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Literacy in Secondary Education Term Paper

… Literacy in Secondary Education

Adolescent literacy has started to be reconsidered by teachers and researchers. The focus on adolescent literacy may be explained in two ways:

First, both teachers and researchers in adolescent literacy have acknowledged the impact of culturally and linguistically diverse students on literacy. An example of this current trend is given by Alvermannn and her colleagues, in Reconceptualizing the Literacies in Adolescents' Lives, in which they point to a broader view of adolescent literacies that encompasses gender, race, ethnicity, and social class (Alvermannn, Hinchman, Moore, Phelps, & Waff, 1998).

Second, as we entered the 21st century, media and technology have begun to impact greatly on literacy and on the academic curriculum for Arts and Language disciplines.

Reinking (1998) stated that as "we…. [read more]

Balanced Literacy Program Phonemic Awareness Essay

… Components of a phonics program that meets these requirements typically includes a spelling series, basal reader and/or collection of leveled readers, worksheets or a workbook, and Word Wall activities. Published games and activities as well as Internet sources can provide teachers with variations on their daily activities to keep students engaged and motivated.

By the time students reach third grade, they are beginning to be expected to "read to learn;" less instructional time is devoted in the general education classroom teaching students to learn to read. Word wall activities tend to focus on content-specific vocabulary rather than sight words or letter patterns. Children read longer passages that are increasingly complex. The goal is to understand the content while building comprehension strategies, vocabulary, and fluency. Third…. [read more]

Literacies According to Mora ), Literacy Essay

… ¶ … Literacies

According to Mora (2000), literacy is a broad term that encompasses a variety of factors. Academic literacy focuses on "abilities and attitudes needed for short-term and long-range success in school" (Mora, 2000). Cultural literacy is another important aspect of literacy. This term refers to the beliefs of ethnic groups and is based on traditional values and mores. It can have a large effect on academic literacy, particularly if there is a divide between the cultural practices of the macro and micro cultures. In recent years, technological literacy has become important as well. Students must be aware of the different types of multimedia and must know how to access the available information. The school curriculum is important to literacy development, but the role…. [read more]

Literacy Program Review "Reading Essay

… The students in general cannot show very high levels of knowledge absorption. When in groups, students take time in understanding procedure. Hence they can only slowly improve their proficiency. However, the advantage is that this learning process is normally permanet. What the students are taught by drills and excercises, that stays with them for long. Hence the slow procedural improvement of studet literacy proficiency is low for example only 2% or 5% over a period of a year. But the gradual improvement will finally end up into a very good English reading proficency of student in different grades.

The program is designed along course that is language rich. Unlike the conventional teaching methods, the student is not made to read only one type of information.…. [read more]

Developing a Comprehensive Literacy Instruction Term Paper

… ¶ … Literacy


Comprehensive Literary Model Grade K/

How Instill Love of Learning

Ingredients of Reading and Writing

Reading in terms of No Child Left Behind Strategies for Reading

Love of Reading

Educators (and parents) are responsible for preparing their students to become mature adults who can have a personally rewarding life as well as enhance the society in which they live. In today's fast-paced technological world, that can only be done with strong literacy skills. In order to most effectively teach these literary skills, students must have both the interest and desire to acquire them and the understanding of their value in the present world.

Reading ability has long been recognized as the key predictor of school success,…. [read more]

Literacy Coaching: Elementary Grades Learning Essay

… Overall, Fine has slight issues with phonics and reads at least between the kindergarten to 1st grade levels, which almost two grade levels below.

Qualitative Summary -- Miscues

Miscues were evident in two of the assessments: "All About Me" and Basic Reading Inventory. Because Fine is in the 2nd grade, using the basic phonics test was not applicable; although, the sight word test was given. Instead, a survey "All About Me" was given. Results depicted many spelling errors, which indicated issues with phonics since there is a correlation between spelling errors and phonics. With respect to the basic reading inventory, it was a great opportunity to assess phonics, as well. Fine missed the two words "believe" and "quietly," located in the Grade 2 box. Subsequently,…. [read more]

Development of a School-Wide Assessment Plan Term Paper

… The teachers also try to collect writing samples from the child based on their grade level. Writing samples are reflective of the ability of the child as stated in the IEP. Using these samples, the teacher plans to implement Dr. Jennings' IRA and assess how far the student is able to go in terms of vocabulary development and reading. Based on this, the teacher then plans to assess the level of comprehension of the student. Teachers provide accommodations based on results as demonstrated by the student's assessment. The teacher aims to go as far as possible in their measurement of the five reading areas based on the student's performance and abilities. This informal measure of authentic assessment provides them with sufficient information to tailor student-specific…. [read more]

Literacy Instruction?' Additionally This Work Seeks Term Paper

… ¶ … literacy instruction?' Additionally this work seeks to understand how to scaffold the literacy development of children. This work will compare and explain the comprehensive literacy instruction and attempt to gain insights for improvement of teaching instruction in the classroom. The document entitled: "Balanced Literacy Background Knowledge" states that after years "of conflict between whole language and phonics advocates, a consensus about what works is emerging from the research: (1) children need explicit, systematic instruction in phonics and exposure to rich literature, both fiction and nonfiction; and (2) Children need instruction in phonics in early reading development, within a context of meaning, comprehension strategies, language development, and writing. (Early Literature Website, 2008) This work further relates that it has been demonstrated in reach that…. [read more]

Early Literacy Assessment Term Paper

… Literacy is one of the numerous skills that are needed to perform in day-to-day life. Literacy starts begins at home actually with the parents. These children at this place start to learn things such as what language is articulated around them, in addition to the gestures they pick up from their mother and father. If the parent's themselves are having poor literacy skills, it makes it hard for them to teach their children, as a result hindering their talent to learn. The things parents teach their children right before they enter school can be a wonderful aid in putting them on the correct route to literacy success. With that said this essay will discuss six articles and compare each piece to find trends, commonalities and…. [read more]

ESL Vocab Acquisition Deriving a Pedagogical Strategy Research Paper

… ESL Vocab Acquisition

Deriving a Pedagogical Strategy for Vocabulary Acquisition Instruction

Among ESL Students

Learning a new language is among the most confounding of challenges to those entering into new countries of school systems. In addition to the conceptual and practical challenges that impact this process, there are considerable cultural and structural obstacles that the learner must face. This is why the discussion on English Second Language (ESL) instruction is so highly beset with philosophical and pedagogical disagreement. As the research hereafter will consider, the task of providing English language instruction to a classroom of learners should be informed by strategies proven effective by cogent research. But as a focus in instruction widens from an emphasis on generative linguistics to an inclusion of vocabulary acquisition…. [read more]

Health Literacy Essay

… Health Literacy

The nurse plays the most critical role in improving patient health literacy, because the nurse serves as a patient advocate. As Speros (2011) points out, "It is imperative that nursing responds to the call of creating a health literate society by taking an active role in health literacy research, education, and promotion (p. 321). The nurse is often the person to whim the patient goes when there are questions related to intake forms, insurance, or specific care issues like wound dressings or nutrition when the physician is unavailable. "Nurses have a professional and ethical obligation to communicate in a clear, purposeful way that addresses the unique information needs of each patient," (Speros, 2011, p. 321). Health literacy entails everything from being able to…. [read more]

Teacher Would Teach/Facilitate a Child to Read Term Paper

… ¶ … teacher would teach/Facilitate a child to read and write.

Literacy -- Acquisition, Reinforcement, and Assessment in the Classroom

Learning to read and acquiring greater literacy skills is not something that occurs in a series of neat, definable steps, like learning how to drive or ride a bike. Ideally, a child's literacy education should occur even before he or she enters the classroom. "Babies are fascinated by bright colorful books. If an adult talks about the pictures and reads the words, this helps to develop language skills. The young child also begins to understand that the content of a book never changes...[Soon] children begin to play read and turn the pages of a favorite story while chanting parts of it aloud" if they are…. [read more]

Adult Literacy in African-American Communities Thesis

… Adult Literacy in African-American Communities


The modern definition of literacy extends beyond reading and writing. The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 defines it as "an individual's ability to read, write, speak in English, compute and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job, in the family... And in society." The ability of adult education to "mold a world" has been questioned in the light of complex and current social and economic realities. Sharp decline in employment in major urban centers, poorly performing schools and low educational levels among African-Americans and other people of color are among these.

Surveys show that African-Americans and Hispanics combined account for more than half of all the participants in federally funded adult literacy education…. [read more]

Visual Literacy in Higher Education Term Paper

… Visual Literacy in Higher Education

The contemporary learning and experiential environment is highly visual. Students are exposed to Web sites, television and a plethora of other sources of image and visual data. This increase in the pervasiveness of the visual aspect in our daily lives has also changed the meaning of being literate. As Ron Bleed states in an article entitled Visual Literacy in Higher Education, "The Literacy of the 21st century will increasingly rely not only on text and words but also on digital images and sounds" (Bleed R. 2005).

This view of the importance of visual literacy in contemporary higher education is expressed by a wide range of articles, studies and reports. Furthermore, this trend also has important consequences. Not only does it…. [read more]

K-12 Curriculum and Instruction: Changing Research Proposal

… From what? Boring stuff." (2011)

Robinson states that the instance of ADHD "has risen in parallel with the growth of standardized testing. And these kids are being given Ritalin and Adderall and all manner of things. Often quite dangerous drugs to get them focused and calm them down. But according to this attention deficit disorder increases as you travel east across the country. People start losing interest in Oklahoma. They can hardly think straight in Arkansas. And by the time they get to Washington they've lost it completely." (Robinson, 2011) The model of education is a system of education "…which is modeled on the interest of industrialism. And in the image of it. I'll give you a couple examples. Schools are still pretty much organized…. [read more]

Improvement of Education in Developing Case Study

… Research Question Terminology. On the one hand, populations are far too diverse to suggest that a one-size-all approach would fit all of them; on the other hand, in many instances, research with these groups is no different from that with any other group (Darlington & Scott, 2002). Although there a numerous research methodologies available to social researchers today, virtually all of them employ comparable terminology in their definitions and applications that can also be applied to the instant investigation (Neuman, 2003). For the purposes of this study, then, the following definitions will be used:


Participant-Observation. This term is frequently used as an umbrella term by social researchers and ethnographers to refer to all qualitative data-gathering techniques (Anzul, Ely, Friedman, Garner, & Steinmetz, 1991); however,…. [read more]

Intended for a Quantitative Public Essay

… Many believe it is hard to use financial innovation in the places where its application is sought, the places where its application is desired or the places where its application is needed. Financial innovation has traditionally been part of education policy. The individuals who seek to practically implement a financial innovative policy find it too difficult within an educational structure. These types of individuals are actually quite a few and varied across different posts in institutions, which range from schools to teachers to the policy makers themselves. These individuals think it is hard to help make the necessary changes in reaction to financial innovation or investment. There's a general opinion that these financial innovations lead to failure more regularly than they do to success. But…. [read more]

Congress Northwest Nazarene a Universal Essay

… This health capability model previously discussed can help develop strategies that may foster socioeconomic policies that will focus on prevention and motivation to improve health and break through barriers.

To be most effective, it should begin when a child is very young. The focus should be on maternal and child health, clean drinking water and nutrition, and continuing education through life (Fukuda, 2001). People need the ability to choose a healthy lifestyle, as well as information about why it is important in ways they can understand. All people deserve to have a healthy lifestyle and access to healthy foods and safe drinking water. A person cannot make healthy choices when they are physically, mentally, and spiritually malnourished.

Concretely, Congressman, I am asking for your involved…. [read more]

Medication Reconciliation Evidence-Based Practice Essay

… 672).

Verifying Medications by Collecting an Accurate Medication History:

As the subsequent discussion will demonstrate, a great many medication errors can be eliminated at the outset by taking the proper steps to gather information at the time of admission. It is at this first step in the healthcare process that the absence of a streamlined and consistent medication reconciliation process can result in errors that may follow the patient problematically throughout his or her treatment experience. Accordingly, time and labor limitations in emergency room and other clinical contexts can lead to errors resulting from inaccurately gathered drug histories, deficits in communication between medical professionals, illegible handwriting, and lack of access to prior medical histories. FitzGerald (2009) identified that the simplicity of using terminology of "medicines…. [read more]

ELL Writing Sample Analysis Instruction of Students Thesis

… ELL Writing Sample Analysis

Instruction of students who are learning English as a second language (ELL) requires a distinct method of practice, lesson focus on the targeting of strengths and weaknesses. In compositional education for ELL students, this is particularly so. The account presented here describes briefly the role of the ELL instructor before proceeding to a practical demonstration of this role. Reviewing a writing sample by an ELL student called "Response to 'The Unwelcome Neighbor," the account here provides constructive criticism in the areas of grammar, syntax and composition. Hereafter, the account provides suggestions for corrective educational methods, heeding the advice provided by ELL instructional professional Linda Christensen (2003), whose article suggests minilessons and the active participation of students in expressing constructive writing rules.…. [read more]

RTI Response to Intervention Term Paper

… In short, early childhood educators as a group may be more focused on basic skill development and more accustomed to flexible and responsive service delivery than their elementary school counterparts. Therefore, it seems possible that RTI would be more readily accepted in early childhood, as it likely represents less of a philosophical or pedagogical shift at the preschool level.

Principles of RTI

Four key principles that consistently appear in models of RTI include the procedure of (1) entire screening of students in the school to detect the ones who are at risk of low academic performance, (2) a school wide, multi-tiered approach to prevent such school failure, (3) continuous monitoring of progress (hereafter progress monitoring) to document a student's progress (or lack thereof) and to…. [read more]

Adult Literacy Eunice Askov Thesis

… Competing in the global economy is now more than ever a necessity. American literacy standards are being called into question because of the inability of the American educational and workforces to keep up with the changing labor market and its demands for different types of literacy. Eunice Askov suggests a thorough reworking of the definition of literacy and the standards by which students and educators are judged. The definition of literacy itself must change if Americans are to improve their ability to compete and thrive.

Traditional assessment models have become sorely outmoded. Those traditional literacy models have helped define what literacy is, and hence, have impaired the ability of American students to compete and thrive in the global marketplace. Literacy must take into account student…. [read more]

Learning That Is Imparted Term Paper

… Instructing English in a work-based environment may increase chances of professional growth. The participants of work-based learning programs get a whole new world of resources accessible by learning a language that has noteworthy professional importance. Rosen (1999) reported ESL as being the most taught language surpassing Spanish in all centers of Berlitz in the U.S. English for reading purposes, English for communication within organizations, and English for developing basic writing skills by the secretaries and lower administrative staff will also increase in the industry called English for occupational purposes (EOP). Actionbased (Cunningham, Dawes & Bennett, 2004)and project based (Wrigley, 1998) have become two important methodologies for ESL in work-based environments. Their acceptance from the employers is more as compared to other class room-based methods.

2.1.3-…. [read more]

Second Language Learning Essay

… On the same English tests, Swedish-speaking Finns consistently did better than Finnish speakers. Because the students came from similar backgrounds, one likely explanation was that, when completing the English tasks, the Swedish speakers get more help from their L1 than Finnish speakers, as Swedish, but not Finnish, is related to English.

Supporting this view is Robert & Williams, (2009) finding that Swedish children already knew a lot of English words when they started instruction in English because of the cognates in Swedish and English. However, it is also possible that some readers are not aware of cognates and cannot exploit this source of information to facilitate their reading comprehension (Cook, 2001). In a recent study, we focused on the English reading comprehension of upper elementary…. [read more]

Positive Outcome in the Educational Term Paper

… Third, there is a growing awareness that rapid technological change and our nation's economic competativeness will compel workers to adapt existing skills and learn new ones to optimize performance.

As noted, interest in thinking and problem solving has been renewed, but traditional approaches to teaching these skills have met with very mixed results (Nickerson, Perkins, & Smith, 1986). It now appears that the efficacy of these efforts was determined by at least three interrelated factors: First, instructional designers often failed to appreciate the importance of domain-specific knowledge in effective thinking and problem solving (Chi, Glaser, & Farr, 1988). Programs that emphasize the use of generic reasoning and problem-solving heuristics may be theoretically general across situations, but they usually lack power in any specific situation (Anderson,…. [read more]

Newest Vital Sign and Realm Screen Tools Literature Review

… Newest Vital Sign and REALM screen tools in health literacy

In a clinical setting, the quality and robust nature of a number of diagnostic tools are central to both accurate results and a medical professional's ability to assess the medical situation. For example, there are numerous tools designed to assess health literacy within the clinical setting. Two of these tools, REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine) and the NVS (Newest Vital Sign Screening) tool, have very different approaches to the same problem set. Under this rubric, the seminal question becomes one of preference, ease of use, accuracy of results, and whether one too or another will influence usage and robustness of data. Since these types of tools are primarily used by registered nurses,…. [read more]

Employed by a Researcher Can Positively Term Paper

… ¶ … employed by a researcher can positively or negatively affect the outcome of research as well as perceived applicability or usefulness of a study. Thus it is vital that the researcher adopt a research methodology that is relevant to the phenomena being examined, and the methodology that will provide the most comprehensive explanation for predicted patterns or observed behaviors.

There are two primary forms of research methodology employed by researchers engaged in a quest to uncover information about a given phenomena: qualitative and quantitative. There is a large body of evidence available that supports both forms of methodology for acquiring insight and information regarding given behaviors and experiences.

In some situations, both a qualitative and quantitative approach of research methodology have been adopted, though…. [read more]

Differentiating Instruction Professional Development Thesis

… ¶ … Professional Development

The objective of this work is to describe the importance of the superintendent understanding the 'big picture' of how professional development can improve the school organization. This work will answer the questions of how the superintendent could go about beginning the process of differentiated instruction in the school district and will develop a comprehensive plan for differentiation of instruction. This work will define the role of the public, teachers, administrators and/or others in developing the planning process.


Differentiated instruction is defined as "an approach that enables teacher to plan strategically to meet the needs of every student. It is rooted in the belief that there is variability among any group of learners and that teachers should adjust…. [read more]

Teaching That Play a Role Term Paper

… ¶ … teaching that play a role in the decisions teachers make with regards to instruction. Attitudes and beliefs, reflective practice and teaching philosophy are all elements of decision making and are incorporated into this literature review. There were 60 sources used to complete this review.


For many years teachers have been held accountable for the progress, success and failure of their students. During those years the field of education has moved through various stages that have incorporated both the knowledge of the educators with the desires of the public. Whether it was teaching to the test, inclusion, diversity or technology that was examined the nation's teachers formed attitudes and beliefs about how to best deliver the instruction.

Attitudes of teachers can…. [read more]

Differentiated Instruction Research Paper

… Differentiated Instruction

Guided Reading

Differentiation defined

Students enter classrooms today with a range of abilities. Additionally, pressures from accountability standards and high-stakes testing have forced teachers to find new ways to reach all of their students. Ankrum & Bean (2008) report that exemplary instructors employ differentiated instruction to meet the needs of their students, stating "teaching was very different in the most effective classrooms from student to student and from occasion to occasion" (p. 136).

According to Anderson (2007) differentiation is not at all a new concept. Citing the example of the one-room schoolhouse, Anderson (2007) explains that differentiated instruction stems from the belief about differences among learners, how students learn, differences in learning preferences, and individual interests. By its nature, differentiation implies that the…. [read more]

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