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Statistics in Research and Analysis the Experiments Research Paper

… ¶ … Statistics in Research and Analysis

The experiments, analysis and statistics-5

Uses of statistics in experiments and research-5

Tools of Analysis-7

Experimental Design-9

Common uses in every day life-12


This paper concerns itself with the use of statistics as a means and the important tool in research and analysis -- both in the scientific and social sphere. Statistics can be defined as a study of variability and enumeration. It tries to quantify and enumerate uncertain things in a scientific manner. That is because there is an element of uncertainty in all affairs of research and information processing. For example measurements made by scientists and other people are mostly uncertain in some way. One example cited by Kault…. [read more]

Statistics: A Question Unanswered Term Paper

… Statistics: A Question Unanswered

Before there can exist any intelligent discussion with respect to the topic of statistics one must understand that a statistical process does not stand alone nor does it function without being a part of a much larger plan, namely, research investigation as a whole. Statistics and their accompanying processes are only one such part of the research plan and, as such, must be viewed in totality of purpose over single identification. Without a formidable research plan a statistical process is without merit and akin to discussing how many angles can be placed on the head of a pin. In general, and from a philosophical perspective, the research plans and statistical analysis, according to Ohlson (1998) " ... are not unlike an…. [read more]

Inferential Statistics to Evaluate Sample Research Paper

… Note that the two hypotheses we propose to test must be mutually exclusive; i.e., when one is true the other must be false. And we see that they must be exhaustive; they must include all possible occurrences. Lastly, the researcher must translate the research hypothesis into operational terms. The researcher goes on to operationally define fast tempo as being music at a tempo of 120 bpm (beats per minute) and slow tempo music as being music at a tempo of 60 bpm. In addition, a researcher has to specify how participants are going to rate the music for happiness (Hays, 1973).

8. Discuss probability in statistical reference, as well as the meaning of significance.

Probability is the likelihood of the occurrence of some event or…. [read more]

Statistics Allowable With Nominal, Ordinal and Interval Thesis

… ¶ … statistics allowable with nominal, ordinal and interval scales.

Nominal is a counting operation and its descriptive statistics is "frequency in each category, percentage in each category mode." Ordinal is a rank ordering and its descriptive statistics is "median range, percentile ranking." Interval is an arithmetic operation on intervals between numbers and its descriptive statistics is "mean, standard deviation and variance." Understanding descriptive statistics necessitates specifically looking at the type of data that are being described. The nominal scales only place numeric labels on non-quantitative concepts, for example, dogs have the value of "1" and cats have the value "2." Many categories or groups are actually nominal, such as racial group and gender. In some research, for instance, the study counts the number of…. [read more]

Healing With Statistics Essay

… Inferential statistics are similar to descriptive statistics in their operation, but markedly different in their application: based on certain controls in collection and analysis, inferential statistics can be used to form hypotheses and some conclusions regarding a population as a whole, not simply the specific and finite observation included in the data set (Lund, 2010). Inferential statistics are used by healthcare organizations for things like predicting how many severe cases of flu might be expected in a given season, based on data samples taken from previous years, current populations, etc. In this way, though the organization would be working on less certain information and a projected range of expectations rather than concrete and certain measurements, preparedness can still be increased (Hill, 2012).

The four levels…. [read more]

Statistics in the Hardware Store Term Paper

… All four levels of data measurement are used in the hardware store. Nominal scales are used most often to label the groups of products. Items are arranged by category (for example, lawn and garden, paint, tools, and plumbing). Then, items were arranged by subcategories (for example, in "paint" there are rollers, ladders, and wallpaper accessories). Ordinal scales are used in the customer satisfaction survey (mentioned above) and in product ratings. Some of the product tags had ratings on them that say "good," "better," and "best" to help customers determine the best product out of the categorical group (for example, the best electric screwdriver). These ratings just ordered the products without saying much about the differences between them. The interval scale was used most noticeably in…. [read more]

Statistics Durbin Watson Term Paper

… Statistics -- Watson-Durbin

Analysis of Why Social Networking Played

An Influence in the 2008 Presidential Election

The 2008 Presidential election forever changed the nature of campaigning, constituent management, fund raising, while also creating an entirely different platform for managing campaigns and getting new demographic segments to participate at a level never seen before. The 2008 U.S. Presidential election was the first to rely heavily on highly interactive, agile and quickly defined social networking strategies in an attempt to get those demographic segments who had voted the least in previous elections to participate. Barak Obama concentrated on the younger demographic segments through a concerted strategy of social networking that included sites on Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, YouTube and a multitude of microsites. John McCain stayed with more…. [read more]

Multivariate Analysis Is Appropriate Essay

… discrete data), or make an unlimited number of comparisons. Like any research tool multivariate statistics have their limitations. Different types of multivariate tests allow a researcher to answer different types of questions, but a researcher's ability to make inferences is always limited by the type of data collected in the methodology used to collect it.

I am interested in how gender rates differ in cases of human trafficking into the United States. Currently there is a study that proposes looking at the differences in gender in human trafficking cases based on the data from The National Human Trafficking Resource Center. This particular to the research could be adequately performed using a simple t-test or one-way ANOVA. However, other variables could be added to the methodology…. [read more]

Assist the Nyke Shoe Company Business Plan

… Woman are much more likely to stick with a size range that would be more efficient if a company were interested in only producing one shoe size.

The data also shows that the average shoe size purchased by a woman is a 7.1. The average size purchased by a male is a 10.8. The average size purchased overall is 8.9. The average size overall really has no bearing on this particular study, but the average size for woman does. If the company were to produce a shoe size of 7, they would be catering almost strictly to females. However, another method for looking at the data could include a normal distribution to see how many individuals would make a likely purchase of a shoe size…. [read more]

Stock Stats Statistics Essay

… The outcome of the probability assessment is relatively straightforward. Each company's data for the past ten years was compiled and placed into charts. This step was taken to make a visual comparison of data clearly visible. From this data, it was fairly easy to establish probabilities for repetitions of the observed performance records -- for instance, one company had the largest sales revenue by a wide margin for seven our of the past ten years, therefore it seems probable that this same company would be the sales leader in the industry in each of the next several years, as well. Similar results were obtained for the other identified criteria. The statistical analysis, on the other hand, did not really yield any useful results, as no…. [read more]

Evaluating Research Findings Using Statistics Essay

… Probability and Statistics

Does familiarity with neighbors lead to lower crime rates? A researcher has theorized that if neighbors know each other, then the crime rates will be lower than in communities in which neighbors do not have a relationship. When communities grow quickly the closeness of the community degrades. A study was done to see if there is a relationship between the crime rate and the percentage change in neighborhood population. 10 neighborhoods in a large metropolis were studied. The results are as follows.

Percentage Change in Neighborhood Population

Crime Rate (Crime per 1000 population)

Identify the Explanatory (X) and Response (Y) variable.

The explanatory variable (X) is the percent change in neighborhood population, because the hypothesis states that increased turnover of residents will…. [read more]

Business Research Methods Determining the Target Market Research Paper

… Business Research Methods

Determining the target market of a product or service is just one of the key stages that companies must overcome to successfully create not only preference and loyalty for the product or service, but to also strengthen its (product's or service's) brand equity. Strong brand equity requires not only delivering the functional qualities and emotional connection between the product/service and the consumer, but it also entails overall customer satisfaction. Thus, strong brand equity is characterized by a strong product or service positioning combined with customer satisfaction, resulting to brand preference and loyalty.

In determining these concepts contributing to brand equity (i.e., identification of target market, brand positioning, and customer satisfaction), it is critical determine if indeed, the product or service being marketed…. [read more]

Course Analysis: Math and Statistics Term Paper

… Statistics can be described as the study of the collection, interpretation, presentation, description and analysis of data. In particular, statistics in business taught us to apply a variety of statistical methods in a business context to facilitate evidence-based decision making and to provide answers to business related questions. The overarching objective of the course was to analyze each of the course elements in detail and at the same time learn how to use this knowledge to describe data and make informed decisions based on well reasoned statistical arguments. The course elements learnt include: descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, hypothesis development and testing, selections of appropriate statistical tests, and evaluating statistical results. All the elements enabled us to make inferences about a given population from sample data,…. [read more]

Determining Appropriate Statistics Methodology Chapter

… ¶ … Kolmogorov-Smirnof test

Factor analysis

Linear regression

Goldfeld-Quandt test

Kaiser-Meiyer-Oklin (KMO)

Multivariate regression

Correlation -- Pearson's r

Cronbach's ?

Durbin-Watson statistic

See descriptions and justifications below.

Correlation importance and justifications

Correlation measures the strengths of association between two variables and, as such, enables the performance of bivariate analysis ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). The value range of the correlation coefficient extends between +1 and -1. A correlation coefficient of ± 1 indicates a perfect degree of association between the two variables. Assumptions for the Pearson r correlation include normal distribution, linearity, and homoscedasticity ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). Linearity assumes a straight line relationship between each of the variables in the analysis and homoscedasticity assumes that data is normally distributed about the regression line ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").

3.…. [read more]

Statistics: Critical Thinking Essay

… This is expected given that a statistic derived from the study of a sample would be factual to the elements of the sample, but inferential for the population (Schield 3).

These factors interplay to determine whether or not a study can be regarded as being of good quality, and whether or not the resultant statistic provides a good basis for decision-making (Best 15).

The Issue of Spurious Associations and the Simpson's Paradox

The effect of spurious relationships in critical thinking cannot be overlooked. The Simpson's Paradox can be defined as "a reversal of an association between two variables after a third variable (a confounding factor) is taken into account" (Schield 5). A critical thinker ought to take into consideration the effect of confounding factors when…. [read more]

Descriptive Statistics Case Study

… ¶ … Statistics

Consider this scenario: You are on the Board of Directors of the National Kidney Foundation. Two different research labs are working on treatments. Your responsibility is to review and evaluate both of the results from the research studies and make recommendations for future funding. You can only fund one of the two. Patients and their families are anxiously waiting for the Board of Directors to make a decision which of the two can be funded.

Your first task it to do the following calculations for both of the results that have been submitted to you.




Standard Deviation (are there outliers you should consider?)

Number of weeks that patients felt better:

Group I results = 3, 5, 6, 6, 8,…. [read more]

Conselling Master Questionnaire Questionnaire

… 26)

The primary objective of statistics is to make inferences concerning a population. In so doing, there is a need to explain or offer information concerning the sample, which will major in a given study. Descriptive statistics come in, and assist in describing the sample on which the study will take place. In addition, descriptive statistics first offer substantial information concerning the sample to major in the study. Statistics associated with descriptive statistics shown on the normal curve are identified as the measures of central tendency. Additionally, researchers have described descriptive statistics as an effort to summarize the gathered data comprehensively.

13) Explain the purpose and meaning of "Pearson" (Hauser, 2009 p. 30)

In statistics, "Pearson" in full Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is the measure…. [read more]

Different Components of Statistical Testing Essay

… Statistics in Research: Different Factors to Consider

Statistics in research take two primary forms: that of inferential vs. descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics, as the name suggests, merely seeks to describe a particular phenomenon as it exists numerically. Examples of descriptive statistics include determining the mean, median, mode or midrange of a particular set of figures or establishing a correlation between two sets of data (Taylor 2015). Presenting statistics in a graph is also considered descriptive in nature (Taylor 2015). Inferential statistics, in contrast, are used when it is impossible to assess data about an entire population group. "It is typically impossible or infeasible to examine each member of the population individually. So we choose a representative subset of the population, called a sample" (Taylor 2015).…. [read more]

Prediction Essay

… 38; median = 3.3; mode = N/A (all values at the same frequency); variance = .692889; standard deviation = .263228; kurtosis = -1.2189; skew = .182109; range = 2.5; sum = 38.3.

Higher reaction time memory score group: being = 9.24; median = 8.85; mode = 9.5; variance = 5.004889; standard deviation = 2.237161; kurtosis = 6.86883; skew = 2.443916; range = 7.9; sum = 94.2.

Aside from the obvious difference is one would expect when separating groups into low and high scores (e.g., higher/lower mean, median compared to the overall group results, different sum, etc.) there are a couple of interesting differences here. First, the lower reaction time group does not have a specific mode (although scores in the distribution at the same frequency…. [read more]

Bio-Statistics Research Activities, Whether Clinical Term Paper

… In other words, the authors did not build a medical or healthcare-based paradigm for the study. Following a well-defined research question the research investigators' task is to follow-up with a statement of a testable null hypothesis or hypotheses. The null form of the hypothesis is required in order for the proper application of a statistical data analysis tool to be implemented (Ohlson, 1998). Simply stating that an attempt to "confer" that an insulin deficiency might or might not affirm a "predisposition to complications" is not adhering to proper scientific research protocol with respect to a needed testable null hypothesis (Van Dalen, 1964).

Another important criteria of effective research are the use of an appropriate sampling procedure. Sampling alone can skew testing results, infuse uncontrollable error…. [read more]

Personal Income Probabilities Essay

… (d) how do the two answers in (a) and (b) above compare with the actual % proportions for this sample, provide explanatory comment on the differences

In regard to debt to income ratio, increase in debt to income ratio as age advances into 30s. However, in comparison with the older 10% where there is consistency in low to no debt to income ratio, a bell curve becomes evident in long-term benefits to the TOTBAL/TOTPAY as income advances and debts are paid in approach to retirement.

4 Construct 95% confidence intervals for the mean Job Income of the background population of both men granted credit, and separately for women not granted credit, (the z-table and/or the t-table and/or Excel functions can be used) clearly showing workings:…. [read more]

Teaching of Statistics and Problems Annotated Bibliography

… Jaisingh, Lloyd. Statistics for the Utterly Confused. New York: McGraw-Hill Trade. 2000.

This is a practical guide to understanding mathematics, particularly statistics. This book is great in that it explains things step-by-step in a clear, concise manner. It also provides helpful tricks and hints for grasping mathematical concepts. Anyone who reads this book will come out of it with a far better understanding of statistics than he or she had before.

Kincaid, Joseph. Research Projects in Statistics. New York: McGraw Hill Text. 2004.

This book is set to be published in January of 2004. It is to include research projects that college level statistics students can use in their classes. This should be a great book to help the average college student get through statistics…. [read more]

Numerical Research That Can Be Analyzed Essay

… ¶ … numerical research that can be analyzed in a statistical fashion. Quantitative research frequently -- although not exclusively -- deploys the scientific method whereby a hypothesis is tested in a controlled fashion. One group, the experimental group, is subjected to an intervention known as the independent variable while another, otherwise similar group, is designated the control group and not subjected to that variable. The dependent variable is the change or lack of change that results from the intervention, and the results prove or disprove the initial hypothesis. Quantitative research can also take the form of a survey or other instrument designed to collect raw data about a particular population.

In contrast, qualitative research is designed to explore the evolution of a particular phenomenon in…. [read more]

NBA Stats Term Paper

… 1 (for points). Mean height is 78.7 and mean points is 16.843, so calculating the covariance of this data pair would look like this:

(72 -- 78.7)(13.1-16.843) = 25.0781

In order to develop the value for each pair, two new columns were created in the Excel sheet to calculate the difference of the data point and the mean with the following formulas:

=a2-78.7 (for height, pasted into the other 99 rows which automatically adjust the cell value for each row, as =a3-78.7, a4-78.7, etc.), and =b2-16.843 (for points, also pasted).

A third column with the following formula created the product of each row in these two columns:

=c2*d2 (pasted for all rows).

The average function was used to determine the mean of this last row,…. [read more]

Adult Learner, Including Statistics Term Paper

… " They encourage students to engage in self-management, such as context, resources, and actions, along with self-monitoring their educational learning strategies (Smith, 2009). SDL shifts the control from the teacher to the learner as they set their own goals and it attempts to mimic how people learn in real life.

The advantages of SDL are many. Studies show that SDL students understand their own responsibility in learning and their approach to learning, and as noted, it may make learning easier because it mimics real life. SDL students actually collaborate more, even though teachers are less involved. This is because the students often collaborate with their peers, and are encouraged to bring real-life problems into the classroom to solve.

Some examples of SDL include online or…. [read more]

Reduction of Prejudice the Contact Research Paper

… There has been an increasing interest in the use of imagery in reducing prejudice. Turner, Crisp & Lambert (2007) proposed that even imagining intergroup contact may have beneficial effects on intergroup attitudes. In three experiments, they demonstrated that thinking about contact with members of an outgroup improved attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole and reduced perceptions of outgroup homogeneity (that members of the outgroup all share the same undesirable traits). In two of their experiments participants were asked to imagine a conversation with an elderly person and in a third experiment participants imagined they were sitting next to a homosexual person in the train and conversing with them until they reached their stop. Under all three contact conditions participants reported significantly less intergroup anxiety…. [read more]

Hypothesis Testing Essay

… Assume that the distribution of x is normal. A previously used drug treatment has a mean remission time of 12.5 weeks. Does the data indicate that the mean remission time using the new drug is different from 12.5-week at a level of significance of 0.01?

Problem 2

Men Women

20 29

37 28

46 20

23 28

20 42

23 45

21 19

15 45

20 16

28 32

27 38

20 45

30 41

22 34

27 28

38 21

29 42

20 21

16 30

27 28

42 30

37 43

39 40

39 16

32 44

16 15

21 16

26 20

17 41

39 16

Count 30-30 t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances

Means 27.2-30.4

Variance 77.151-112.323 Variable 1 Variable 2

Std.…. [read more]

Statistics and Analysis in Criminal Justice Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … Anthony Brennan

I think that your response provides a good example of how to pick the appropriate statistical test for assessing data in a given set, which is, in my opinion, the more likely scenario that we might encounter once working in the field. However, the hypothetical question not only said that we were provided with a data set, but also told which test we would need to use. Your response suggests that you had the same misgivings about this question that I had, because the test provided might not be the appropriate test for the data given or for the results that are being sought. I think that reading about the test in order to see what type of relationship between variables…. [read more]

Statistics Showing That English Boys Term Paper

… Achieving this is a huge problem. It has been suggested, and not without strong criticism, that boys and girls be taught in different classes. This is already the case in Detroit, Michigan, where some inner city schools are segregating the males and females for some classes. All-girl and all-boy schools as well as home schooling are growing in the United States as a way to equalize education for boys and girls, and among the ethnic groups. Is this a viable solution, separate classes? For some, it might be, but like the United States, England suffers from a shortage of funding for schools. Separate classes for boys and girls would only add to the problem. That does not even bring up the legal or social issues.…. [read more]

Statistical Analysis Reported in Two Term Paper

… First, no such mention was ever made in the beginning of the study with respect to gender differences. Second, logistic regression analysis and/or techniques have no earthly association with differences. Had the authors wanted to determine whether or not differences occurred they should have employed the proper descriptive tool "t" test or ANOVA." Again, this was not the case. Additionally the authors made the statement in their concluding remarks that adolescent smoking is related to social insecurity and social isolation. I found that this particular condition and/or variable were never even mentioned in the introductory stage to the research article nor was it included in the research question section. Therefore, any information and/or conclusion with reference to this condition is totally out of place and…. [read more]

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