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Cuban Missile Crisis Term Paper

… The Soviets propose a force of 24 medium-range ballistic missiles and 16 intermediate-range launchers, each equipped with two missiles and a single nuclear warhead. In addition, the Soviets send four elite regiments, twenty-four advanced SA-2 surface-to-air missile batteries, 42 MiG-21 interceptors, 42 IL-28 bombers, 12 Komar-class missile boats and coastal defense cruise missiles. Castro agrees in July 1962. The formal agreement is renewable every five years and the missiles and maintenance is left to the Soviets. In mid-July 1962 Soviet cargo ships begin moving out of the Black Sea for Cuba and are spotted by American aerial reconnaissance. Meanwhile 11 CIA terrorist teams infiltrate Cuba.

Up until now, the United States is hopeful that the Castro regime will crumble from within. However, intelligence suggests otherwise.…. [read more]


Cuban Missile Crisis Policy Advice Thesis

… Cuban Missile Crisis

Policy Advice in the Midst of the Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cold War places us in an unenviable position. As the men and women charged with the tasks of keeping the United States secure, protecting the world from the spread of Stalinism and to promote democratic reform wherever possible. The current situation in Cuba reflects significant setbacks in all of these areas. As we stand in the thick of a crisis that brings us to the brink of nuclear war, it is upon us to determine how best to proceed that we may protect these goals without compromising our ability to demonstrate strength, decisiveness and sound judgment. As President Kennedy looks to address the mounting threat being posed by Russia on our…. [read more]


Memoir of the Cuban Missile Term Paper

… This is much better than going in on the offensive and creating ill will and bad feelings because of ignorance or misinformation.

Obviously, these lessons are extremely relevant to the reputation of the United Sates and its status in the world. An effective leader surrounds himself with a variety of experts in all areas, and who share different points-of-view. Kennedy writes, "President Kennedy wanted people who raised questions, who criticizes, on whose judgment he could rely, who presented an intelligent point-of-view, regardless of their rank or viewpoint" (Kenney 117). This seems to be the case in the current administration, as well. President Obama has chosen a variety of Cabinet members and advisors from many different areas of expertise, and from both parties. For example, he…. [read more]


Soviet Perspective of the Cuban Research Paper

… Marshal Sergei Biryuzov, who was the Soviet Rocket Forces Chief at the time, brought a market research team that arrived within Cuba. He told Khrushchev the missiles could be hidden and camouflaged through the palms (Correll, 2005).

The Cuban leadership was further upset as September came along as the U.S. States Congress accepted the U.S. Joint Resolution 230. This resolution basically stated that Congress's solution to evade the development of an externally-assisted military structure (Bligh et al., 2002). On the day that, the United States introduced a significant military exercise within the Caribbean, titled the PHIBRIGLEX-62, Cuba denounced globally that this move was like a purposeful aggravation and proof the U.S. having the intention to once again take over the region of Cuba (Blight al,…. [read more]


20th Century US Foreign Policy Research Proposal

… Truman in Hypothetical Crisis

As President Harry Truman faces the Russian missile crisis in Venezuela, the situation in the states is one of cautious alert. President Truman is known for his hard line position when it comes to the Russians (Brown, Seyom, 1994, p. 17). Truman believes in flexing his American Military muscle, and will stand up to the threat of Russian missiles in Venezuela. The Venezuelan's claim that they fear the United States has a goal of "regime change," for Venezuela. President Truman abandoned what was once a successful and mutually beneficial "good neighbor" policy between the United States and South American countries (Rabe, Stephen G., 1998, 1). This kind of approach to foreign affairs is not Truman's way. He is a president that…. [read more]


US Foreign Affairs Since 1898 Thesis

… U.S. Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Explain the origins of the containment policy after World War II. Also, explain the reasons for the conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Even when the Soviet Union was an official ally of the United States, distrust of Stalin's USSR and communism as an ideology was pervasive in the U.S. Vocal critics of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal decried the legislation as socialistic, even though the New Deal was actually intended to offer a middle ground between classical economic theory and radical leftism. However, the defeat of Nazism and the expansion of the Soviet sphere of influence into Eastern Europe alerted President Harry Truman and the rest of the Western world that a new level of communist…. [read more]


History of Espionage Class Reading Essay

… History Of Espionage Class Reading Study Guides

Jeffrey Burds, Chapter 19 of World of the Shadows: An International History of Espionage (The Golden Age of Soviet "Illegals")

This chapter opens with a quote from Stalin, who in 1937 questioned the prevailing belief that bourgeoisie states would refrain from sending "spies, wreckers, saboteurs and assassins" into socialist states.

Chapter 19 then moves to a discussion of the so-called "Cambridge Five," a group of five British nationals who spied for the Soviets during WWII.

Donald Maclean (1915-1983), Foreign Office secretary, Paris, Washington, Cairo, London.

Guy Francis de Moncy Burgess (1910-1963), BBC broadcaster, agent in MI6, secretary to Deputy Foreign Minister

Harold Adrian Russell ("Kim") Philby (1912-1988), journalist, agent in MI6, "The Third Man"

Anthony F. Blunt (1907-1983),…. [read more]


John F. Kennedy as a Charismatic Leader Thesis

… ¶ … Charismatic Leadership of John F. Kennedy

This paper discusses the Presidency of John Fitzgerald Kennedy from the perspective of charismatic leadership. Specifically, it addresses the four characteristics that social scientists have agreed lead to such leadership and their relation to the 1961-1963 Kennedy Presidency: a crisis situation, potential followers in distress, an aspiring leader, and a doctrine promising deliverance. This paper shows that all four of these characteristics apply to Kennedy, and demonstrates their causality of his charismatic leadership persona, which endured long past (and perhaps in part because of) his assassination in 1963.

Main body: The United States was in a state of controlled turmoil. Unknown dangers were threatened from enemies abroad, while moral concerns further eroded confidence at home. The nation…. [read more]


Cold War Era When We Remove Essay

… Cold War Era

When we remove the threat of nuclear war that loomed large during the Cold War era, it then becomes possible to engage in rational discourse on the subject. It is a subject that is endless in the complexities of the events and the powerful people behind those events. This paper concerns itself with those powerful world leaders, and events, using primary source documents and interviews, then, analyzing those sources to a measure of understanding the people and events today. The Cold War was a critical period in the history of the world, and it is the impact of the Cold War that continues to be a major influence on how world leaders respond to international threats and events today. Understanding the Cold…. [read more]


Iran-Contra Affair Historical Research Paper

… Security about the location of the hostages and the kidnappers was tight and prevented rescue. Public pressure and pressure from families was keen, eventually leading to a deterioration of the practice of not negotiating and not giving concessions to terrorists to which the Americans and the French held themselves. The Reagan administration violated official Congressional policy to negotiate secret arms-for-hostage exchange with the Iranians, who were believed to have sufficient influence over Hezbollah to achieve release of the hostages.

Literature Review

When is a Story a Lie is a Story? Boynton (1991) describes a theory of politics as conversation. He might not have had the testimonies given at the Walsh trial of the Iran-Contra affair in mind, but it seems to be a good fit…. [read more]


Attacks on Pearl Harbor Term Paper

… Indications leading to the Attacks

Even though the attacks on Pearl Harbor and the World Trade Center have been portrayed as completely unexpected and unforeseen actions, both these events had been directed by apparent signs and signals that the United States had been confronting a looming danger (36). Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the relationship between the Americans and the Japanese had arrived at its lowest point (7). Not later than the summer of 1941, the government of the then American President, Franklin Roosevelt, had set economic sanctions on the Japanese government to compel them to stop their conflict with China. Historians have given reference to these sanctions as the contiguous reason of the Japanese attack on the Pearl Harbor. The Japanese government refused…. [read more]


Aid President George W. Bush Term Paper

… A weak dollar policy is inflationary; this would put upward pressure on the interest rates as bond investors would demand an extra return for a future purchasing power that has been lost. The downfall of the dollar would also deter foreign investors as there is an inevitable risk of holding depreciating dollars. This would prompt them to demand a higher rate of return which will in turn create an upward pressure on interest rates. The upward pressure on the interest rates has a direct impact on the stock market. Stocks with rich valuations based on future growth would be hard hit. Higher interest rates would also be unkind on the entire housing industry thus causing the figures of growth to reverse and plummet eventually. While…. [read more]


U.S. Intelligence by Seeking an Initial $400 Thesis

… U.S. Intelligence

By seeking an initial $400 million from Congress to help Greece and Turkey in March 1947, President Harry Truman argued for the support of "free peoples resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures (Pike 2008)." The argument, which later translated into the Truman Doctrine, extended financial and military assistance to countries threatened by communism, such as Greece and Turkey. The fundamental American policy created the U.S. intelligence, which has undergone changes in various aspects. This year, former President George W. Bush described as "extremely significant" a study's finding that U.S. intelligence agencies knew "disturbingly little" about enemy weapons programs (BBC 2009). He said that U.S. intelligence needed "fundamental change" to meet the challenges of the present century (BBC). Senior leaders,…. [read more]


Kenny O'Connell Is Chief of Staff Term Paper

… Kenny O'Connell is Chief of Staff and Political Advisor for President John F. Kennedy. They have been friends for many years, and O'Connell serves as Kennedy's political advisor. He often displays an authoritarian style as team leader. The events that unfold in this movie take place during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, when U-2 spy planes discover Soviet missiles that could easily hit the United States being installed in the U.S.S.R.'s ally, Cuba. Kenneth O'Connell, as portrayed in this movie, is shown to be a man with multiple communication styles that he adjusts from setting to setting. Much of the time he speaks in a very authoritarian way and with considerable finality, but when high-level decisions are being made, he listens to everyone with…. [read more]

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