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Sandwich Generation Thesis

… ¶ … Sandwich Generation, Caregiving, and Alzheimer's


The disease that all elderly people -- and their children, their grandchildren, their friends and neighbors -- dread nearly as much as cancer is Alzheimer's, and with good reason. "The worst part is the helplessness," said Sue Irvine, whose mother is an Alzheimer's patient. "You see a loved one struggling and unhappy, and there's nothing you can do. You can't even reason with them a lot of the time" (Laurant, 2009). In an article in the Lynchburg Virginia News & Advance, Irvine (who is now working for Generation Solutions, a home care service) said she, her husband, and their daughter Kenzie all were caregivers for her mother. But since Kenzie was the "last child still at home…she…. [read more]

Care Coordination Relating to Elderly Patients After Discharge From Emergency Room or Hospital Annotated Bibliography

… Care Coordination Relating to Elderly Patients With Congestive Heart Failure After Discharge From Emergency Room or Hospital Within 30 Days

A growing body of evidence supports the need for careful care coordination for elderly patients who suffer from congestive heart failure, diabetes, and/or hypertension for at least 30 days following their discharge from a hospital or emergency room. To determine the current best practices and guidance in this area, a summary of the relevant literature is provided below in an annotated bibliographic format, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Bisognano, M. & Boutwell, A. (2009). Improving transitions to reduce readmissions. Frontiers of Health Services Management, 25(3), 3-5.

Authors report that a growing body of research confirms the high…. [read more]

Psychological Theories as Applied to Gerontology Research Paper

… Marketing Mix

Gerontology and psychology: Approaches to mitigating the negative aspects of aging

Youth is a temporary state: most human beings will eventually become old. Yet psychology has traditionally devoted relatively little analysis to the inevitable challenges of aging, and instead chosen to focus on childhood and adolescent development. This has changed in recent years, given the widespread aging of the worldwide population. "The number of Americans age 65 and older is projected to comprise about 20% of the nation's population by the year 2030. With a growing elderly population, greater attention has been devoted to the lives of seniors and toward ensuring the physical and mental health of individuals as they move toward later life" (Facts sheet on aging, 2001, AABT, p.1). Cognitive behavioral…. [read more]

Difficult Patients Mitigating Risks Research Paper

… Research Methodology

It is essential to precede any planned review with a search to establish the existence of extant reviews. Such a search will typically identify both quantitative and qualitative systematic reviews. In formulating a review question an existing qualitative systematic review is a helpful starting point because:

1. It may help in identifying key issues that have a bearing on the acceptability or effectiveness of a programme or intervention;

2. It may help in identifying barriers or facilitators to the implementation of a programme or intervention.

3. It may help in identifying important perceptions of the experience of the condition that may help in either the selection or targeting of a candidate intervention.

In identifying related nursing studies an existing qualitative systematic review is…. [read more]

Caring for Elderly Patients Article Review

… Slide 4: How are the 3 Ds alike?

Delirium is a confused state caused by a psychological or physiological condition (Peacock et al. 2012:26). It is not a permanent mental state. Persons of all ages can experience delirium. However, the elderly are particularly apt to manifest it, given that the conditions which can cause it such as over-medication, a lack of sleep, and physical stressors are more likely to be suffered by aging patients (Peacock et al. 2012:26). Likewise, depression is also manifested in an estimated 40% of all elderly patients in resident care even though it is not an elder-specific disease (Peacock et al. 2012:26). All three -- dementia, delirium, and depression -- can manifest themselves as sharp changes of mood; shifts in eating…. [read more]

Articles Essay

… 80 community residents from the Dallas=Fort Worth

metropolis, Austin, and San Antonio in Texas were recruited, 42 people were active caregivers; the other 37 individuals were not-as-yet caregivers. The active caregivers were 34 females and 8 males; 25 children and 17 spouses. The not-as-yet caregivers consisted of 29 females, 9 males, 23 children, and 15 spouses. About 82% of the not-as-yet caregiver participants were married whilst of the active caregiver group about 88% were married. The income of both groups tallied.

The participants filled out a background information form about relevant demographic. They were also paid for their participation. The measures constituted the following: the Expressive Support Scale (ESS) that was used to measure the caregiver's subjective perception of his burden; the Alzheimer's disease Knowledge…. [read more]

Aunt Hattie and Chester Case Study

… Neglect in assisted living facilities can result in injuries, malnutrition, poor hygiene, depression, immobility, and even death. For example, when the staff at "We're There 4 U" failed to administer Hattie's medication properly, she ended up in cardiac arrest.

When a facility accepts residents whose needs exceed the faculty's skill or training, it opens itself up to legal liability (Downey, 2004). In most jurisdictions, liability is determined by the state's admission criteria. For example, Virginia regulations do not allow assisted-living facilities to admit or retain patients who need continuous licensed nursing care. May states have legal limitations, which hold facilities liable for mistreatment or neglect of elders.

When evaluating his case, Chester would best be advised to obtain all records from the facility, including the…. [read more]

Does Society Have a Legal Obligation to Its Senior Citizens? Term Paper

… Society & the Elderly

The American population is growing older -- due in large part to the aging of the "baby boomer" generation -- and the issues that surround the aging process, including the services and legal ramifications linked to getting older, are coming into focus more often and with more urgency. This paper delves into social security, death and dying issues, laws that impact the elderly, discrimination against older people, and financial issues as well.

As to the question -- does society have a legal obligation to its senior citizens? -- the answer is "no" with a qualification. Many leaders, politicians, clergy and ordinary citizens (including this writer) believe that society has a moral and ethical obligation to provide certain important health and financial…. [read more]

Sexual Dysfunction Term Paper

… ¶ … sexual dysfunction. As many studies point out, sexual dysfunction is not unique and is a common occurrence for many couples in relationships. A standard definition is as follows: "Sexual problems are defined as difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity" (Sexual problems overview).

A more formal and comprehensive definition of sexual dysfunction is from the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). Sexual dysfunction is defined as; inhibition in sexual appetite or psychophysiological changes interfering with a complete sexual response cycle. Individual dysfunctions included inhibited orgasm (male and female), inhibited sexual excitement, functional dyspareunia (painful sex), inhibited sexual desire, premature…. [read more]

Older Adult Assessment Interview

… Older Adult Assessment

Maslow's Hierarchy describes the general characteristics of needs and states them in a form of hierarchy (Vander Zanden, Crandell., Crandell, 2007) . The hierarchy consists of five levels of needs: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self -- actualization. In order to move up the hierarchy, you must first satisfy the need.. Basic needs are water and food, and the approval of others . Physiological need is survival for food and water, once the survival need is met they will become motivated to satisfy their safety needs . Safety need is fulfilled when people feel safe and stable in their environment . This takes us to the next level of belongingness and love need, people must feel love and loved by others .…. [read more]

Physical Activity for Seniors Grant Proposal

… Physical Activity

Physical Activities and the Elderly: A Grant Proposal

At every age, it is imperative to remain physically active. Individuals who maintain a lifestyle that includes regular physical activity and exercise can significantly reduce their vulnerability to obesity, heart disease and a host of other conditions associated with a sedentary lifestyle. As important as physical activity is across one's life cycle, it takes on yet a greater importance as individuals enter the later stages of adulthood. For the elderly, regular physical activity represents opportunities for movement, stimulation, social interaction and emotional gratification that cannot be otherwise replicated. And more importantly, the retention of this regular physical activity as a lifestyle orientation is likely to reduce the likelihood of premature mortality and to significantly increase…. [read more]

Music Therapy Reduce the Level Capstone Project

… Participation in the music program did not significantly affect agitation and anxiety in older people with dementia. Both the music and reading group activities, however, gave some participants a 'voice' and increased their verbalization behavior. Agitation was found to be predicted by a number of background factors (namely level of cognitive impairment, length of time in the facility and gender) (Cooke, Moyle, Shum, Harrison, & Murfield, 2010, p. 905-916).

In the final study, a music mediation was achieved to observe the effects of customized music programming on agitation and depression for people suffering with moderate to high levels of dementia. The study involved a two weeks with no-music and then two weeks with music: "music programs were streamed to the rooms of individuals assigned to…. [read more]

Grumpier Old Men Term Paper

… Grumpier Old Men

This movie is a sequel to an earlier movie (Grumpy Old Men), about some friends, Max Goldman (Walter Matthau) and John Gustafson (Jack Lemmon). In this movie, John has married Ariel (Ann-Margaret) and Max pretends that he is perfectly fine, though he acts jealous and lonely. He claims the only joy left in his life is fishing, but the old bait shop is bought by a beautiful woman, Maria Ragatti (Sophia Loren) and her mother, Mama Ragetti (Ann Guilbert) and he and John try sabotaging her efforts to turn the building into an upscale "ristorante." John's lusty old father (Burgess Meredith) shows up again in this movie and flirts with women in a very raunchy way.

Part of the story involves a…. [read more]

Psychology Treatment Thesis

… 29).

A crisis in mental health care funding is approaching rapidly given that the Baby Boomer generation will retire over the next twenty years and expenditures for older Americans with major psychiatric disorders will double. There will also be a serious lack of mental health services, providers and funding. About 20% of all adults over age 55 have major mental illnesses such as depression and dementia, although these are often under-reported and under-diagnosed (Bartels et al., 2010, p. 261). Medicare and Medicaid expenditures for nursing homes, outpatient and inpatient services, pharmacy and emergency room visits always "increase with advancing age" especially for those age 85 and over requiring "acute and long-term care." These expenses increase further for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, although elderly…. [read more]

Elder Abuse Phenomenon Correlating Relationship to Elder Mortality Term Paper

… Elder Abuse Phenomenon Correlating Relationship to Elder Mortality

Elder abuse has received increased scrutiny from the law enforcement and healthcare community in recent years. This increased attention is due in part to the increasing number of elderly in the United States and the passage of various laws designed to improve the reporting of such episodes of abuse as well as the prosecution of those who abuse the elderly. Unfortunately, elder abuse is particularly difficult to detect in some cases and studies have shown time and again that many elderly people are highly reluctant to admit to such abuse for fear of reprisals from the abuser or the possibility of being institutionalized if existing domestic living arrangements are disrupted. The purpose of this study was to…. [read more]

Group Process and Skill Selection Essay

… She was trying to block the negative feelings of the daughter. The daughter mentioned that it has been six years that she has not been going out and dating with anybody since her divorce. The wife believed that the daughter should not be talking about these challenges in a group.

The elder caretakers usually agreed with each other whereas they exhibited persistence to young caretakers' solutions and experiences. The young caretakers believe that it would help to the caretaker and the patient to have some sort of breaks. These temporary breaks would give relief to caretakers and help them to balance their emotions and feelings. One of them told that she goes to movies when the loved one goes to sleep and regardless of the…. [read more]

Adult Day Care Term Paper

… Adult Daycare

Proposal "Golden Years Adult Daycare"

The proposed program will demonstrate a significant goal of reducing the number of adults, needing daily medical and social supervision who must receive such care from non-formal caregivers. The problems of aging and some disease processes that occur in aging are a significant social need that needs to be effectively answered by structured programs that reduce the care giving burden on family and allow them the ability to have normal lives, that include working and perusing social and other essential activities without the concern of their aging loved one to ensure their ability to continue to be primary caregivers.

As the population of the United States ages demographic changes are evident and potentially troublesome, if changes are not…. [read more]

Articles on Hoarding Behavior in Dementia Patients Term Paper

… ¶ … articles on hoarding behavior in dementia patients and in the elderly. Compulsive hoarding is an interesting and compelling phenomenon in a wide variety of the population. The two studies investigate hoarding in the elderly, and in patients with dementia, attempting to find the causes of the behavior and some of the affects the behavior has on those who hoard, including psychiatric symptoms associated with the behavior.

Hoarding is characterized by a need to acquire and maintain a wide variety of possessions that eventually clutter and fill living areas until they can no longer be used for the purpose they were designed for. This behavior has come under scrutiny from the media in recent years, and several studies have been conducted to discover why…. [read more]

Sundowning Syndrome: Etiology and Treatment Research Paper

… The daily peaks in motor activity and core temperature were significantly less correlated in frequent sundowning patients, and the amplitude of the daily fluctuations in these markers was also reduced. These results provide an explanation for the late afternoon and early evening timing of sundowning behavior and highlight the importance of a tightly regulated circadian clock in preventing their occurrence.

The post-mortem SCN pathology that was observed in Alzheimer's patients involved a significant reduction in neuronal populations, including those responsible for producing vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (reviewed in: Sterniczuk, Dyck, LaFerla, & Antle, 2010). Damage to the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells were also observed post-mortem, a condition which would have restricted the ability of the SCN to accurately gauge the time of…. [read more]

Care Slide Case Study

… As technologies have become more and more advanced, the philosophies of technology-based living for elderly patients have begun to prefer such patients living outside of hospital facilities as long as their conditions permit. More caretakers are suggesting more comfortable living environments, either at home or at assisted living facilities with the assistance of innovative technology in their strategy for care as an alternative to living in more traditional hospital settings.

This has been a development that has increased over the past ten years and will only continue to increase in the future, as technology continues to advance even more. In the next ten years, more advancement in technology will make it much easier for caretakers to care for elderly patients at home with the help…. [read more]

Lubben, James E. And Damron-Rodriguez Term Paper

… By the 20th century, however, this intergenerational exchange had been broken. While old people had gained from the medical knowledge generated in the 20th century, they have also become largely marginalized from society. Most families no longer depend on older people for care giving, contributing to the declining social value of the elderly. However, Thane rightly points out that this declining social role is often neglected in favor of the medical and scientific issues that are related to the aging body. Though the author makes no suggestions on how this role could be recast, his research presents a solid springboard regarding the social history and social aspects of aging.

Snowdon, David A. 2003. "Healthy aging and dementia: Findings from the Nun Study." Annals of Internal…. [read more]

Social Gerontology Term Paper

… ¶ … successful aging. What do you think are its positive and negative features?

Generally, contemporary gerontologists and psychologists consider "successful aging" to be acceptance of the practical limitations of the many social, physical, and other consequences of advancing age that allows the individual to experience a satisfying life into the period of life ordinarily marked by retirement (Bearon, 1996). In principle, the contemporary theory of successful aging emphasizes the importance of relinquishing connections to areas of life that previously occupied the bulk of the individual's professional life and that, more often than not, played significant roles in the person's psychological identity. Other aspects of successful aging in the contemporary view include developing new interests that are not as limited by advancing age as well…. [read more]

Caregiving to Elderly People Essay

… It would help them to provide a caregiver from the same ethnical background who understands the culture and rituals of the certain ethnical background. The strategy would be organizing some social groups including caregivers and elderly people sharing same ethnical background and language. It could be more beneficial for them to exchanging ideas than being lectured. Therefore, they should be talking, explaining their feelings and experiences during these social work groups.

These classes for the caregivers should be given at the conference rooms of the Hope Hospice to provide a high attendance and opportunity to experiment the theories given during the theoretical sessions. Elderly caregiving is difficult not only for the caregiver but also the elder person. Therefore, some collaborative classes should be projected with…. [read more]

Schizophrenia Is a Family Research Paper

… Such elements include strengths and vulnerabilities for dealing with stress. The term "vulnerability" is not a judgmental term that implies weakness but instead is an attempt to understand the variables involved in developing severe forms of mental illness. For instance, a person with an innate very low vulnerability could consequently withstand a great amount of stress; however, perhaps solitary confinement could stress the person so much that they experience a psychotic episode. Such as case could be viewed as a "normal" reaction to extreme stress for that person. A different person might have an innately higher vulnerability, due to genetic a predisposition for example, and solitary confinement would not affect them as severely. Another person might have a genetic loading but may have suffered the…. [read more]

Psychology Definitions Psychosis = Loss of Contact Research Paper

… Psychology Definitions

Psychosis = Loss of contact with reality.

Downward drift = Lower achievement than parents or family members in terms of social class, employment, and financial stability.

Positive vs. negative symptoms = Positive symptoms are present in the disorder and characterize it; Negative symptoms are present in normally functioning people, but absent in people with the disorder.

Delusions of persecution = the mistaken belief that someone or something is pursuing the individual and means him or her harm.

Difference between hallucinations and delusions = Hallucinations are sense perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or smelling things that do not in fact exist in reality. Delusions are patterns of thought about the self or the world that are not true or realistic.

Types of schizophrenia (disorganized,…. [read more]

Advanced Practice Nursing Term Paper

… Right within those numbers is a sign that it's so much a new field that not enough attention is being paid to it. The article breaks down information on the 70,000 nurses currently certified by the American Nurses Credentialing Center, showing that 2,000 of those 70,000 are trained in geriatrics. And of those 2,000, nearly 80% work in nursing homes; the others are stationed in hospitals and ambulatory settings. No numbers were given for the number of nurses working in home care settings. And yet the importance of having NPs in the home is clear"; their presence in the home "has been shown to delay the development of disability and reduce permanent nursing home stays."

Moreover, when NPs follow high-risk patients from hospitalization to care…. [read more]

Promoting the Chronic Care Model: Expected Health Disparity Benefits Research Paper

… Health Disparities: End-Stage Dementia Patients

Health Disparities

Reducing Health Disparities among End-Stage Dementia Patients

Reducing Health Disparities among End-Stage Dementia Patients

According to the U.S. federal government the health of the nation depends on the health of the communities and the health of communities depends on individual health (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). The natural extension of this logic is that health disparities reduce the overall health of a nation; therefore, it is incumbent upon health policymakers, healthcare organizations, and medical professionals to minimize differential access to quality health care across racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic boundaries. Prior to implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010, minorities disproportionately suffered from a lack of healthcare coverage and an inability…. [read more]

Role of Diet in Weight Gain of Severely Mentally Ill Term Paper

… Role of Diet in Weight Gain of Severely Mentally Ill


This work intends to relate that all the problems of comorbidity and resulting morbidity and mortality of SMI may be problems, which are "combined to the one metabolic syndrome. (Kato, Currier, Gomez, Hall, & Gonzalez-Blanco, 2004; Toalson, Ahmed, Hardy, & Kabinoff, 2004) One of the causes is antipsychotic treatment (Ascher-Svanum, Stensland, Zhao, & Kinon, 2005; Chue & Cheung, 2004; Tirupati & Ling-Ern, 2007) Another cause is poor diet (Brown, Birtwistle, Roe, & Thompson, 1999) the problem. In order to help these SMI individuals that long-term educational program about dieting with clients with SMI and their families involvement. Nurses and dietitians will play the main…. [read more]

Personal Financial Management Term Paper

… Financial Planning

Charting the Course: Planning for Life after College

It has frequently been said that the end of college is not an end at all, but is rather the beginning of life's journey. Because life is a journey rather than a race, it is important to make some plans ahead of time so the path is known and the destination understood to the extent possible in advance. When most people set out on a journey to destinations unknown, they usually secure a map ahead of time to avoid getting lost. Likewise, a map of an individual's life journey can help a person stay on course and avoid the pitfalls that await the unwary along life's roads; however, in some cases, there is no real…. [read more]

Health Maintenance Organization Impact on the Minorities Thesis


The focus of this research study is the health maintenance organization impact on the minorities' community and specifically the communities of Hispanics, African-American and Latinos in the locations of New York City, New Jersey, Connecticut and Chicago. In recent years it has become increasingly clear that the U.S. .healthcare system is failing in making the same quality of care provision for ethnic minority populations as are made for the majority white population and the racial and ethnic disparities in accessing quality healthcare have been documented in research studies. It is reported that African-Americans experience the highest rates of mortality from heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease and HIV / AIDS than any other U.S.…. [read more]

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