more]

Cultural Differences in Companies Research Paper

… Their approach to managing the ethical dilemmas is predicated on logical, framework-driven analysis and intensive use of local and national statutes and guidelines. Their approach to managing contracts and the legality of their firm is also precised more on clarity of role assignment and accuracy of measurements (Engelstatter, 2012). Unlike Oracle, they do not use legal means to force customers to pay more maintenance fees or upgrade to new releases without providing ample notice first (Rettig, 2007). Where Oracle is driven by a highly competitive culture that uses ethical and legal means to gain a competitive advantage, SAP relies more on technical acuity and precision of execution (Engelstatter, 2012). As a result the culture within SAP is more attuned to highly competitive employees who routinely…. [read more]

Human Resources Change Management Plan Term Paper

… " Next stated in the work is the fact that "Unfortunately, the federal government's strategic human capital approaches are not yet well positioned to enable the needed transformation."

The GAO report stated that the challenges still faced are in "four key areas stated to be:


"Strategic Human Capital Planning"


"Results Oriented Organized Culture"

In the area of leadership the statement was to the effect that those agencies who are the top leaders need to make provision of the commitment and inspiration in addressing human capital and other interrelated issues in transformation. In the article "Strategic Human Capital Planning," the planning efforts toward the human capital within the organization need to be more "fully and demonstrably integrated with mission and critical program goals. The…. [read more]

Cultural Diversity Issue of Non-American Term Paper

… Some of the early supposition was that in this field a successful leader was born with qualities enabling him or her to be a good leader. Keeping this in mind, the general notion was that back in the 1940's and early 1950's characteristics, such as, intelligence, persistence, self-confidence, alertness and preference for control separated born-leaders from non-leaders. In response to this belief, various types of thinking and contrasting theories of leadership arose later, which supported the notion that a leader's behavior, instead of their traits, is what defined one's ability to be a good leader.

The way today's organizations function, it is important for the leader to have a desirable impact on the organizational goals, the facilitative, democratic and coaching styles are positive while the…. [read more]

Ericsson's Negotiations With Chinese Telecommunications Case Study

… This presentation also as is desirable to the Chinese cautious culture facilitated admiration of the advanced technology inciting curiosity to embrace it. This worked to elevate Erickson's position in the negotiations and also make interest groups well aware of the technology on the table. In the presentation the management team ensured that they have presentation materials in both English and Chinese languages. The managers also ensured that they could answer all the queries arising from the presentation by walking with a team of interpreters. This ensured that the Chinese delegation did not get half-baked information and go unsatisfied from with presentations made (Blackman, 1997).

Trust Building

The need to build trust in the Chinese culture cannot be understated. This is seen in the measures that…. [read more]

Negotiation Strategies for Chemical Company Essay

… , p. 97). In general, the BATNA steps are as follows:

1. Protect yourself. Exercise patience in the negotiation process -- don't be too quick to reach an agreement which you might regret. The major limitation when confronted with a powerful adversary in the negotiation process is to be "too accommodating to the views of the other side -- to quick to go along. The siren song of 'Let's all agree and put an end to this' becomes persuasive. You may end up with a deal you should have rejected" (p. 98).

2. Know your BATNA. In other words, before you enter into the negotiation process, know what the best alternatives are for you in this particular negotiation. "The reason you negotiate is to produce…. [read more]

Role of Communication in Cross Term Paper

… Instead the cross cultural communication is fostered through the promising vocalization with due emphasis on encouragement, affirmation, acknowledgement and phrasing requests clearly or advancing opinions thoughtfully. The effective cross cultural communication depends upon the elasticity, malleability and liberalism. The awareness, acceptance and dealing with cross cultural differences results in the overcoming the cultural barriers that give rise to the better modes of communication, mutual trust and creative thinking. An efficient manager finds out enough scope for the individuals to take some risks and explore the projects that don't require harmonization with others. Such actions encourage the employees with a strong individualist twist to attract attention to more significant matters like policies or procedures that don't work. The time conscious managers may visualize the people whose…. [read more]

Managing Diversity Is a Fact Research Paper

… 15). As Figiel and Kummel Sasser point out, companies are comprised of people and people have prejudices that cannot be easily erased. A third general problem for Diversity is the different attitudes of different cultures. For example, Rich and Mihalek discuss a study involving a fictional job applicant who lies on his resume and showing that different cultures may act differently when faced with ethical problems. Focusing on students in order to determine how they will eventually behave in the workplace, Rich and Mihalek found that minority students "felt much stronger than the non-minority students that the liar was preventing a more qualified person from getting the job...felt a stronger sense of loyalty to the university...are more sensitive to ethical transgressions by their peers and…. [read more]

Culture of Interest: Japan Theoretical Research Paper

… Japan scored somewhere in middle on individualism collectivism index and the society is more paternalistic in nature. It does not display strongest of collectivist traditions but neither does it resonate with individualistic characteristics as a cultural unit. The American people on the other hand have displayed tremendously high score in this dimension. Having scored 91, the nation is among highest scorer in this aspect. People primarily work for them and do not like affording extended families. Satisfaction of personal aims, aspirations and motives is primary to American people. Glorification of personal efforts to achieve success is common place in the society Americans live in. While Japanese people are more considerate towards other group members, Americans too have displayed desire to form groups, only to satisfy…. [read more]

Nissan UK Case Study

… This would have also created a greater sense of confidence, allowing both parties to feel like they were well-versed in overcoming all difficulties or potential challenges to their working relationship.

Moreover, with this particular case, there doesn't appear to be any attention paid to translation issues. There are words and phrases that exist in English that simply don't exist in any other language and vice-versa when it comes to Japanese. Translation issues are not impossible to overcome, but they're also not a walk in the park either. Translation issues can cause problems like misunderstandings or unnecessary friction between parties, making both sides feel increasingly frustrated. The details of this case point to the fact that this was an issue that was not addressed even partly.…. [read more]

Organizational Change by Using Tesco Essay

… The control of organizational behavior as well as the adoption of cultural conflict management strategies are the key to the success and survival of organizations (Kirton & Green, 2005).

Conflict is defined by Mullins (2010) as the behavior that is intended to cause an obstruction to the management of people's goals. Mullins went on to indicate that conflict is as a result of the incompatibility of the organizational and individual goals and arises due to the people's opposition of behaviors that are noted to arise at the individual, group as well the organizational level.

Tesco for instance has a diverse range of workplace characteristics that is characterized by people of various ages, races, professions, religions, sexual orientations, lifestyles, positions, geographic origin as well as tenure.…. [read more]

Cultural Dimensions and Barriers in Warsaw Essay

… Warsaw: Cultural Dimensions and Barriers

An understanding of intercultural communication is becoming more and more important in the modern changing world. Online communication, the Internet and phenomena such as globalization have made awareness of other cultures extremely important, especially in the business setting.

The different culture that is under discussion is Poland. Poland has a largely urban population, with approximately 60% of the people living in cities (Polish Culture and Life Style). Warsaw is the capital of the country and has almost two million inhabitants. Historically, the culture of the country is a combination of Latin and Byzantine influences, with many European influences over time. One study characterizes this unique culture as "…a diverse mix of the East and the West - a colorful cohabitation…. [read more]

Cultural Analysis Saudi Arabia Research Paper

… Thus the following patterns occur (Inter Cultural Communications):

Working cross-level is not favored.

It is best is to have people of the same level approaching each other when meeting for the first time.

A large network of connections in business and in politics is required to sustain your status and may help to make rules and regulations more flexible.

First names are only used when invited to do so. One can work for 10 years with the same colleague and still address her with Madame Chevalier.

Academic titles are used when addressing people; "Professor Lefevre how are you today."

Despite the massive differences in the two business cultures, there are also many similarities. Using Hofstede's cultural dimensions model, many of the differences and the similarities…. [read more]

Changing Role of Human Resource Research Paper

… e.

Employee Engagement:

Since employee engagement is a major priority for many organizations, majority of the organizations have stated that they currently evaluate it. Actually, there has been an emergence of a pattern in which the senior management perceives that human resource is influential on employee engagement. While the economic situation does not severely affect every aspect of employment, it has significant impacts on employee engagement. Generally, recession has contributed to stable employee engagement levels in some cases, while it has also decreased employee engagement in other cases. As a result, for human resource managers, the main challenge is ensuring that employee engagement remains high for all organizational operations to remain stimulated and carried out in light of the current challenges ("The Impact of the…. [read more]

Study of International Negotiation Essay

… International Negotiation and Cross-Cultural Realities

Globalization has had a direct bearing on the way that we conduct business, not just by expanding the geographical and logistical realities with which a multinational corporation must concern itself but also by altering the landscape of human interaction by immersing infinite cultures and identities into a single economic scheme. The result is the set of challenges unique to this new era of commercial enterprising, particularly as they relate to the initiation of negotiation. To an extent that the research on this subject reveals, negotiation in the international environment is driven by the interaction of business cultures and the mutual respect adhered to the rules of these respective cultures. Indeed, managing a negotiation is a process often more inclined by…. [read more]

Management Communication: Role of Workplace Interpersonal Essay

… ii) To the Employee

Teamwork: interpersonal communication helps to build positive work relations among colleagues, and consequently, making it easier for them to work together in a team.

On-the-Job Promotions: finding a job may not be as difficult as trying to win a promotion. In order for one to be promoted, they must demonstrate some extra skills. Bovee and Thill (2008) express that effective communication is one of those skills. An employee who reports properly, and speaks well during presentation and interactive sessions stands a high chance of winning an on-the-job promotion should an opportunity present itself.

Interpersonal communication, evidently, is of great relevance in the operation of organizational and business settings. However, as Baack (2012) points out, its significance is only relevant if barriers…. [read more]

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