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Cyber Security Most Important Cyber Security Vulnerability Research Paper

… Cyber Security

Most Important Cyber Security Vulnerability

One of the most important and common cyber security vulnerability is the maintenance of hardware as well as software. Weak maintenance, which is not up-to-date, can allow a number of problems in terms of security as the servers are exposed to major cyber security threats such as SQL injection, cross site request forgery, cross site scripting and remote file include among others. Developing and maintaining a server with weak update schedules can allow even the novice hackers the opportunity to obtain the confidential information of the users or developers. But if the same vulnerability is exploited by an expert hacker, it can lead to severe problems even for the top businesses worldwide. In essence, weak coding would enable…. [read more]

Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Single Research Paper

… DDoS is an approach used to attack a victim from several undermined systems. The former are central to similar mechanisms as those of DoS attacks (Chang, 2002). However, for an attacker to accomplish an attack, they will need to execute DDoS software on many vulnerable computer systems. In DDoS attacks, the attacker will use numerous sources hosts to launch attack traffic to the target systems. Previously, DDoS attack software was deployed manually, but currently worms serve the purpose.

In addition, DDoS attacks rely on three parties: an offender, helpers and victims. In this case, the offender refers to the individual who plans the attack, and helpers refer to systems, which the offender has undermined to initiate attack against a victim (target). The offender commands the…. [read more]

Cybersecurity Vulnerability What Are Vulnerabilities? Research Paper

… Therefore, secure coprocessors are restricted to low power, restricted bandwidth devices unable of processing at high output.

Strategy for Hardware Trust

Because of hardware weaknesses electronic design automation (EDA) and Computer-aided design (CAD) implements are crucial to the efficiency and achievement of circuit design. These tools, nevertheless, ignore IC supply chain glitches. This section describes ways to improve design tools and processes to defend against IC supply chain attacks.

Design tools emphasis mostly on design for test (DFT) or strategy for manufacturability (DFM). Scholars have argued that the design phase be increased in order to progress hardware trust, presenting the idea of design for hardware trust (DFHT). Actually, DFHT seeks to stop Trojan circuits from being introduced all through fabrication or design. An example of…. [read more]

Cybersecurity as an Organizational Strategy Research Paper

… An effective strategy is to develop the best possible benefit approximation of benefits and assign a monetary value to those benefits (Gordon, 2010). This exercise provides a platform for allocating funds that can be monitored for needed reallocations at some future time (Gordon, 2010). A more cool-headed approach to resource allocation for cybersecurity will enable enterprises to examine how they are spending money rather than just focusing on an amount that has been committed to cybersecurity (Gordon, 2010).

The development of informational technology requirements must align with the business demands throughout the enterprise, with the aim of ensuring that IT systems will be resilient, reliable, and fit with the organizational mission ("PCAST," 2007). The bottom line is that "technology is about engineering and implementing solutions…. [read more]

BACH's Patients Record System Cybersecurity Term Paper

… TOL is vulnerable to this cybersecurity attack because it enables patients to manage some aspects of documentation and management of their personal health information. Unsuspecting patients, especially those who are not tech-savvy, could then be victims of such attacks.

The other vulnerabilities in this system include cloud threats since patients protected health information for this healthcare facility is stored on the cloud. While cloud computing model provides a suitable framework for data integration in the hospital, lack of proper encryption could prove detrimental to its operation. Lack of proper encryption can be a weak spot through which hackers or other adversaries could capitalize on to compromise protected personal health information or data. The system is also vulnerable to malware and ransomware that are commonly…. [read more]

National Defense & Cybersecurity Strategy Research Paper

… The response to cybersecurity threats, outside of DHS, is a patchwork of federal, state and local approaches, with limited coordination between them, and this challenges the notion of whole of nation responses. A lack of coordination and resources lays at the heart of the challenges, and some believe that these challenges could be addressed with a dedicated department, one that would recognize the importance of cybersecurity in the 21st century (Petraeus & Sridhar, 2018).

The Intelligence Community

The intelligence community also plays a key role in combatting cybercrime. Since most cybercrime against government targets is likely the work of foreign governments or their proxies, the intelligence community can play a key role in the nation’s cybersecurity strategy. First, by the nature of its work, the…. [read more]

Future of Cybersecurity Essay

… The goal is to differentiate hacking from cracking or attacking and thus, instill a sense of ethical principles (Farsole, Kashikar, & Zunzunwala, 2010, pp. 18). As part of the solution, the ethical hacking usually employs the same tools and techniques as attackers. Therefore, improving their infrastructure through proper investment will enable the development of a competent security system. The chief obligation involves the scanning networks for possible deployment of malicious attacks on networks (Farsole, Kashikar, & Zunzunwala, 2010).

The law will also specify the qualification that one should possess. Primarily, this approach does not seek to train hackers from scratch, but poach existing ones who are desperate for employment. It is important to pay them handsomely to prevent hacking into all government and private institutions.…. [read more]

Department of Homeland Security Research Paper

… On October 1, 2002, DOD activated a new regional combatant command, Northern Command (NORCOM), which plays the lead role in homeland defense for missile or air attack defense. Yet unclear is where DOD will fit into a support role for other homeland security missions, such as intelligence analysis; intelligence gathering and law enforcement; research and development, particularly in the chemical/biological area; and use of reserves and the National Guard in functions ranging from protecting airports and borders to assisting in the wake of national disasters.

We must be mindful that if we look at missions from the DOD perspective, much interest centers on keeping overseas military operations as the department's primary focus. Providing personnel and resources to the support of a homeland security mission, though…. [read more]

Analyzing the Cyber Security Professional Writing

… Cyber Security

The company selected is a small and medium enterprise that offers financial services to its consumers such as provision of loans, depositing funds, withdrawal and also financial advice. Being the information technology senior analyst at the company, this written report encompasses an assessment of the firm's infrastructure and its sorts of vulnerabilities, the different security models to be employed in overcoming the related security risks, a security plan for the company and lastly a code of ethics to be applicable to the company.

The Review of the Company's Infrastructure and the Identification of all Types of Vulnerabilities -- Environmental, Physical, and Human

A risk analysis ought to pinpoint the risks to the resources, the network and also data. The analysis is purposed to…. [read more]

Analyzing the Cyber Security Phenomenon Essay

… Cyber-Security Causes and Effects

The finance industry has continued to receive more targeted and sophisticated attacks. Directing email phishing at customers has remained one of the most successful methods of targeting financial institutions, all through history. Nowadays, upcoming channels, like online and mobile banking, have continued to open new doors to cyber thieves. To minimize the efficiency of these attacks, banks have devised improved communication and educational tools for customers, and ways for quick intervention in the case of an attack. However, apart from creating harmful software created to hack online bank details, criminals have found ways to subvert the software and servers owned by prestigious financial institutions to make their phishing campaigns more effective; this technique is known as infrastructure hijacking (Pettersson, 2012).

The…. [read more]

Metrics, Implementation, and Enforcement (Security Research Paper

… Cridex has been a bot Trojan that operates by opening the rear door on the compromised Computer and putting in a form of the Necurs rootkit to avoid conventional operating-system-based security and safety applications from reading through its binaries. This targeted breach generally starts execution around the target system via a drive-by-download breach that makes use of system susceptibility or perhaps a social engineering strike with an e-mail attachment. After that it installs the Necurs rootkit, which has also been utilized by a number of malware groups, such as Advanced Pc Shield 2012 along with Banker, to endanger the operating-system. Cridex subsequently assumes charge of the victim's computer system and enables it to gather data and possibly make deceptive transactions simply by manipulating genuine bank…. [read more]

Justifying Research Methods and Design Research Paper

… The approaches in this mixed methods research are as follows: (a) The qualitative component of the proposed research will use a Delphi survey to obtain deep and broad information about the potential for cyberattacks occurrence; and (b) the quantitative component of the proposed research will employ systems dynamics computer modeling to create an interactive learning environment (ILE) to provide opportunities for decision making about cost-risk ratios and eventually for cost-benefit analysis, as the field approaches greater maturity. The model is based on the CERT MERIT (2011) program work and, as such, provides opportunity to develop a foundation for the identification, development, fine-tuning of technical controls inherent to the modeling and simulation research.

The proposed research is intended to provide information about insider threats in cloud…. [read more]

Security Programs Implementation of Information Essay

… This records relating to department assets will be significant especially in the management of real property assets. The assets records will be done with relation to size, location and the other relevant elements of assets. Once the real assets value is recorded, there will be continuous need to always add the most recent information to the database, in accordance with the mandatory of the HHS and the federal real property council (, 2012).

Compliance Management and Configuration Control

HHS has to ensure that all the necessary guidelines, processes, standards, procedures and guidelines are compliant with the provided regulations by law, statutes and the other policies within the state. This will be done in relation to identification, disposition requirements and classification. This management involves the efforts…. [read more]

Internet Globalization Good or Bad Research Paper

… Internet

The globalization of the Internet has spawned a rash of cyberattacks on the U.S. Department of Defense and a number of its contractors. One such example was the Poison Ivy attack on Booz Allen Hamilton, which was designed to pull sensitive data out of the company's computer network via an email attachment (Grow, Epstein & Tschang, 2008). Poison Ivy, along with other trojans and viruses, represents a new class of e-espionage, one that threatens the security of the United States. The Internet cat cannot be put back into the bag -- it has gone global and we are past the point of debating the merits of that. The real issue is how the United States can deal with these threats.

The Department of Defense…. [read more]

Cyber Threats: Executive Summary Essay

… This particular form of attack as de Leeuw and Bergstra (2007) point out takes this form: attack an online casino once, wait for the recovery of the entity, attack again and demand that the affected entity remits protection fees so as to halt future attacks. In the words of de Leeuw and Bergstra (2007, p. 713), there are those who are concerned that this kind of attack "will eventually be directed at government agencies, e-commerce sites, financial institutions and any entity with online presence."

Yet another key threat/trend having the potential to be a cyber threat in the future is the desire by crooks or even rogue states to either steal critical information or cripple the operations of a target government or entity. Last year,…. [read more]

Malware Incident Response Plan Research Paper

… In the most serious cases, the infected machines will need to have a complete software overhaul in which the infected machine's operating system is reinstalled and then the information lost is recovered from the secure source.


Any malware incident response plan should be well-reasoned and include all of the elements necessary to completely recover the lost capability. Research has shown that there is a greater need every day to protect data because the means and methods of computer malware creators is not decreasing (Sritapan, Stewart, Zhu, & Rohm, 2011). This may go without saying, but it is the basis of any organized plan. The data provided for this plan was taken from research conducted on the most secure facilities in the world (generally those…. [read more]

Social Engineering and Information Security Term Paper

… P address, mail servers, Phone numbers, address of the company, employee names and designations, etc. Further running the Maltego metadata transform provided more information in the form of more files with dates, creator information, etc. Particularly one file named InvoiceApril.xls grabbed the attention of Hadnagy. The file contents indicated that it was an invoice for a marketing venture organized by the local bank. Hadnagy immediately called the bank, posing as a Mr. Tom from the accounts department of the printing firm, and asked for the details of this particular marketing event run by the bank. It was found that it was the annual Children's Cancer Fund Drive organized by the bank.

Hadnagy gathered more information about the CEO like his native place NY, his favored…. [read more]

Wartime Communication, Business Operations Essay

… A better strategy might be to combine an increase in salary with free ongoing educational opportunities, especially since so many new species of malware are released every day. In addition, experts argue that working to be "paranoid," and to "know your enemy," are important considerations for anyone in the network security field. Knowing your enemy means understanding their tactics down to the minutiae. In addition, deterring attackers by "annoying" them with counter-tactics may be a more realistic solution than completely erasing a threat. All of these ideas should be considered and incorporated into plans of defense against security attacks.

The most recent reports of dramatically increasing malware threats may be disheartening, but there are also promising advancements taking place in the network security field. For…. [read more]

Australian Defense Force and Whole of Government Operations Term Paper

… Australian Defense Force and Whole of Government Operations

Has the Australian Defense Force (ADF) "broken the code" to successful integration of joint-interagency support during the conduct of military operations?

Following the end of Australian involvement in the Vietnam War a decision was made by the Government of Australia to reorganize the department supporting the military services, which included the Army, Navy and Air Force, which recommended the unification into one single Department of Defense. These recommendations were accepted by the government and the Australian Defense Force (ADF) was formed on February 9, 1976. Over the course of the next thirty years the ADF would continually redefine its role and how it interacts with supporting government agencies in the conduct of military operation. The contemporary security…. [read more]

Terrorism Is at This Point Term Paper

… This represents a real challenge for the law enforcement agencies such as the CBP as well as for the legislative body at the level of the country to ensure that, while maintaining and preserving the right of people to seek better life conditions, they do not do that at the expense of the law or do not jeopardize the security and safety of the American people.

In terms of the actual actions conducted by the CBP at the borders, as per the activity report for the fiscal year 2012, the federal agency, among other achievements conducted"999 apprehensions at and between U.S. ports of entry 54 arrests of wanted criminals at U.S. ports of entry" (U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 2013). It may be that at…. [read more]

Cyber Crime Task Force Term Paper

… In fact Schnucks Fresh Goods & Pharmacy in St. Louis was victimized by criminals in 2013. This is a classic example of how the task force can become effective, because the commercial stores (like Target and other retail firms) are vulnerable. Schnucks was attacked in 2013 and an estimated 2.4 million debit and credit card information were compromised between December 2012 and March, 2013, according to a story in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Gustin, 2013). How this works for the criminals -- and why the task force is so important in this aspect of cyber criminality -- is they hack into a vulnerable site where credit and debit cards are available. Then they insert "random access malware" into the site, which steals credit and debit…. [read more]

How to Protect Private Information Research Paper

… As people are always going to make mistakes, the best solution going forward is one in which responsibility is shared, education on the threats that users face required, and alignment of all stakeholders towards mitigating the risks of exposing private data to hackers made possible. Only then can the best possible approach to cybersecurity really begin to get underway.
Anderson, S., & Williams, T. (2018). Cybersecurity and medical devices: Are the
ISO/IEC 80001-2-2 technical controls up to the challenge?.'Computer Standards & Interfaces,'56, 134-143.
Carman, A. (2014). Passwords are pass'.'SC Magazine: For IT Security
Professionals,'25(10), 28-31.
Conaty-Buck, S. (2017). Cybersecurity and healthcare records.'American Nurse
Today,'12(9), 62.
Crossler, R. E., & Posey, C. (2017). Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: Surrendering Privacy for
Security\'s Sake in an…. [read more]

Computer Systems Are Increasingly Being Essay

… Instead, they treat code - regardless of where it originates from, as legitimate, as long as the said code is syntactically correct (Langner, 2011). Controllers could also be monitored for any suspicious changes.

Although an offensive strategy is founded on the assumption that we have knowledge about the attack, defensive strategies are cognizant of the fact that not every attack can be 'seen' (Ventre, 2013). This is particularly the case given that attacks could be particularly discrete. An offensive strategy would involve the creation of an 'internet weapon' ready to be launched on short notice. This would call for the creation of some kind of Cyber Command concerned with the active surveillance or infiltration of overseas target computer networks with an aim of leaving behind…. [read more]

Security an Institution of Higher Term Paper

… The way that the government has handled this problem in the past is to write a broad body of law, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, and then allow court cases to work out the specifics.

To that end, there have been three Acts from which the largest body of cyber-security comes. The first is called the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). This Act protects people from having their private health information stolen and provides penalties for such acts. The second was the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 which sets standards for financial information security. The final major federal law from which judicial precedent is set is the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which basically fills in the holes…. [read more]

Canadian Policies to Thwart Terrorist Research Paper

… Furthermore, the evidences have elucidated the fact that cyber attacks and crimes are more frequently being committed in the current era, and Canada is amongst one of those countries where the cyber crimes are committed more often in comparison to other parts of the world (Hanel, 2010).

Canada is one of the nations where businesses in association with individuals come under the drastic impact of the cyber crimes. This denotes that cyber criminals and identity theft are targeting huge businesses that possess huge database of their customers with large amounts of personal data. Even though businesses have better and enhanced security, yet this is an immense channel for the cyber criminals because businesses provide an easy path to enter into the database through which they…. [read more]

Data Breach Highlights Corporate Security Risks Annotated Bibliography

… ¶ … Big Data Annotated Bibliography

Bjorhus, J. (2014). Clean Reviews Preceded Target's Data Breach, and Others. Retrieved from

Bjorhus focuses on the issues surrounding Trustwave Holdings. The company faced security criticisms because of revealing customer information, a factor considered breach of compliance and security. The author reviews the reasons behind the reviews the company received in the past secondary to breaching confidentiality of the consumer information. The author reveals the weaknesses of the holding including flawed policy system for consumer related information, focusing on speed rather than quality, selling cheap audits to their clients and insecurity of the security systems that predispose companies to hacking of the systems and loss of valuable data. The article by this author is important for the study…. [read more]

Mathematical Algorithms & Anomaly Detection Peer-Reviewed Journal

… The traces of system calls are utilized to identify repeated patterns and enable the detection of anomalies [12].

Lastly, with regards to IDS location, it should be noted that the use of side channel intrusion detection systems utilizing physical characteristics including timings, vibrations, electromagnetic radiation, and power consumption is gaining popularity in cybersecurity intrusion detection systems research [13] and particularly focuses on utilizing physical host level data [14, 15]. In the case of side-channel detection systems, the main advantage is the isolation of such systems from the hosts which hinders attackers from tampering with the IDSs.

1.3. Detection Techniques

Signature matching detection identifies attacks through matching data packets with predefined attack signature samples. The matching process usually takes a lot of time…. [read more]

Cyber Attacks on the Dod Term Paper

… The most effective attacks are to use a combination of techniques. This means that there will be times when social engineering is integrated with a Trojan email and to gain sensitive passwords. The basic idea is to fool the person into think that they received an important message and go to the link. A good example of this occurred when the Chinese Army was able to send officials at the Pentagon a fictitious email and break into the DOD's network. This enabled them to gain access to a variety of programs including: missile defense, aircraft and U.S. military strategies. In these kinds of situation, the best way to do this is to send out fictitious emails to contractors, government officials or anyone who is connected…. [read more]

Changing Threats From Cyber Warfare Term Paper

… Cyber Warfare

A major challenging impacting organizations, is having a comprehensive security plan that will safeguard the personal information of their clients and employees. While at the same time, it must be able to streamline the different administrative and technical functions. The result is that firms must develop and update their strategies to deal with the changing nature of the threats they are facing. This is because as technology improves, more are increasingly vulnerable to a host of ever changing tactics. The result is that the issue of cyber espionage is becoming a problem. It is utilized to: give competitors, criminal elements and governmental entities access to sensitive information. (Mackie, 2015)

In the case of all organizations, these challenges are more pronounced with rouge states…. [read more]

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