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African-Americans Activism -- Gaining Civil Thesis

… In conclusion, there have been many organizations and individuals within those organizations whose activism and determination have helped remove the suffering from segregation and discrimination. It is true, as some writers and authors assert, that though today's hip-hop generation of young African-Americans enjoy social and legal benefits that were achieved during the Civil Rights Movement, many of those young people are ignorant as to the efforts that went before them. Still, while there are hurdles that remain for Blacks, a lot of positive changes have been brought to fruition and individuals that helped bring those changes are due a lot of respect.

Works Cited

Blair, Ezeil, Price, David, McNeil, Joseph, Richmond, David, and McCain, Franklin. (1960).

In Lunch at the Five and Ten: The Greensboro…. [read more]

African-American Art Research Paper

… Like Hayden's "Fetiche et Fleurs," Richmond Barthe's "Fera Benga" subverts European aesthetic norms. The "Fera Benga" small bronze statue is full of raw male potency. A naked man dances with a scimitar, a weapon that seems far more phallic than dangerous here. In addition to being filled with energy and motion, the statue also subverts European norms of male perfection and beauty. The "Fera Benga" does not need to be compared with Rodin, as Patton (1998) does, to be appreciated. This statue hearkens to every three-dimensional representation of the human form, from prehistoric art to Rodin. The "Fera Benga" is the idealized male form: no different from the Greek kouros. Only Hayden's form happens to be African. His pose also happens to be far different…. [read more]

African-American History the Sharecropping System Term Paper

… African-American History

The Sharecropping system

The Sharecropping system was a labor agreement that was shaped by the situation in the South after the Civil War and by the mutual dependency between farmers and laborers. (the Sharecropping System) the Civil War of 1861-1865 brought an end to slavery in the country. However this also meant that many farmers in the South were left without labor to farm their lands. This situation was also worsened by the poor state of the Southern economy after the war." The Southern economy was in such shambles that in many cases they couldn't even afford to buy seed and farm implements, much less to pay hired hands" (the Sharecropping System) There were also many African-Americans still living on the land in…. [read more]

African-American's Ethnic or Cultural Research Paper

… Some African-Americans are Muslims, for example, others are not part of church communities. However, because of the way that African-Americans are treated as a group in the U.S., regardless of an individual's personal identification with values, religion, and cultural markers associated with the group, the experience of an African-American person will be 'different' from an individual who comes from a group that is not historically discriminated against in America.

The great black intellectual W.E.B. Dubois spoke of the need for African-Americans to have a 'dual consciousness' regarding white and black culture. An African-American, he said, lived:"a world which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world. It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense…. [read more]

African-American Literature Du Bois Term Paper

… (93) "The harder the slaves were driven the more careless and fatal was their farming. Then came the revolution of war and Emancipation, the bewilderment of Reconstruction, -- and now, what is the Egypt of the Confederacy, and what meaning has it for the nation's weal or woe?" (92-93) The message is a strong sentiment describing the history of the place, the remnants of fences and homes once opulent and plush, though not enjoyed by the laborers, still indicative of care and prosperity, now only a skeleton of history rotting into the ground or roughly rebuilt to house a worker who simply has nowhere else to go. "I think I never before quite realized the place of the Fence in civilization. This is the Land…. [read more]

African-American History Sharecropping Was Not a Direct Term Paper

… African-American History


Sharecropping was not a direct effort by whites to keep blacks in a submissive position, but rather was a phenomenon that developed after the Civil War as the South tried to rebuild its economy (Riddle 1995). Southern white landowners did not like sharecropping, however they needed a means of labor to work their land, and ex-slaves had limited employment options as freedmen, thus sharecropping was essentially a necessary alternative, a compromise (Riddle 1995).

At the end of the War, freedmen owned no property, and most were illiterate, and the few skills they did possess related to agriculture production, thus the majority roamed the countryside seeking out family relations, while others congregated in shantytowns around Southern cities and towns (Riddle 1995).

Only about…. [read more]

African-American Slave Art the African-American Experience Thesis

… African-American Slave Art

The African-American experience is different from any other because of how Africans were introduced to America. Diaspora encouraged a tight bond between family members and friends. African-American heritage is one that is close to the heart because, in many situations, what existed a slave's heart and soul was the only thing that kept him or her going. Art has always been a representation of something - for enslaved African-Americans, art became of form of expressionism, hope, history, and therapy. From ordinary tools to literature, African-American art represents an era of struggle and survival.

Oral traditions go back as far as Africans do. While it might have been frowned upon in America, the tradition can be continued with songs and story telling. These…. [read more]

African-American Literature Term Paper

… What it does not tell you, is that it will show the reader (from vantage point of slave) how this practice is wrong.

The Confession of Nate Turner

In The Confession of Nate Turner, Thomas Gray is speaking for Nate Turner. He is slave who led the largest uprising in U.S. history. What happened was Turner published a pamphlet before his death that described: how and why the 1831 insurrection would occur in Virginia. As he was able to lead a group of slaves who: overpowered and gained control of South Hampton Country, Virginia. Once the uprising was over is when Turner would tell everything that happened with these events to his attorney (Thomas Gray). He would then take these conversations and distribute them as…. [read more]

American Experience Term Paper

… American Experience

Americans pride themselves on their nation, its achievements and its fundamental philosophy of government. Yet what is commonly thought of as the "greatest nation in the world" has frequently, systematically, and continually failed large segments of its society. The Declaration of Independence outlined lofty goals of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," and yet those ideals did not apply to one-half of the entire population: women; nor did the ideals apply to African-Americans. In fact, African-Americans were legally defined as three-fifths of a human being in the United States Constitution: a literal fraction of a person. Thus, embedded within the American legal and political system were safeguards to protect the rights of an elite few over the rights of others; to promote…. [read more]

Cultural Forms of Expression African-American Term Paper

… Cultural Forms of Expression African-American

Many cultural forms of expression have been utilized within the social science construct, to demonstrate ways in which such expressions reflect the culture as a whole, and in many cases the broader culture, or the one that is usually subjugating the first. Within W.E.B. DuBois, Writings DuBois wrote about how slave songs allowed individuals to express their feelings of subjugation and reject the broader culture. Angela Davis wrote about the blues as a vehicle to express the particular sentiment of back women, and more specifically, black feminists and lastly Daryl Michael Scott has used his pen to show how mid-century novels by Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison influenced social scientist in their thinking about the damage thesis of oppression. This…. [read more]

African-American Fixation and Modern Superiority Term Paper

… Many see sports as a good exit out of poverty and dumps. Even the poorest of individuals play sports such as football and basketball. A good number of high school dropouts' caused by inequalities in the school system would eventually increase the level of poverty. Hence those who are talented in their sports use it as a way to enter a much better financial class.

Besides the Black Americans, many White Americans are also good in the profession of sports. They exemplify in weight lifting and wrestling mainly because of their better torsos. Both Blacks and White are equally good in their sport's career but since sports is a passion to the Blacks they are more dedicated (Jon Entine. Debate and Chat).

Jesse Jackson once…. [read more]

Black Films as a Reflection of the Progress of African-American Culture Essay

… Black Films as a Reflection of the Progress of African-American Society

From the first African slave to set foot on American soil, to the election of Barack Obama, there has been a tremendous metamorphosis of the African-American community's stature within the culture of the United States. Where Within Our Gates provided one of the first proverbial dips into the waters of African-American's being able to express their genuine opinions, films such as Do the Right Thing and Shaft were vibrant expressions of passion and rage that pulled no punches. This dramatic change did not happen overnight, and to illustrate this, this paper will utilize films from the black film canon that individually signify the gradual steps African-Americans took to improve their social standing in the…. [read more]

American Ethnic Literature Essay

… In this argument, Anzaldua uses the concept of how language help define the experience of minority individuals, which is very often a theme that is not explicitly expressed in American ethnic literature. Here, she writes, "Chicanas who grew up speaking Chicano Spanish have internalized the belief that we speak poor Spanish. It is illegitimate, a bastard language. And because we internalized how our language has been used against us at the dominant culture, we use our language differences against each other," (Anzaldua 2950). There is a need for the individual and society at large to except these hybrid forms of identity in contemporary American culture. Language is crucial to the formation of both culture and identity. By being denied this by both Americans and Mexicans,…. [read more]

South African: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle Term Paper

… South African: The Rise, Fall, And Struggle During South African Apartheid

The political map of the African continent can be considered to be the result of the centuries of imperial colonialism expressed especially through the continuous pressures of the British, the French, or the 16th century Portuguese. Despite this background, most of the African societies developed in time a distinct national identity and a precise trademark for the country image they would be ultimately identified with. Rwanda is seen through the perspective of the early 1990s genocide; Somalia is associated with its dramatic experience with famine and poverty; from this point-of-view, so too is South Africa perceived as a state resulted from decades of struggle inside a political system marked by the policy of apartheid.…. [read more]

Life in Sherman Alexie's Reservation Blues Term Paper

… All at once the crossroads of the Native American reservation offer a point of meeting between Native American and African-American history and a point of divergence between Native American and white American influence.

That the novel presents the crossroads of Wellpinit as a potentially hopeful point in space that offer a chance at redemption instead of damnation is important, because for the most part, life on the reservation is neither hopeful nor redemptive. The space of the reservation is a space where "death, alcohol, poverty, book-burning, and child abuse find their place," and everyday life is not conducive to hope or the possibility of change due to the centuries-long legacy of colonialism (Meredith 446; Evans 52). This too serves as both a…. [read more]

Adult Literacy in African-American Communities Thesis

… Adult Literacy in African-American Communities


The modern definition of literacy extends beyond reading and writing. The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 defines it as "an individual's ability to read, write, speak in English, compute and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job, in the family... And in society." The ability of adult education to "mold a world" has been questioned in the light of complex and current social and economic realities. Sharp decline in employment in major urban centers, poorly performing schools and low educational levels among African-Americans and other people of color are among these.

Surveys show that African-Americans and Hispanics combined account for more than half of all the participants in federally funded adult literacy education…. [read more]

Dually Diagnosed African-American and Latino Adolescents Term Paper

… Dually Diagnosed African-American and Latino adolescents


Abuse of substances on the part of adolescents has grown to be a national concern in the United States and has sparked many studies in this area in the last decade. Great challenges are presented for the clinician and the substance abuse treatment system in developing and applying appropriate and effective treatment for these adolescents. Studies have shown that of the adolescents who have substance abuse disorders, many of them also have mental health illness a combination of which is termed 'dual diagnoses or co-occurring disorders. The combination of these two disorders often have devastating impacts on the adolescent, their family and…. [read more]

Gender Influences on Women and or Men's Lives Essay

… Gender

African-American men understand the issue of white privilege, which frequently goes unnoticed by those who possess that privilege. In fact, it is almost part of the definition of white privilege that whites remain unaware of the social status, consideration, and opportunity automatically proffered. Being able to switch back and forth between white and black identities is not possible, and African-American men remain cognizant of the fact that the formation of a strong African-American community creates distinct and legitimate alternatives to the dominant culture. Applying the logic of white privilege to patriarchy, it may seem as if an African-American man could be more sensitive to the oppressive force of male hegemony due to the experience of oppression and discrimination. Unfortunately, this is not usually the…. [read more]

Harlem 1920-1960 Term Paper

… Harlem 1920-1960 Culture of the Harlem

Harlem has indeed been a mirror of the diversity that sums up the essence of the American nation. It is the social, economic, and political environment in which the African-American cultural individuality has integrated and defined itself as a cornerstone of what came to be known today as the American nation. Despite the multitude of opinions arguing that there is no true American cultural identity, it is beyond any doubt its existence, even if it cannot be fully integrated in a cultural blueprint as expressed by the traditional analysis of the European standards. Indeed, the American culture lacks the time duration and from this point-of-view it can be said to be inferior to the French or the Italian ones…. [read more]

Country Experienced European-American Imperialism Essay

… These people formed the Progressive Liberal Party (PLP) and managed to gain independence through the Commonwealth of Bahamas on July 10, 1973 (Stuart Olson & Shadle 1991, 40).

4. Colonization had both positive and negative on the Bahamas. When considering that the native population on the island virtually came to be extinct consequent to its contact with European nations, one can consider that colonization was detrimental for the Bahamas. However, the fact that Europeans invested large amounts of money and efforts in making the islands a hospitable place improved living conditions in the Bahamas and generally set the basis for a thriving country. The islands came to be one of the most developed countries in the Western World as they became more populous, "provided opportunities…. [read more]

Jim Crow Era Term Paper


According to Jennifer Blue, the term Jim Crow, the name of an early Negro minstrel song, "refers to the official discrimination against or segregation of African-Americans" following the end of the Civil War in 1865 and commencing from the beginning of the Reconstruction Era in 1866 and up to the mid-1920's. These "Jim Crow" laws were "officially instituted by the southern states when racial attitudes hardened in the 1890's" some thirty years after Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation which abolished slavery in America. During these years, Jim Crow laws "mandated racial separation in schools, parks, playgrounds, restaurants, hotels, public transportation... restrooms" and other public facilities and stood as symbols of "supposed black inferiority" ("An Analysis of Jim Crow Laws," Internet).

During…. [read more]

American Ethnic Literature Analyzing Essay

… Iranian American writers, for example, "grapple with exile [and] 'depict cultural identity as caught between abstract theories of boundary-free identity, the politics and problematics of representation, and the painful realities of exile, authoritarianism, and social marginalization" (Karim, Rahimieh, 2008, p. 10). In the modern American landscape, in other words, melting pot standards are resisted -- but definite and clear ethnic identity is difficult to manifest (especially when the landscape is hostile to what it perceives as a foreign threat). Liberty, opportunity, and equality are therefore not truly experienced by the Ethnic American writer unless he adapts to what the WASP lays out as conditions for joining the club.

In conclusion, the Ethnic American writer is in a way an outsider to the American tradition but…. [read more]

American Themes and Americanism in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou Term Paper

… African-American Literature

The American experience is varied and includes both the good and bad aspects of American life, and both elements are reflected in American literature as well. The experience of black Americans is expressed most fully by black writers, and these expression are also reflective of aspects of American life and of the development of American society over time.

A large portion of the black experience relates back to the slave era and then to the ongoing discrimination and struggle of black Americans after that era. Both elements are reflected in the writings of African-Americans. An early expression of both elements can be found in the works of Charles W. Chesnutt, an African-American who was never a slave himself but who reflected on the…. [read more]

Dance Cultural Forces in Subcultures Essay

… Dance

Cultural forces in subcultures such as African-American dance forms have shaped major American dance forms such as modern and jazz dancing. In the opinion of the author, modern American dance relies heavily upon elements that were "confiscated" (taken) from non-European dance and then fused with European forms to make distinctly American dance forms.

Modern and Jazz Dance

Conserving Culure

Modern/contemporary dance helped to conserve the cultural values, traditions and heritage of Caribbean and African dance forms and other forms as well Modern and jazz dance are intricate and involve techniques gained only through many years of training. In modern or contemporary dance, movement is free and constantly creating and defining new steps. Such movement is based upon the use of gravity, breathing, momentum and…. [read more]

American Eulogies to the Old South: Natasha Term Paper

… ¶ … American Eulogies to the Old South:

Natasha Trethewey's Native Guard and Marilyn Nelson's a Wreath for Emmett Till Both American poets Natasha Trethewey and Marilyn Nelson tackle aspects of the American history of racial intolerance in their books Native Guard and a Wreath for Emmett Till. Poetry is often though of as a personal medium, although back in Elizabethan times, poetry was also an opportunity for an author to demonstrate exotic wordplay and his or her pure, technical gifts as an artist, as is evidenced in Shakespeare's verbal fireworks in Homeric times, poetic epic told the story and proclaimed the values of a nation as well as an individual. These American women's poetic works are tours de force on all three levels of…. [read more]

Captivity and Slavery in American History Essay

… Captivity & Slavery in American History

Journey towards Freedom of Mind: Understanding the Worldviews of Mary Rowlandson, Captive, and Olaudah Equiano, Slave

During the Colonial period, American society is undergoing a transition that is characteristic of any colonial territory owned by a European nation -- the transition state is "poor" and "nasty," if not "short," to borrow Thomas Hobbes' famous line in the Leviathan. This transition state is 'poor and nasty' because native Americans (Indians) met the new occupants of the now-British colony with resistance, demonstrating this resistance by a series of violence that ultimately led to death for both the native and colonial Americans.

Aside from the native Americans' resistance to the occupation of America by Britain (i.e., by colonial Americans), the Colonial period…. [read more]

Attitude and Behavior Developmental Task Term Paper


There is an acknowledged identity crisis present in the African-American race due to the high rates of incarceration and low education achievements. The college environment serves to influence the development required in the self-identity transition toward the self-actualization of the individual in gaining a view of identity characterized by achievement. There is a delay in achievement associated with the failure to accept self or group identity. This work will illustrate that attitude is linked to talk development and behavioral adjustment which is part of the requirement for making the commitment for achievement in educational attainment. Principles of military discipline and leadership will also be reviewed…. [read more]

Terrible Transformation When the Original European Colonists Thesis

… ¶ … Terrible Transformation

When the original European colonists arrived in North America, they established a system of indentured servitude to facilitate their economic needs being met. This system was driven by religious identity rather than by racial classification, with the result that persons who were non-Christian could be made servants whether their skin tone was white or black. Workers in the system were required to serve out the terms of their contractual obligations and convert to Christianity, and they could thereby redeem their freedom -- again, without respect to skin color. This meant that in the early colonies servants of African descent had the same legal standing as other servants. Whites and blacks in the system of forced servitude were, as Johnson and Smith…. [read more]

Harlem Renaissance- Literature and Art Term Paper

… " Among the first collaborators to the magazine were Zora Neale Houston and Bruce Nugent, but the magazine itself was short lived. However, it pointed out the need of the "young negroes" not only to find an identity, but also to express it and coordinate it. The movement was already on the way by now, despite its decrease in strength during the Great Depression.

Among the greatest literary works of the Harlem Renaissance is the novel Cane, written by Jean Toomer. Focused on native Georgia, the novel is a return to the ancestral tradition and spirit. Indeed, the hero, Kabnis, considered to be Toomer's alter ego considers his place in society and among races. The author uses verses from African-American gospel songs to depict a…. [read more]

Lives of African Slaves Per Levine Black Culture and Black Consciousness Essay

… Black Culture and Black Consciousness -- Lawrence Levine

Chris Rock vs. Lawrence Levine

Speaking extemporaneously in a 2007 Time interview, comedian Chris Rock characterized the era of European (and later) American enslavement of African blacks as the "worst thing that has ever been done to human beings." He also included a specific reference to the fact that, in addition to being shackled, beaten, and raped, the victims of slavery also had their culture and their religion stripped from them in the process of their enslavement. Lawrence Levine, author of Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom (Oxford, 1977) might disagree, based on his comprehensive analysis of the rich cultural traditions maintained by slaves throughout the Antebellum period.

In his well-researched…. [read more]

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