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Culture and Subculture (P Essay

… 82)

Barriers to multicultural communication include anxiety; assuming similarity instead of difference, ethnocentrism, prejudice, and stereotyping. Anxiety is a natural and understandable barrier, but one that can impede successful communications. While it is not good to assume only differences, assuming similarity projects unreasonable and unrealistic values and norms on others and therefore impedes communication. Ethnocentrism is a cluster of phenomena based on the assumption that one's own culture is superior -- or at least a basis from which to judge others. Stereotypes are generalizations that, while sometimes valid, also cause unhealthy reactions such as prejudicial attitudes and behaviors.

Nonverbal message codes (p. 114-onward)

Nonverbal message codes include proxemics (the study of personal space); kinesics (gestures and body movements); chronemics (use of or attitudes toward time);…. [read more]

Culture of Interest: Japan Theoretical Research Paper

… Japan scored somewhere in middle on individualism collectivism index and the society is more paternalistic in nature. It does not display strongest of collectivist traditions but neither does it resonate with individualistic characteristics as a cultural unit. The American people on the other hand have displayed tremendously high score in this dimension. Having scored 91, the nation is among highest scorer in this aspect. People primarily work for them and do not like affording extended families. Satisfaction of personal aims, aspirations and motives is primary to American people. Glorification of personal efforts to achieve success is common place in the society Americans live in. While Japanese people are more considerate towards other group members, Americans too have displayed desire to form groups, only to satisfy…. [read more]

Intersecting Cultures and or Culture in a Global World Essay

… Intersecting cultures are creating a new kind of world, where just about every culture in every nation or region is a blend of two or more cultures. Much of the research one finds in the literature today reflects the dynamics of diversity within nations that have a multicultural social makeup. But there also is a need to understand what happens over time when one culture colonizes another and then is evicted as the indigenous culture re-assumes control. This process of de-colonization leaves in its wake a culture that is comprised of two or more distinctly different cultures, a kind of blend of cultures. This paper delves into those issues.

The Literature on the Intersecting of Cultures

Researching the way in which cultures have intersected over…. [read more]

Culture Refers to the Accumulated Knowledge Essay

… ¶ … Culture refers to the accumulated knowledge, social and personal behavior, values, language, customs, and the religious beliefs of one ethnic group which are usually learned and passed from one generation of people to the next one. Looking at culture from an anthropological viewpoint, culture determines what people belief in their folk remedies, indigenous systems of medicine and other aspects of life such as food, etc.

Indians have their own unique religion, language, music, dance, food and architecture which differ from one place to another within the country. The Indian culture is an amalgamation of several diverse sub-cultures which spread all over the subcontinent of India and traditions which are more than a millennium old White, 2009()

The Indian culture is regarded by many…. [read more]

Quality Reliability and Maintenance Essay

… Initiation Planning: Implementation of Six Stigma

My first step would be to clearly define to myself the importance of the system and why I think it beneficial for the business. I would draw up a proposal and present it to the owner before assembling the employees (I am considering approximately an industry of the size of 100-150) and presenting the system to them. Taking into account the complexity and seeming rigidity of the process, I (and the management) would need to have all on board before proceeding. We would need to clearly understand the details and involvements of the system aside from short- and long-term impact of the method.

I would also evaluate and analyze the characteristics of the organization and its employees to identify…. [read more]

Corporate Culture Survival Guide (Chapter Research Paper

… (Schein, 1999, paraphrased)

There are different considerations of culture in the mature organization because when the organization is mature the organization has a corporate culture that is reflective of all the organization parts and the subcultures serve to reflect the functions, products, markets and geographic of the organization. According to Schein, along with the age of the organization the corporate culture and subculture misalignment results in complex problems related to the organization's survival especially where the "technology, market conditions and financial situation have changed.

Schein writes that the greatest danger in the attempt to understand culture of the organization is oversimplification. There are reported to be three levels of culture including: (1) artifacts, or the visible structures of the organization and organizational processes; (2) espoused…. [read more]

School Culture on School Safety Term Paper

… According to the National School Safety Center (1995) creating safe schools is about commitment. That does not mean only commitment from the principal, or from the teachers, or from the students. Accomplishing such a goal requires families, schools, and community leaders to talk about the quality of the educational environment they want to provide for youth and together develop the strategies that will produce the desired results.

This type of cohesive commitment is the only real way that schools can be made safer, as one person cannot do it alone, and communities must express the desire to make schools safer and therefore give the students a better school life and more hope for the future. The Center also suggests that achieving these goals requires leaders…. [read more]

Business Culture and Expansion Trends Research Paper

… , Mrs., Miss plus the complete name is deemed respectful; sincerity is considered the very best policy hence no overselling is required; it is considered inappropriate to speak in a loud tone as well; politics, sports, and weather condition are great conversational subjects, and could be fiercely discussed and in order to be a great conversationalist, it is important remain present and notified on crucial subjects; it is also recommended to avoid complicating New Zealand and Australia as part of one nation, as they are 2 unique nations. If you are not knowledgeable about New Zealand, hang around prior to your journey to find out about the history and culture (Trevor-Roberts et al., 2003).

c. Religion.

In New Zealand, simply over half of the populace…. [read more]

Hip Hop Culture in Saudi Arabia Research Paper

… Hip Hop Culture in Saudi Arabia

Culture and globalization

Culture which refers to the symbolic systems Williams 91()

through which human beings exist and coexist has been globalized by taking ideas, values and meanings across national borders through international travel and the Internet. These global shifts in culture are seen to be creating rapid social changes in the society with some proponents of culture being seriously dislocated Thompson 214.

Globalization is the homogenization of culture not just in a spatial but also in a temporal manner Thompson 211.

It is manifested in various ways such as business, religion, language, sports, music and even cuisine.

Culture is closely related to other items such as identity and subjectivity. As argued by Thompson (217)

culture creates social identities…. [read more]

Face in Chinese Culture Westerners Doing Business in China Term Paper

… ¶ … Chinese culture - Westerners doing business in China

China has recently entered the global competition and has thrown open the doors to business by outsiders. In that context the business men of the west need to have a through knowledge of the ways of the East which also means an analysis of the culture and the way the country and the culture values the career, prosperity and business and the ethical religious an d moral values all of which go to make the culture of the country. Without first being grounded to the realities of the differences that exist in all things between the American business man and his contemporary in China, it would be a futile and stress full activity doing business…. [read more]

Applying Culture Concept in Overseas Subsidiaries Term Paper

… Culture Concept and Overseas Subsidiaries

Globalization is no longer an abstract term from the 1990s; globalization is the present day reality for businesses providing services or engaged in manufacturing automobiles, technologies, clothing, running shoes, or other products. Companies and their employees who move to overseas locations to work in subsidiaries face challenges and obstacles that frequently offer unanticipated and unpleasant experiences. What are the limitations when conceptualizing and attempting to apply the culture concept in an overseas venue? What are the keys to making successful transitions - with the same company - from the comforts of a familiar home-based working environment to a foreign venue thousands of miles away? This paper reviews and evaluates examples of these experiences, including how companies are adjusting to cultural…. [read more]

Jewish Organized Crime Research Paper

… Organized crime "remains one of the ways by which vigorous minorities bypass the traditional and orthodox routes to power" (Kelly, 1986, p10). What differentiates an organized crime group from temporary alliances among criminals is that it allows for a long-term relationship of contacts, shared interests, and hierarchy of accountability (Finckenauer & Waring, 1998, p. 11). Though legendary Jewish criminals like Meyer Lansky, Bugsy Siegel, Longy Zwillman, and Moe Dalitz emerge next to the names of prominent Italian Mob Bosses throughout the history of organized crime, the question remains if they actually constitute a Mafiya, an organized crime group. This paper will attempt to answer that very question: do the Jewish crime groups qualify as organized crime?

The first issue that arises when discussing Jewish Organized…. [read more]

Organizational Culture: An Analysis Essay

… However, it is entirely possible (and often even quite easy) to make changes in terms of practical issues and processes without giving up values (Harris & Barnes, 2006). Part of the key usefulness of Morgan's approach to organizational culture is that he emphasizes the ways in which different aspects of an organizational culture can be analyzed, understood, and changed (or preserved) in different ways and at different levels of intensity.

How an Organization Can Utilize Morgan's Work

Morgan (1997) argues that viewing the ways in which an organization works as if it were an organic culture is especially helpful in allowing change to occur in an integrated, progressive way. Among the most efficacious ways to incorporate his work are the following:

1) What are the…. [read more]

Comparison of the Social Sciences Research Paper

… ¶ … Social Sciences

Background- for centuries, philosophers have puzzled the human condition. Questions abound about why humans act the way they do, why they form groups, what role cultural and social norms have for learning, how societies form, the nature of society, social change, and the way integration and alienation fit in with modern societies. In particular, the changes in urbanization and technology, and access to other cultures, spurred even more study of what it means to be human. Together, these paradigms form a notion of human history in which theories have tried to explain different aspects of human behavior and interaction. We now call the study of society and human behavior social science; a more umbrella term that refers to a number of…. [read more]

Perceived Effect of Culture on Event Leadership Research Proposal

… ¶ … perceived effect of culture on event leadership style at the Jet Metropolitan Night Club Thailand?

Event managers all over the world fear that they may end up loosing their jobs. Research shows that nearly 25% managers loose their jobs when companies streamline their business processes and rely more on teamwork to do the job. Versteeg (1990) outlined two typical aspects of managerial jobs that lure managers into looking away from adopting business structures which depend on high performing teams from different cultural and social backgrounds: they are accustomed to be in control; and they are inclined to having perks and privileges. Some of the most common perks and privileges include: reserved parking; executive bathrooms; and time cards.

These along with other perks that…. [read more]

Organisational Culture of J. Sainsbury Term Paper

… Organisational Culture of J. Sainsbury

During the past two decades, the concept of organisational culture has gained broad acceptance as a way to understand human systems (Deal and Kennedy, 2000). From an "open-sytems" perspective, each aspect of organisational culture is perceived as an important environmental condition that affects the system and its subsystems. Nowadays, companies are defined by their organisational cultures, and for many, it is something that can make or break the company.

This perception of organisations is rooted in anthropology and sociology and uses many of these terms to define the building blocks of culture (Deal and Kennedy, 2000). Edgar Schein, a famous theorist of organisational culture, gave the following very general definition: "The culture of a group can now be defined as:…. [read more]

Managing Organizational Culture Dissertation

… ¶ … opportunity exists for the company to expand internationally by setting up operations in the emerging economies of China and India. The question to consider is how to build cultural harmony between the facilities operating in three different countries. The question of whether it would be better to establish a certain national organizational culture is likely would be considered in this report. cultures of the United Kingdom, India and China is presented. The organizational cultures prevalent in China and India are more collectivistic and marked by high power distance than the organizational cultures in the United Kingdom. There are other differences such as the importance of status in China and family tradition in India, whereas in the United Kingdom principles of utility and economic…. [read more]

Minority Culture in South Dakota Research Paper

… S. Census Bureau.

6.2 Most significant source

The most significant source of data and information was the U.S. Census Bureau since it acted as the guide to the entire research. It enabled me to know exactly the population of each group in South Dakota and from there make out which ones were the minority. It also provided comparative data whenever I needed.

6.3 Review and synthesis of data/information

The collected data was broken down from the general minority groups in the entire nation to the specific culture groups that were being studied. The numerical data were first verified by cross checking in at least two of government-based or organizational websites before being used. The crosschecked data would then be highlighted and the website saved in…. [read more]

Human Variation Thesis

… Physical Anthropology

Human variation

Physical anthropology and racism: The interaction between supposedly objective science and cultural assumptions

Because of the sad history of human society, few academic disciplines are immune to accusations of racism. However, anthropology, because it purports to study world cultures, has one of the most troubling histories of all of the social sciences regarding the justification of racial prejudices. This paper will examine how physical anthropology has been used as a liberator as well as an inhibitor of social equality. Anthropologists have used the physical aspects of different human beings classified under 'racial categories' over the centuries to justify pervasive social inequalities and outright segregation and brutal colonialism, as is evident in this excerpt from an early 19th century lecture, quoted at…. [read more]

International and Comparative HRM Term Paper

… Culture and Diversity Issues in Expanding to Singapore

In today's increasingly globalized economy, expansion beyond an organization's national borders offers many benefits. For many organizations, expanding to operations into other countries offers access to a broader consumer base, as well as distribution networks. In addition, organizations many realize increased efficiencies by locating production processes and conducting business transactions outside of their national borders. These multinational enterprises (MNE), as Choy (2007) notes, are better positioned to capitalize on new specialized resources. These include: technological competencies, capital, production capabilities, and information and tacit knowledge that can enhance the organization's services and product development. Other benefits for multinational expansion include increased cost efficiencies due to economies of scale due to a world-wide distribution network and opportunities for product…. [read more]

Organizational Structure, Culture and Knowledge the Nature Essay

… Organizational Structure, Culture and Knowledge

The nature and dynamics of organizations today are shaped by various factors, often implicitly manifested rather than explicitly shown. Both an organization's nature and dynamics provide it its distinct identity from other organizations. In fact, a review of extant literature on organizational studies highlights the importance of structure, culture, and knowledge base as critical factors contributing to organizational identity and dynamics. In the texts that will follow, a review of three (3) journal articles on organizational studies will be discussed, centering on the abovementioned three critical factors: structure, culture, and knowledge base. This paper will conclude with an assertion of how structure, culture, and knowledge base describe or characterize the nature and dynamics of most organizations today.

Ozman's (2010) study…. [read more]

Lifeline Management Principles and Theories Term Paper

… It is therefore a practical matter to esteem the values of authentic leadership at Lifeline or be prepared to be called out on the false motives. One's heart must be in alignment with the goals an objective of an organization such as Lifeline where authentic leadership is a centerpiece to this approach.

Part 4: Evaluation

Although I am generally pleased with my organization's performance and leadership style, I do believe there is work to be done in order to reach a higher level. Regarding intuition and gut instinct, some leaders are often hesitant to address this matter in any serious manner leaving many workers to simply to employ their own intuition without any direct order from leadership. In some ways it appears somewhat silly to…. [read more]

Interdisciplinary Studies -- Academic Disciplines Research Paper

… d.).

Sub-Fields Within the Women's Studies Discipline

ASU's Women's Studies area strives to be easily combined with other Majors, Minors and study fields. Consequently, its subfields are including gender, health, sexuality, science and technology, work, globalization, ecology, social policy, violence prevention, media, film, performance and the arts (School of Social Transformation, n.d.). The specifically named subfields include: Culture; Economics; Film; History; Literature; Politics; and Science. In addition, students are offered the opportunities for internships in: Business; Government; and Nonprofit organizations (School of Social Transformation, n.d.). The extensive fields addressed by Women's Studies and consciously interdisciplinary approach provide graduates with opportunities to apply Women's Studies in careers fields such as education, law, government, business and the nonprofit sector.


Both Communications Studies and Women's Studies are…. [read more]

Macro Environment Essay

… Macro Environment

NutriPower is a potential breakfast cereal product set for the Australian market. These products are focused on healthy eating, while enjoying the food flavour and range from regular flavour to fruit, nuts, coconut and vanilla. Given their healthy orientation, the products are lower in sugar content than the competitors on the market and higher on fibre and vitamins. Most of the cereal raw material is integral, using wheat and oats as the base for the final product. The product will be advertised as the healthy alternative to highly caloric breakfast options today on the market, emphasizing the role of nutritional content on the overall healthiness.

Analysing the macro-environment


According to (2009), Australia's index of economic freedom was ranked third in the…. [read more]

Early Childhood Education in the Village Term Paper

… ¶ … Early Childhood Education in the Village of Manexba, Transkei, South Africa in July 1992

Based on Interviews and Analysis of the Human Ecosystem Structure

Early Education Concepts

Today's Future Needs

Questions Answered

Environments Examined

Examining Necessities


Language Limits

Needs Confirmed

Planting Seeds of Knowledge

Good Thing

Early Education Concepts

Early education can only promise to help make the third and fourth and fifth years of life good ones. It cannot insure without fail that any tomorrow will be successful. Nothing "fixes" a child for life, no matter what happens next. But exciting, pleasing early experiences are seldom sloughed off. They go with the child, on into first grade, on into the child's long life ahead." (Hymes Jr., 1996) was born and raised…. [read more]

Sustainable Construction Issues Waste Reduction Literature Review

… 1). This movement provides for healthy working and living environment for those that followed its views and objectives. Wide individual involvement with the movement fabricates most of the services that contractors generally offer in construction. Despite this, the movement highlights a number of risks. Threats posed by uncertified design methods and experimental methods frequently go unrecognized by the contractors. Such threats constitute the professional liabilities forming the better part of the set of risks that the movement expects. Some of the risks provided by the movement include intrusion, and exposure of organic (traditional) building material to water causing moisture problems. Mold and bacteria are the greatest resulting issues from exposure to water (Slivka, 2011, pg. 1).

Traditional construction products are over the time being developed…. [read more]

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments Term Paper

… " (Zoccolillo et al., 1999) Thus, the AAOD student is at a clear disadvantage in terms of successfully completing a high-school diploma and moving on to a career-oriented post-secondary education.

Additionally, high school is generally also a milieu in which the adolescent learns other non-academic life skills, including mature means of relating to peers and supervisors, responsible treatment of deadlines and priorities, and the perspective-broadening value of sports and other extracurricular interests.

Absenteeism limits the opportunities for acquiring such skills, and even while attending, the AAOD student in all likelihood will not maximize the chance to participate in meaningful relationships and activities. Playing sports while drunk or stoned, or both, obviously also risks serious injury for the student and his or her teammates.

At its…. [read more]

Ensured the Success Essay

… As in the Soviet Union, thousands of books, plays, and films were banned, but an entire body of pro-Nazi culture was created to take their place. (Shirer, 241-243) The active promotion of this culture, which glorified Germany and the Aryan worker, served as both entertainment for the masses and propaganda for the state.

Of course, all these social programs cost money. Rearmament required all spare state funds, so the government established programs of "voluntary" donation and wage deduction, through which the people could fund their own enlightenment.

With the Gestapo handy to encourage reluctant donors, participation in these programs was nearly universal. (Frei, 83)

Hitler's government had achieved nothing short of a public relations miracle. Not only had the Third Reich implemented an ambitious array…. [read more]

Universal Consequentialism Term Paper

… Such figures are evidence that many people are still not doing their part to diminish poverty in developing countries, yet according to Singer, if every affluent individual gave even a small amount, say $7 annually, such poverty levels would significantly decrease in developing countries (Singer, 1972).

That so little is required to lend aid to people in poverty-stricken countries discredits the most popular criticism of universal consequentialism; namely, that it requires too much of people. In a country like the United States, where many people spend more on one meal than what it would take to diminish poverty in developing countries for one year, it can hardly be considered asking too much of people to contribute the cost of one meal every year. In fact,…. [read more]

Anthropological Thought Essay

… Anthropology

Historical Foundations of Anthropology

How do the methods of 19th Century Evolutionists explain the development of marriage, family, political organization, and religion?

The development of the evolutionary theory of societal development arose from the precept that all cultures arose in a uniform manner. Early theorists believed that various cultures represented different stages along the path to development. Evolutionary anthropology arose from encounters with cultures that were different Theorists such as Tylor and Morgan developed opposing viewpoints on the development of society.

Tylor disagreed that groups, such as the Native American population, were a degenerated culture (Tylor, cited in Anthropological Theory, 1871:30). He felt that culture from simple to complex and that it progressed through three distinct stages. Tylor argued that civilization progressed from savagery…. [read more]

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