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Concept of National Cinema Literature Review

… National Cinema

The cinema and film is an art form that has existed since the first silent films saw the light. Today's manifestation of this type of entertainment takes many different forms. In the main stream of society, any person asked what type of film he or she prefers to see will focus on some sort of genre, such as romance or horror. Far less recognized is the fact that film is also connected to nationality. This fact is related to the growth and dominance of Hollywood many decades of the existence of the film industry. There has been, however, also a rise in the film industries of smaller nations, and especially those in Europe. Although a large number of these are highly dependent upon…. [read more]

What Can We Learn From Other Cultures That Can Help US Better Understand Our Sexualities? Essay

… ¶ … Cultures Can Teach Us about Sexuality

Sexuality is an interesting concept, and when examined clearly has a relationship to cultural rules and norms. What is considered acceptable and appropriate sexual behavior varies significantly according to cultural rules, though some sexual taboos and norms seem to cross cultural lines. The fact that cultural norms impact what sexual behaviors are considered appropriate or inappropriate is significant, because many people argue that certain variants of sexuality are either natural or unnatural. However, if some sexual behavior was inherently unnatural, one would not expect to find sexual behavior that is considered aberrant in some cultures as a normative behavior in other cultures. In fact, it is this diversity of "normal" sexual behavior that is the most informative…. [read more]

Culture Is a Relative Concept Essay

… Q2. 'It's not fair.' Because fairness is such a powerful concept, it is tempting to view the idea of fairness as something that is cross-cultural. However, the Japanese and American concepts of fairness are almost completely distinct. In Japan, fairness is based upon outcomes, or how equitably the community is treated as a whole. In America, our concept of fairness is based upon the individual, or whether each distinct person was satisfied, in terms of what he or she gave or did not give to the effort.

In Japanese culture, because of the importance of community, it might be considered 'fair' that a student suppress his or her views during a classroom discussion, if this would cause hurt feelings or an overly divisive discussion. In…. [read more]

Culture and Identity the Combined Structure Article

… ¶ … Culture and Identity


The combined structure of individual identity is a paramount or superior-ranking framework revolving around Erikson's paradigm of identity development and ambiguity as well as Marcia's (1966) identity status paradigm and the identity capital model (Cote, 1996). Particularly the concept of individual identity relates to possessing an established idea of self, which is inherently steady and sound (Erikson), which is premised on insightful commitments (Marcia) and which backs and fosters autonomous adult performance and incorporation into a certain adult society (Cote) (Schwartz, 2007a).

Thus, the individual identity structure is a higher ranking, multifaceted framework that contains components from Erikson's model, identity position and capital and formulates a model that adds more value altogether than the value taken from each of…. [read more]

Crossvergence and Cultural Tendencies Essay

… S. And China show, through statistical examples, to more closely aligned that Taiwan and Hong King (Kelley, MacNab, Worthley, 2006). This further illustrates the dynamics of crossvergence not being locationally constrained (Gupta, Wang, 2004) and more attuned to shared workflows and knowledge sharing (Sarala, Vaara, 2010).

The work perspective also has an associated aspect with regard to how the perception of time varies by a given culture's expectations, experiences and values. A foundational element of the methodology is the comparison of cultural attributes over time, which shows the most paradoxical aspects of the study, namely the shift in collectivism and contrarian views of national culture. Time itself is valued very differently across cultures, illustrating how understanding and acting on values, both quantifiable and unquantifiable, are…. [read more]

Morality and Culture Essay

… ¶ … culture and morality. In other words it deals with the question: Is morality relative to culture? Proponents of so called "cultural relativism," sometimes also called "moral relativism" or "ethical relativism" argue that different cultures obtain varying moral codes. "If there is no transcendent moral or ethical standard, then often culture arguably seems to become the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong" (see Anderson: 1). Culture and cultural dimensions are considered the collective horizon representing a specific social reality. American anthropologist and cultural relativist Ruth Benedict in Patterns of Culture (1934) said: "Morality differs in every society and is a convenient term for socially approved habits" (as cited by Kehl: 2). The paper will show that the doctrine of…. [read more]

Multiculturalism Research Paper

… Within a multicultural society, one would feel a sense of nationalism, importance of language and its use, a sense of universal religion, and an overall feeling of being part of the global society. This is the feeling the young Sudanese man had when he was on his way home to the motherland. Having spent some time in the United Kingdom, the Sudanese man had to endure a recovery period of having to get back to his native home, the home of his originating culture. In the United Kingdom, things appeared changed due to the presence and exposure to varied cultures. When he arrived home and tried to share using the Kingdom sentiments, there lacked communication.

The concept of multiculturalism comes with the notion of believing…. [read more]

Storytelling a Tale of Fictitious Research Paper

… The Evolutionary Reason for Stories

Evolution is a very philosophical concept besides being considered as a branch of the scientific community. Towards questions, like, is there any purpose acquired by evolution? And what is the reason behind our existence? The evolutionists are still open. Here, the idea of purpose is considered to be a relative ending than an absolute ending, a meaning or reason than a finale, which depicts that a purpose is carried by evolution (Holcomb III, 1996). One can say that evolution is a story, and a purpose is carried by a story, similarly, the way many philosophers used the proof style to explain abstract concepts in the past.

Therefore, a purpose is carried by evolution. The idea that purposes are acquired by…. [read more]

Culture Study Assessment

… Pearland High School

Culture study

Pearland High School is a Texas public high school located south of the city of Houston, Texas. It serves parts of the suburb of Pearland and neighboring Brookside village. Houston is a large, diverse city with an international outreach and a hub of modern commerce. It is also an extremely oil-dependent city and the city's historic ties to the oil industry are reflected in the name of the school mascot: the Oilers. Houston's -- and Pearland's -- demographic composition has been changing in recent years, becoming increasingly Hispanic and young, which is also reflected in the schools' demographics.

A number of facets do facilitate multicultural education at Pearland High School. For example, Pearland offers three LOTE (language other than English)…. [read more]

Anthropological Concepts of 'Ethnocentrism' and 'Cultural Relativism Term Paper

… ¶ … anthropological concepts of 'ethnocentrism' and 'cultural relativism'.

Ethnocentrism and cultural relativity

The western world has for many centuries had an ethnocentric view of other cultures. This was due to its historical dominance in scientific and cultural areas. The western perspective resulted in a view that other cultures were inferior or less valuable in comparison to the dominant culture of the time. The attitude which views other cultures only in relation to one point-of-view, and which makes moral and value assumptions about the culture on this basis is known as ethnocentrism. In essence the term ethnocentric refers to the belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group. (Answers Com) definition of ethnocentrism is:

the feeling that one's group has a mode of living,…. [read more]

Human Resources Managing Organisational Culture Dissertation

… d).

Understanding of organisational culture and cultural types also helps the understanding of why managerial reforms may impact differently within and between organisations. An organisation with a predominantly internal process culture, for example, may be more resistant to reforms aimed at promoting innovation. It is expected that staff in high uncertainty avoidance cultures to be more concerned with rule-following and more reluctant to risk changing jobs - both factors of some importance for those reformers who want to deregulate bureaucracies and encourage more rapid job change in the public service'. Businesses in both the private and public sectors have come to understand that organisational change frequently requires changing the organisation's culture and learning (O'Donnell & Boyle, 2008).

Whatever the purpose and performance results of culture…. [read more]

Business Communication Across Cultures Essay

… The cultural information that people occupying those types of positions acquire proves invaluable and when done well result in positive results for their company.

Cross-cultural business communication is business communication among consumers or customers whose culture differs from that of the marketer's own culture in at least one fundamental aspect of cultural such as language, religion, social norms and values, education and living style. Cross-cultural business communication demands that firms be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences…Cross-cultural business communication requires that firms discover if markets are viable by including the study of the culture in which the company is going to do business in its business and marketing planning. To do this the firms should identify cultural factors that can be employed to support…. [read more]

Culture Geertz Social Anthropology Essay

… It has been my practice throughout my professional career to demonstrate my knowledge of fieldwork through well developed and insightful interpretations of witnessed events among peoples I find interesting. Yet, Geertz seems to belittle this endeavor stating that those who invest in such scientific abstractions of "the personal" are not objective, but rather are subjective and cannot produce works that are systematic, reproducible, cumulative, predictive, precise or testable. It has been my experience that the results of any inquiry in social anthropology and well most of the social sciences is an attempt to record a situation in time and place, within the very context of the period as well as the people. There is no evidence that there is a need for any other goal…. [read more]

Lisa Was a Sophomore Essay

… In order for the patient to adapt to her own philosophy, we must get her to accept herself for who she is without seeking approval from others. To do that, we need to ask her what she likes about herself and her life and encourage her to put emphasis on those things in order to build up her self-esteem so that she would be more inclined to adapt to her own philosophy of life.

"One of the main elements of Erikson's psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity.1 Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experiences and information we acquire in our daily interactions…. [read more]

Postmodernism Is a Philosophy Essay

… Modernism held that "reason and science provide accurate, objective, reliable foundation of 'knowledge,'" while postmodernists see science as merely one discipline amongst many (Drake 2012). Postmodernists believe that science is also a product of culture, just like any other epistemological system. Scientific claims have been influenced by racism, cultural biases (such as claims about the intellectual inferiority of women), political pressures and inaccuracies.

For postmodernists, all ideas are relative. "Ideas such as God, freedom, immortality, the world, first beginning, and final end have only a regulative function for knowledge, since they cannot find fulfilling instances among objects of experience" (Aylesworth 2012). Postmodernism stresses how all cultures have different versions of these concepts, or lack such concepts at all. Rather than drawing connections between all faiths,…. [read more]

Globalization Term Paper

… Globalization is becoming a more and more spoken word, present on the lips of more and more individuals. But what exactly does this concept imply? Globalization is a generic term which encompasses a wide series of changes that occur on various levels and domains, including economics, politics, medicine, technology and even culture. "Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world" (Globalization 101-2008)

Globalization is generally attributed to the interest of large corporations which pressure the governments…. [read more]

Shaman as a Spiritual Specialist in Indigenous Cultures Thesis

… Shaman as a Spiritual Specialist in Indigenous Cultures

The Shaman as a Spiritual Specialist

Exploring the world of the shaman and shamanic perceptions of reality means that we have to question many of the assumptions and views that we have of life and reality. In order to understand the reality that the shaman inhabits we have to 'bracket' our modern views of the way that human beings relate to the world and to nature. By this I mean that many of the common modern scientific views of the world and of what reality is are put into doubt when we explore the shamanic world view, and we finds that our views are very different to the way that the shaman sees the world, nature and…. [read more]

Myth Exploring Self, Culture, History Essay

… " Jung defined Anima as a feminine image that is present in the psyche of a male while Animus is a male image that is present in the psyche of a female. These terms represent the true self. The combination of both the images is called as the divine couple (Syzygy- it means wholeness, completion and unification). The last archetype is the "Persona." This term means "mask." The persona represents different social masks of the human beings. The masks change according to situations and groups. "The persona is the mask you put on before you show yourself to the outside is just the good impression we all wish to present as we fill the roles society requires of can also be the false…. [read more]

Tube as a Key ICT in Education Article

… ¶ … Tube as a Key ICT in Education

"Many educators believe that the act of creating content…is a valuable learning exercise… [YouTube] allows students to replace passive learning with active participation, where everyone has a voice, anyone can contribute, and the value lies less in the content itself than in the networks of learners that form around content and support one another…" (Skiba, 2007).

This research embraces several practical, creative and informational uses for the YouTube technologies to be integrated into educational, pedagogical settings.

Students today are as a rule very Web-savvy, and digital technologies are very easy for them to learn and navigate within. Whereas a few years ago students using online technologies were seen as "surfing the Web" or visiting Internet sites…. [read more]

Leadership Theory in a Changing Essay

… Thus, for principals and administrators, a balance is demanded. Sergiovanni reports that "the unique context for schooling, particularly in a democratic society, raises the question of sources of authority for leadership practice. As important as a school leader's personality and interpersonal skills may be to success, and as handy as bureaucratic reasons may be to use, neither are sufficiently powerful to provide that leader with the sources of authority needed to reach students, parents, teachers and others in powerful ways." (Sergiovanni, p. 2) Sergiovanni therefore goes on to assert that the discretion provided by moral orientation can help to drive this balance and can help to make one's leadership style adaptable to the specifics of any type of system.

One reason that this adaptability takes…. [read more]

Sun Chief: Autobiography Book Report

… Hopi society seems more mysterious than before Talayevsa wrote his autobiography Sun Chief. This is because more questions are raised than answered during the course of the book. The book is powerful because the author talks about superstitions and ways of life that are completely foreign to anyone but a Native American. Yet there are common points that all people can share. The one issue that is not addressed with sufficient sensitivity is that of gender, because the author is a male. Gender issues are problematic in Sun Chief: Autobiography of a Hopi Indian. For example, the author states that he was thought to be "lucky to be born twins and lucky to just miss becoming a girl," (Talayevsa 27). The author does not critique…. [read more]

Abnormal Psychology Essay

… An enhanced perspective in the field of biochemistry has lead to a focus in chemical transactions which take place in the brain of an individual. For instance people who have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder have been found to be having a deficiency in biochemical's known as neurotransmitters. Therefore, when the deficient neurotransmitter is determined then appropriate medical treatment can be administered to a patient therefore enhancing their brain and life quality (Cherry, 2012).

The recognition of dualism which is an interaction between matter and the mind was also key to the development of abnormal psychology as a science. This is what led to two principles of psychology: behaviorism and introspectionism. There is an interconnection between the mind and brain. Emotional experiences alter the chemistry…. [read more]

Consider How National Identity and Culture Is Constructed Through Fashion in China and Japan Term Paper

… ¶ … national identity and culture is constructed through fashion in China and Japan

Fashion and Cultural Identity on China and Japan

Fashion, as it relates to culture, has initiated a relatively new and complex area of research into society and societal history. The concept of fashion has come to mean more than merely the history of dress and style for its own sake. Consequently, the study of fashion has developed into a multidisciplinary field that includes cultural, historical and sociological analyses of the role of fashion in societies.

The emerging field of fashion studies, sometimes known as the "new" fashion history, differs significantly from traditional dress history, which tended to focus on the stylistic analysis of elite fashions. By contrast, contemporary fashion studies asks…. [read more]

Working in United Arab Emirates Business Culture Research Paper

Likewise, locals in the UAE will be mindful of not committing the following faux-pas’s as well, as Soriano (2014) shows, when engaging in a business meeting or regular business practice:

· Never criticizing one of the powerful families of any of the seven emirates in the UAE;

· Never scheduling a business meeting or appointment during Ramadan, as this is an especially holy period for Muslims;

· Never demonstrating an attitude or air of disrespect towards the religious practices of others, but especially towards Islam, as this is the dominant religion of the state; to disrespect a religious practice of another, no matter what it is, however, is viewed as very offensive in the UAE, where everyone is expected to…. [read more]

Identity Formation as Multidimensional Concept Term Paper

… Identity Formation as Multidimensional Concept

The immigration adaptation of the children globally emphasizes on the significance of age at arrival, location of schooling, language acquisition. The research will focus on the timing and context of the parental migration associates with the education, health, and well-being of the respective children exposed to immigration. With the children focused with the capability, learn the language they get exposure to, development in non-native as a secondary language is relative. The children developmental appropriate strategies in teaching have significance and falls on the continuum from the non-directive to the direct aspects. The development of immigrant children necessitates policy initiatives directed towards relative development spectrums enhances the lives of the children as discussed.


Immigration, as part of human history, has…. [read more]

Death Rituals of Different Cultures Essay

… In fact, for the Egyptian civilization and culture, their death ceremonies are highly reflected by not only their religious background, but their social and economic systems also play an integral role in defining and explaining their death rituals (Matthews, 2011).

Furthermore, the social and economic systems are equally significant for the Hindu culture in setting or defining the death rituals amongst the cultures' death ceremonies. The political system is insignificant with reference to the death rituals because it changes from time to time; however, the religious background and its traditions have been the same since centuries (Matthews, 2011).

From the very diverse and dynamic cultures around the globe, these cultures have a wide range of differences death practices of all people. Nevertheless, deep-seated similarities exist…. [read more]

Culturally Relative Ethics vs. Objective Ethics First Essay

… ¶ … Culturally Relative Ethics vs. Objective Ethics

First, it is necessary to address the underlying concept about whether or not moral principles exist in any objective sense or only as function of learned cultural values. A strong argument can be made that the full dependence of moral values on subjective perspective is the same as an admission that there is really no such thing as morality, only socially-learned expectations. In theory, the very same conduct might be "moral" and considered perfectly acceptable in one society and "immoral" and criminal in another society. If that is the case, then there is simply no need to consider or discuss morality as an abstract because it has no meaning.

Therefore, unless one believes that nothing is genuinely…. [read more]

Concise Analysis of Cross Cultural Management at IKEA Term Paper

… Bringing in external expertise would mean more resources. Whereas the undertaking may be costly, the associated benefits are likely to outweigh the costs.

Management across Cultures Relative to Expatriates

Managing expatriates can be a challenge for HR practitioners in the international setting. It is essential to focus on not only cross-cultural training, but also orientation, performance expectations, motivation, and compensation (Lucas, Lupton & Mathieson, 2006). Expatriates must be equipped with adequate information on what to expect in the foreign environment. They must also have or be aware of important performance aspects, particularly in terms of roles and responsibilities as well as skills, experience, knowledge, competencies, and attitudes (Woods, Barker & Troth, 2012). Most importantly, an appropriate compensation method should be used to ensure expatriates are…. [read more]

Polish Culture Group Essay

… The phenomenon impedes the recovery and rehabilitation of the mentally ill individuals in a significant trend. Mentally ill individuals in Poland are subject to negative treatment by the general society. Consequently, these individuals respond in a high tone of aggression (Michlic, 2006, pg). They are perceived as defiant and harsh due to the negative treatment. The methodologies of treatment are also a key contribution to the negative behavior of the mentally ill individuals. The mentally challenged undergo treatment in isolated hospitals. These huge psychiatric hospitals map at segregated locations. In this case, they do not have an attachment to the general society. They feel abandoned and secluded in the isolated confinements of the hospitals. This factor contributes to the behavioral characteristic of the Polish.

Mental…. [read more]

Organizational Structure Critically Essay

… The scenario is indeed brief and certainly not exhaustive of the causal factors that may be involved, but it does nonetheless transcend subjectivism and evince the indispensability of analytical dualism. 'Organizational culture' is thus not merely about increasing productivity or designing company logos! Cultural items do not remain at the gates of all organizations. Again, it is only in virtue of a stratified reality that analytical dualism is possible. Pace Bryant (1995), theorizing the relative interplay of generative structures (which may remain unexercised or exercised but unperceived) is not to embroil oneself in an ineluctable regression. Rather, it provides a much more robust analytical grip on S-C dynamics, eschewing the twin nightmares of empiricism and positivism.

The main impetus behind this paper has been to…. [read more]

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