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Strengths and Weaknesses of IQ Tests Essay

… IQ tests are in common usage in the United States, in the education system. There have been many criticisms of the reliance on IQ tests as a measure of intelligence, in part deriving from the overreliance and misuse of such measures. IQ tests typically include knowledge, problem solving and adaptive skills. Their strength as a measure of intelligence is that the skills an IQ test does measure, it measures well. The tests typically focus on cognition -- skills such as recognition, categorization, thinking and memory. Students who perform well on IQ tests tend to have a high level of general knowledge, arithmetic ability and vocabulary (Shiraev & Levy, n.d.).

IQ tests also reflect only a segment of intelligence - the cognitive. They do not measure…. [read more]

Is There Cultural Bias in IQ Tests? Thesis

… IQ & Cultural Bias

IQ and Cultural Bias

The greater a person's mental ability, the greater their success. That's the view of psychologists in favor of IQ testing. They developed intelligence testing (IQ) as a way to measure the individual's mental ability and thus to predict an individual's probable success in school and in life. Nobody really challenges the assumption that a person with a high IQ will experience greater success, although everybody knows people that are very smart and for one reason or another are unsuccessful financially and/or socially. What is challenged is whether an IQ score really can identify the abilities of all individuals. Historically, minorities have scored low on IQ tests, yet it has become increasingly apparent over the years that minorities…. [read more]

IQ Test Scores Cultural Differences Term Paper

… Income & Education. A review of the SAT scores of a single year (2001) indicates that there is a strong co-relation between the family income and the SAT scores. For example, the total (Math + Verbal) SAT score of all test takers with family income below $10,000/year (the lowest category) is 864. The test score rises in close relation to family income and is the highest (1126) for the test takers in the highest income bracket of $100,000/year. (Houghton 2002)

SAT scores by Ethnic groups for the same year (2001) indicate that African-Americans have the lowest total score (859), while the whites have a total score of 1060. Asian-Americans have the highest total (1067) among ethnic groups. (Ibid.) The test scores of the ethnic groups…. [read more]

IQ Tests: The Best of Many Bad Term Paper

… IQ tests: The best of many bad alternatives to identify student's needs?

Intelligence testing remains one of the most controversial aspects of modern educational screening. On one hand, it can provide an invaluable asset to educators, if student's special needs or deficits are determined early on in the student's academic career. Once, they were seen as potentially democratic. "Achievement and IQ tests have the potential to identify talented students from all walks of life -- and thus to level the playing field of public education." ("Intelligence and Achievement Testing: Is the Half Full Glass Getting Fuller? APA Online: Monitor on Psychology, 2006) But the accuracy and usefulness of IQ testing has also been criticized as invalid, biased and potentially faulty. If abused, IQ tests can…. [read more]

Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment Term Paper

… (Myers 1995) This test was created by David Wechsler and is composed of 11 subtests that report overall intelligence and separate verbal and nonverbal scores. This intelligence test can determine whether or not an individual has a learning disability and it can also show an employer the strengths and weaknesses of an employee. (Myers 1995)

Morris (2002) explains that "The Bell Curve," "continues to propagate the notion in the academy and popular culture that a major reason African-Americans do not achieve in schools might be more connected to rank-and-file notions of African-Americans' innate intellectual inferiority, than to persistent, concrete structural and historic forces." (Morris 2002) Morris (2002) contends that the assertions made by Herrnstein and Murray have had profound implications upon gifted education in the…. [read more]

IQ Discrimination Term Paper


Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that interferes with a person's ability to think clearly, manage emotions, make decisions and relate to others. The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill ( describes the cause as-"like many other medical illnesses such as cancer or diabetes, schizophrenia seems to be caused by a combination of problems including genetic vulnerability and environmental factors..."

Almost all publications (fact sheets, brochures, articles, etc.) describe mental illnesses as medical illnesses, despite their behavioral component. This is based on the fact that there is agreement that there is a chemical imbalance underlying these illnesses. Modern technology, for example MRIs, have allowed the physical examination of the brain confirming that mental illnesses involve physiological problems. Behavior therapy or psychotherapy is no longer relied…. [read more]

Race, IQ and Intelligence in Debunking Term Paper

… Race, IQ and Intelligence

In debunking what can only be regarded as myths concerning a link between race, IQ and intelligence, particularly with regard to an imaginary "white-black gap," there are several places to begin. However, one must first define the terms IQ (intelligence quotient) and intelligence. Once that is done, however, it then it becomes clear that any correlation between two or three of those factors is, indeed, imaginary, or at least constructed by various philosophers and scientists to uphold their biases.

Defining IQ and intelligence

There are two requirements for defining IQ adequately for the current purposes. First, IQ does not measure racial characteristics. It does not "measure an individual phenotypic character like height or weight; it is a measure of the rank…. [read more]

Standardized Tests Truly Reflective of All Students Term Paper

… ¶ … standardized tests truly reflective of all students, even those with cultural diversity, limited English, and disabilities?

In order to determine the answer to that question, first standardized tests in general must be examined for their fairness to minorities, those with cultural diversity, limited English and disabilities.

To that end, this paper will first examine the reliability of standardized tests as a fair indicator, focusing primarily on the experiences of African-American students. Taking that conclusion in hand, the paper will then tackle the issue of whether NCLB and AYP are successful in depending on standardized tests to determine both funding and students' and schools' success and failure.

This paper concludes that standardized tests are not at all fair towards minorities - as indicated in…. [read more]

Reliability of Test Research Paper

… Their educational level would dictate the complexity of the evaluation techniques while their cultural inclinational would determine the appropriateness of the various techniques in regard to their cultural believes. The confidentiality of the findings must also be assured.

IV. What are the specific ethical and legal issues that must be considered when giving a psychological test for the client?

The legal and ethical issues involved in psychological assessment are numerous. Pope (n, d) points out that there must be informed consent before the psychotherapy and counseling is initiated, the release of the private data must be guided by the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct and the law (APA, 2003). The test construction must be such that the allow the psychologists to…. [read more]

Memory Processes Thinking and Language Intelligence Essay

… Memory/Intelligence

My First Memory

The earliest memory I can recall is an event that happened when I was two years old. This was definitely and definitively an autobiographical memory, as it was not earth-shattering or of great importance to anyone but me, and in fact it was not even all that important -- or important at all -- in affecting the course of my own life. My earliest memory is of the time that I first burped and said a word at the same time. The word I spoke, or attempted to speak, was a simple, "oh," in response to some fact that my older (and thus far wiser, to my toddler eyes) had just explained to me. Full of seriousness and gratitude at the…. [read more]

Learning Environment of Schools at Present Are Heavily Biased Toward Uniformity Over Diversity Thesis

… Learning Environment of Schools at Present Are Heavily Biased Toward Uniformity Over Diversity

Over the last 50 years, the overall style of teaching has remained the same. Where, the approach has been to teach in the same universal standards for everyone. This is despite the fact that over 50 years ago several leading educational scholars disputed the model of using a one size fits all approach to teach. Instead, these leading thinkers advocated an approach of allowing each person to learn according to their own individual learning style. An example of this can been with Nathaniel Cantor who said, "The public elementary, high schools, and colleges, generally project what they consider to be the proper way of learning which is uniform for all students." (Guild,…. [read more]

Special Education Term Paper

… McConnell (2000) confirms that early childhood special education and early intervention can greatly improve the academic careers of students with learning disabilities. McConnell asserts that early childhood intervention is designed to improve competencies, skills and to aid children and their families in making the proper educational adjustments. (McConnell 2000)

McConnell writes that many early childhood education assessment practices have been historically connected to intervention approaches. The article goes on to state that many of the initial intervention practices begin in the 60's and 70's. During theses decades professionals utilized developmental and task analytic checklist to assess the students' ability level. They also used close point evaluation to develop a curriculum of intervention. (McConnell 2000)

McConnell goes on to explain that many teachers during this era…. [read more]

Measurement and Statistics Intelligence: Definition Research Paper

… The new SAT's makers state that the new version, which includes a verbal, mathematical, and writing component no longer purports to be an 'aptitude' test of potential, but the consequences it can have for students who excel -- or fail to excel upon the test -- can be equally life-changing as intelligence tests.


Achievement tests. (2011). Institute of Mental Measurements. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at

Becker, Kirt. (2003). History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. Houghton-Mifflin.

Retrieved June 8, 2011 at

Gilman, Linda. (2001). Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Intelligence Theory.

Retrieved June 8, 2011 at

Gottfredson, Linda S. The General Intelligence Factor. Scientific American.

Retrieved June 8, 2011 at

Ford-Martin, Paula Anne. (1999). Wechsler intelligence test. Encyclopedia of Medicine. Retrieved…. [read more]

Pogson and Tennant Thesis

… Pogson and Tennant

Which do you think most closely explains "you" as an adult learner?

I do not actually fit into any one of the specific theories that Pogson and Tennant have offered. The theory regarding practical intelligence is an interesting one, but yet I have many of the traits of this type of learner without being illiterate, as many of these learners are. The IQ model is probably the closest model to me as an adult learner. Since my IQ is above average, I feel that my intelligence is what best helps me learn. I do have difficulties with some areas of learning, but that is to be expected. Almost everyone has difficulties with something in their learning experience. Some people struggle with math,…. [read more]

Psychological Testing Movement Term Paper

… ¶ … Psychological Testing Movement: History and Controversies

Science and technology have had a profound effect on the world, and will likely continue to do so for many years to come. With the current and recent past being focused upon scientific discoveries and scientific categorization of both biological and psychological scientific classifications there has been a great deal of emphasis on naming and categorizing phenomena, even when the phenomena is in-concrete and difficult to name or categorize. The emphasis on science has proliferated every field of research and psychology is no exception to that rule. Over the last fifty or so years there has been countless attempts to scientifically categorize intelligence. Intelligence is intangible but outward expressions of it seem to be capable of categorization…. [read more]

Intelligence When Most People Think Term Paper

… Further, it is possible to interpret many intelligence questions in multiple ways (especially in the case of extremely intelligent test takers). Consider, for example, the following experience of one young man faced with an ambiguous question:

Indeed an intelligence test I was once forced to do required me to put certain cards in the 'proper' sequence to show a sunrise/sunset. Of course the test monitor wouldn't tell me if it was a sunrise or sunset which I was meant to show, despite the fact that the cards would naturally have to be put in reverse order to show a sunrise rather than a sunset. Thus to my mind intelligence tests seem to test for rigid thought and thus deny the very creativity which in children…. [read more]

Gifted and Talented Education Term Paper

… The concerns over recruiting and retaining minority students in gifted education programs have persisted for several decades (Ford, 1998)."

The study presented evidence of the passing over of the issue of minority students in gifted education by pointing out the ERIC database that produced almost 10 thousand published articles about gifted education, and only 7 hundred of them had to do with minority students and gifted education.

A breakdown of those articles indicates that 1.1% focused on Hispanic-American students (n = 110), 1.3% on American Indian students (n = 132), 5% on African-American students (n = 491), and 6% on Asian-American students (n = 62). "

Further analysis of the topic on gifted minority students and their screening pointed to a further under-representation of them…. [read more]

Personality / Intelligence Testing Research Paper

… Creative intelligence is immensely important in this regard, therefore the test may be invalid. As far as reliability, the website on which this test appears claims that is has been ninety-five percent accurate with its results when compared to professional intelligence tests. That being said, the reliability of the test is somewhat hampered by its brevity; with only thirty questions, adjustments for time taken to complete the test and age of the taker have much bigger effects then they would on longer tests. The test does have a very standard method of question delivery and response marking, and the bias level is fairly low (though it does depend on certain piece of knowledge within the English language).

The second intelligence test I found online is…. [read more]

SAT Controversy the Application Term Paper

… One meticulous literacy analysis elucidated two admission plans, one applying just the high school record and the other applying high school record and SAT-I marks. A huge number exceeding 90% of the admissions decisions were the very same under both plans. Anyhow, for the 10% of the enroller pool in which the two plans gave rise to variant decisions, the SAT-based plan gave rise to a higher chunk of dismissals of otherwise academically deemed minority and low-asset enrollers. Critics argue that most 4-year colleges are open to more than 75% of their applicants and have constrained or no real requisite for the SAT as an admissions instrument. Even the handful of 130 or categorized schools that turn down more than half their enrollers could curtail…. [read more]

Psychological Testing When One Hears Term Paper

… Critics of IQ tests argue that these tests do not in fact measure potential (or at least not solely potential) but reflect cultural biases. In other words, IQ tests in part measure already-acquired knowledge that is more commonly held by members of certain groups and not others, with the result that some individuals will in fact score higher than other individuals with the same potential.

Neuropsychological tests are used to determine if an individual has a lack in some area of cognitive functioning. Such tests are often administered after a person has suffered a stroke or some form of brain trauma and are used to identify exactly what skills or areas of knowledge may have been affected and so what forms of therapy may be…. [read more]

Nature or Nurture Term Paper

… Surprisingly, nativists have argued that this research was scientifically sound, but unpopular.

With selective breeding practices, this aristocracy would become genetically superior to the citizens. Citizens would have their collective IQ raised due to the government-ordained sterilization of the mentally inferior. States passed multiple sterilization laws, the legality of which was upheld by the Supreme Court (Murdoch, 2007). Environmentalists also observed that early nativists were racist and/or sexist. African-Americans were thought to have significantly lower IQs. Consequently, this prevented their ability to perform complex tasks and better suited them for manual labor. During the mid and late 20th century, new scientific evidence cast doubt on nativism (Nisbett, 2009). Research indicated that environment significantly influenced intelligence, thus moving nativists to a minority position.

Personal Reflection

Insomuch,…. [read more]

Observing and Maintaining the Ethical Code of Conduct During Psychological Testing Research Paper

… Ethics, Technology and Trends in Testing

Ethics, Technology, and Trends in Testing

It is vital that a psychologist ensure that they observe ethical concerns and principles when they are carrying out psychological tests. The APA has laid out the various ethical principles that should be followed by psychologists when dealing with patients and conducting research. The use of technology has been beneficial, but it has also come with added concerns in regards to ethics. In as much as technology saves time and makes the evaluation process simpler, it also raises ethical concerns like confidentiality, accuracy, and psychologist competency. These issues should be properly addressed if technology is to continue being used for psychological testing. However, one needs to understand that the growing use of technology…. [read more]

Testing Assessment Thesis

… sychologicalTesting_AfricanAmericans

For hundreds of years, there has been a common idea that race and intelligence are statistically correlated. Even contemporary debate into this paradigm focuses on the differences in test scores when tabulated using different ethnic data. Central to this question remains the idea of nature vs. nurture -- is it the flaw of the test that changes the rubric of the results; the flaw in a balanced education of facts, experiences and opportunities available in some neighborhoods and not in others, or is there another socio-economic or cultural factor contributing to these perceived differences? (Rushton, and Jensen, 2005). Central to this argument is the nature of eugenics, a practice or belief in the improvement of the human species by discouraging reproduction from those who…. [read more]

Pedagogic Model: Teaching Technology in Special Education Dissertation

… " (Dougiamas, 1998) Such trivial constructivism, though, is the bedrock from which Glaserfelds more radical constructivism springs. He continues to state that because knowledge is constructed by the learner, and because no two learners are the same, knowledge itself is not absolute. There is a degree to which knowledge is an illusion, and every individual constructs their own conception of reality which (while susceptible to the demands of "real" or normal reality) does not necessarily align with the normal paradigm. Constructivism does embrace this relativistic and existential approach to reality, but it also holds as a primary value the idea of constraint which enables the thinkers to participate in social interaction and mainstream reality. (Glasersfeld)

One interesting area of constructionist theory is…. [read more]

Organizational Leaders Produce Results Through Emotional Intelligence Thesis

… Organizational Leaders Produce Results Through Emotional Intelligence

Organizational Development deals with various aspects of workforce management including motivation theories, leadership, hire and fire, and employee training. With the constant ongoing evolutions in the current corporate scenario issues related to employee motivation, hierarchal levels, delegation of responsibility and decentralization of the organizational sectors have attracted a great deal of debate from various circles of the management sciences discipline (Bennis 1969). Management of human resource is therefore a tricky job and therefore requires an effective leader in order to deal with the pertaining issues.

We know that leadership is the demand of the day. Everybody aspires and struggles to get to a high position in big organizations. We should remember that today, organizations do not want managers…. [read more]

Intelligence Testing Few Concepts Research Paper

… S. soldiers during World War I). Tests such as the earliest versions of the Stanford-Binet "measured only two domains: linguistic/verbal and spatial/mathematical reasoning, revealing the bias that human intelligence resides only in these two areas. Gardner wryly maintains that this narrow concept of intelligence befits the attributes of a 'law professor' and not much else" (Helding 2009). The general factor of intelligence theory does not account for the social need for individuals with a wide range of abilities in a society. It devalues the gifts of many intelligent individuals whose strengths do not lie in the domains prioritized in intelligence tests.

Critics of Gardner's theory state that it is too broad, and virtually anything can be designated as 'an intelligence' under his rubric, including "emotional…. [read more]

RTI Response to Intervention Term Paper

… In short, early childhood educators as a group may be more focused on basic skill development and more accustomed to flexible and responsive service delivery than their elementary school counterparts. Therefore, it seems possible that RTI would be more readily accepted in early childhood, as it likely represents less of a philosophical or pedagogical shift at the preschool level.

Principles of RTI

Four key principles that consistently appear in models of RTI include the procedure of (1) entire screening of students in the school to detect the ones who are at risk of low academic performance, (2) a school wide, multi-tiered approach to prevent such school failure, (3) continuous monitoring of progress (hereafter progress monitoring) to document a student's progress (or lack thereof) and to…. [read more]

African-American Children in Special Education Term Paper

… Many of these individuals also receive their special education classes in buildings or classrooms that are segregated (Nobles, 1991). It is also important to note that the labeling that comes along with various categories of learning disabilities has very strong negative implications for many African-American youth (Nobles, 1991). These can include labels of emotional and behavioral disabilities, learning disabilities, and mild mental disabilities (Nobles, 1991). There are both validity problems and definitional problems with these issues because there are disagreements as to what exactly make up these problems and how exactly individuals who appear to have these difficulties should be categorized (Nobles, 1991). It has also been noted by researchers that there have been different and seemingly arbitrary shifts in much of the diagnostic criteria…. [read more]

Special Education Referral Processes for Haitian Students Literature Review

… ¶ … R-Questions to build the literature review.

What were the perceptions of teachers regarding the existing identification and referral process for ELLs and learning-disabled students?

What were the perceptions of the existing identification and referral process for ELLs as reported by parents of these students?

What gaps existed between the existing identification and referral process for ELLs and the ideal process?

What were the best practices of ELL identification and referral that prevent misidentification of ELLs as learning-disabled?

What recommendations can be offered to the school to improve assessment and referral processes for the evaluation of language-instruction needs among Haitian students at the schools?

Nadia's current chapter outline:

Review of the Literature

ELLs: Demographic and Academic Trends

Assessment Concerns


The Prevention of Misidentification…. [read more]

K-12 Curriculum and Instruction: Changing Research Proposal

… From what? Boring stuff." (2011)

Robinson states that the instance of ADHD "has risen in parallel with the growth of standardized testing. And these kids are being given Ritalin and Adderall and all manner of things. Often quite dangerous drugs to get them focused and calm them down. But according to this attention deficit disorder increases as you travel east across the country. People start losing interest in Oklahoma. They can hardly think straight in Arkansas. And by the time they get to Washington they've lost it completely." (Robinson, 2011) The model of education is a system of education "…which is modeled on the interest of industrialism. And in the image of it. I'll give you a couple examples. Schools are still pretty much organized…. [read more]

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