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Cubism Cubist Sculpture Term Paper

… Cubism

Cubist sculpture

Cubist sculpture and its significance in the development of art

Cubism as an art movement is considered one of the most revolutionary in art history. It was part of the modernist art movement during the Twentieth Century which altered the principles of art that had been dominant for centuries. Art previous to the cubism movement was traditional with a simple distinction between solid forms and negative space. Cubism altered this by making it purposely difficult to distinguish a difference between these two aspects. Furthermore, Cubism developed a form of art and sculpture with undefined and mutilated planes. This type of art was in many ways opposite to art that had previously been created by artists and accepted as the norm.

A central…. [read more]

Development of Cubism Term Paper

… Cubism is a form of art that reduces the dimensionality of the appearance of paintings from three to two. Rather than adopting the nuances of lighting, shadows and curve to "bring out" the painting, cubism aims to recreate and present a subject to the viewer into a collection of geometric shapes (the word "cubism" is a misnomer, since other geometric shapes are also introduced), such that multiple facets of a subject is visible to the viewer. It brings together views of the subject from different angles and perspectives and recreates or represents them in a two-dimensional setting. Cubism perhaps showed the first inklings of modern art -- a redefinition of reality.

Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were the forerunners in the creation of cubism. Many…. [read more]

Cubism and Sculpture Term Paper

… Artists like Picasso and Gauguin found formal ideas and images in the so-called primitive societies that resonated with energy and a new artistic rhythm.

Les Demoiselles D'Avignon is often invoked as the painting that started Cubism. A central aspect that the African mask motif created in Picasso's work was the challenge that it set up to ideas and normative perception of natural form.

The Negro sculptures radically abstract from natural forms: with their large noses protruding at sharp angles from the concave faces, they are the very opposite of everything Classical. Under their influence Picasso completely negated the natural form for the first time in the Demoiselles d'Avignon." (Boeck and Sabartes 147)

The primitive or archaic conventions are startling in the painting; particularly if…. [read more]

Picasso and Braque Cubism Research Paper

… Picasso and Braque

Cubism refers to a revolutionary style of art that emerged in Paris during the early part of the twentieth century, 1907 through 1914, and is credited to the creations of two particular painters, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque (Cubism pp).

The major characteristic of the Cubist style is the rejection of the traditional techniques of perspective, foreshortening, modeling, and chiaroscuro and ignoring the accepted theories that art must imitate nature (Cubism pp). Instead, the artists chose to emphasize the flat two-dimensional surface of the picture plane and refused to be bound to copy form, texture, color and space, but rather present reality in a new way that showed fragmented objects, "whose several sides were seen simultaneously" (Cubism pp).

Georges Braque was born…. [read more]

Picasso Cubism Culture Research Proposal

… Picasso, Cubism, Culture

Picasso, Cubism and culture

The "invention" or creation of cubism has elicited a huge library of criticism and studies attempting to explain this artistic phenomenon that is largely associated with the works of Picasso and Braque. While there is no definitive definition of cubism, a working definition that can be applied is simply that cubism is a new artistic mode or method of perceiving reality. As one writer in the subject states, Picasso initiated a "revolt" against Western representation in art and developed knew methods of "… inventing truth that enables him to break old laws…" ( Walther 33).

At the outset I feel that it is important to make the distinction between the artistic process and the analysis of art from…. [read more]

Les Demoiselles D'avignon" by Picasso, Explain Cubism Term Paper

… ¶ … les demoiselles d'Avignon" by Picasso, explain cubism in it and discuss the idea and techique of "collage in devolopment of modern art.

Cubism was a movement developed between 1907 and 1914. It had its origins in France and its main exponents were Pablo Picasso, Georges Braques, and Juan Gris. Cubism treats the shapes of nature through geometric figures, representing all the parts of an object in one single plane. It is considered to be the first movement to deny the last element remaining from Renaissance academy: the perspective.

It freed the world of art of any compromise with realistic representation. In spite of the revolutionary technique, the genres and subjects were not new in art: still nature, landscape, and portraits. Picasso creates a…. [read more]

Dadaism and Surrealism Essay

… Conclusion

To cut a long story short, Dadaism and Surrealism have influenced history in a very radical and effective manner. Having a lot of similarities, both the movements differ only on few grounds. Not only did the Surrealists produce paintings, they also did marvelous works in the field of film, theatre, comedy and contemporary cultures. The influence of the discussed two historical art periods is significant and would remain be on the future art.


ART BOOKS OF THE YEAR; Van Gogh's Letters, Grayson Perry's Pots a Scholarly Study of Caravaggio and a Glimpse into the World of the Insane Henry Darger -- Just a Few of the Treats Guaranteed to Give Pleasure This Christmas. (2009, December 10). The Evening Standard (London, England), p. 48.…. [read more]

19th Century Art First Question - Three Term Paper

… 19th Century Art


Considered one of the most influential art movements of the twentieth century, Cubism defined not only a transformative period of art but influenced the careers of the individual artists who directed the movement as well.

Cubism is traditionally divided into three phases: The proto-cubist, or Cezanne Phase, when Picasso and Braque, both considered the innovators and initiators of the Cubist movement, first followed the guidance and advice of Paul Cezanne and began treating nature in their art as consisting of the "cone the sphere and the cylinder" (ArtLex, ¶2); the Hermetic or Analytic Cubism period when cubism had been defined as an art form, and the Synthetic Cubism or Collage period of 1912-1919 when later…. [read more]

Henri Matisse Still Life Research Paper

… " (Matisse Picasso Website, 2002)

VI. Concept of Visual Equilibrium

Matisse writes that if he were to paint upon a white canvas "some sensations of blue, of green, or red, each new stroke diminish the importance of the preceding ones." (1908) The concept of visual equilibrium is addressed in the work of Matisse who states as follows on painting an interior:

"I have before me a cupboard; it gives me a sensation of vivid red, and I put down a red which satisfies me. A relation is established between this red and the white of the canvas. Let me put a green near the red, and make the floor yellow; and again there will be relationships between the green or yellow and the white of…. [read more]

William James Was a Prominent Term Paper

… Besides being able to be classified as an "eminent" psychologist, can James also be classified as a figure that fits the Zeitgeist, or the spirit of the times? One can try to classify James in this way simply by comparing James' work to that of other prominent authors and philosophers of his time.

James lived in the Modernist era. During this era, authors, artists and philosophers were all struggling to disprove the notions of Romanticism and Classicism. This is made evident by the sarcastic way in which T.E. Hulme, a prominent Modernist author, describes Romanticism. "You might say if you wished that the whole of the romantic attitude seems to crystallize in verse round metaphors of flight...[one] is always flying, flying over abysses, flying up…. [read more]

Art One-Point Linear Perspective Research Paper

… Conclusion

The conventions of single point perspective are often presumed to be essential to a 'good' work of art. However, this is only relatively true for a brief period in Western history. The reason for the acceptance of this convention is linked to the rise of science, the secular spirit of the Renaissance and ideals of a detailed representation of reality, among many other factors and variables in Western history. However, this convention has been deeply questioned by modern artists, especially if we take into account the rise of abstract art in the Twentieth Century.

The history of art is however not simple or linear. While perspective has been critiqued by modern artists who wish to extend the boundaries of perceived reality and its representation,…. [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh Research Proposal


INTRODUCTION had a hard struggle with myself...."

Vincent van Gogh (Van Goh's Letters, 2009)

The Painter

The Painter" sold only one of his paintings, now worth millions of dollars, during his lifetime. "The Painter," Vincent van Gogh, frequently depicted people in hard times, Linda Yoffe (1995) notes in "Vincent, Theo, painting and self-esteem." Today, considered one of the greatest Dutch painters and draftsmen after Rembrandt, van Gogh's art significantly influenced Expressionism in modern art. Van Gogh, born in 1853, began painting seriously in 1880, Arthur Max (2004), an Associated Press writer, reports in "Van Gogh letter refers to family tragedy." Theo, van Gogh's younger brother, supported "The Painter" for much of his life.

Study Design and Significance

As this descriptive qualitative…. [read more]

Impressionism vs. Post Essay

… Examples of post-impressionist works include Starry Night by Vincent Van Gogh and Monet's works including Waterlillies (Sweeny, 1996). Many post-impressionists concerned themselves with adding their personal experiences into the painting, versus being loyal to the object they were painting. This was much different from impressionism, where the painter felt an obligation to the object or subject of the painting, to whom they were loyal. Post-impressionism was concerned more with "sensation" and much less close to "realism." While impressionists could hardly be defined as realists, their paintings did have some quality of naturalism to them, even though the painter separated themselves from reality when painting.

Some distinct characteristics of Impressionist paintings include small yet visible brush strokes and the crucial element of perception and experience (Tinterow…. [read more]

Art of Classical Antiquity Essay

… The story of the trial and death of Socrates as it is told in Plato's Republic, brought to life on canvas by David, had direct historical reference. Socrates was put on trial by those who would not listen to reason: the jury of Athenians was too beholden to the ancient social structure. David drew much from this historical reference and is making a political statement in the painting. In ancient Greece, the art was not making as much of a political statement as it was an expression of pride in the pinnacle of Hellenic culture. Other Neoclassical works, including those by David, do not address the themes of classical Greece. They are, such as "Napoleon Crossing the Alps," more squarely rooted in contemporary imagery. However,…. [read more]

Impressionism and Surrealism Essay

… 6). Many Surrealists even used hypnotism and drugs to achieve this state of dream-like unconsciousness before diving into their work. Rather than the movement that can be defined by the physical use of mediums and styles, Surrealism and its noted artists like Picasso, Dali, and Miro encompassed not just a physical style of painting but a more-encompassing mindset and belief system of the painters who became rooted in the movement.


Impressionism and Surrealism can be most closely linked not through style or technique, but through the revolutionary aspects of each movement in terms of what each brought to the art world. Without the early radicals of Impressionism, the even more widely considered radical movement of Surrealism would lack a basis for inception. In viewing…. [read more]

Dynamics Between Art and Technology Essay

… There are buildings in Japan that withstand earthquakes while sustaining minimal damage compared to buildings which are not constructed by the same methods. That is an example of advancement in architecture. Sculptors have a greater range of materials to choose from because of the kinds of tools that exist now as well as the materials that they may not have had access to before commercial airlines, the Internet, and other technologies.

Art and technology of the 20th century were additionally influenced by increased contact and communication among the international communities and the rising strength of feminism in the latter part of the 20th century. Many of the most celebrated art forms of the 20th century came from within specific cultural groups such as Jazz, Rock…. [read more]

Humanities the Renaissance Period Changed Term Paper

… Universities should also upgrade their curriculum and inculcate an interdisciplinary approach covering practical situations according to the ever changing needs and times (Audsburg 2005).

The traditional approach defines of humanities as the study of human condition, using critical speculative or analytical approaches.

An alternate definition can be "Disciplines under Humanities help us comprehend and explain human experience of cultures, history, literature, art and ethics. The examination, review and understanding of an object created by humans or a factor that makes us human, the emerging thoughts and processes that take place within ourselves something deliberated, discussed and opinionated" (Humanities Council 2001).

Many businesses deem interdisciplinary skills not as a "nice to have" but a "must have" these days. Humanities and arts graduates attract employers as they…. [read more]

Humanities, and Explain the Distinction Term Paper

… ¶ … humanities," and explain the distinction between the humanities and other modes of human inquiry and expression. The humanities are a way for students to learn more about intellectual and general knowledge, rather than scientific knowledge or professional training. The humanities are a development of the Roman Cicero, who created the humanitas, where he trained orators around 55 BC, and a Greek academy that trained young men to be good citizens. The study of humanities includes education in art, literature, philosophy, language, and history, and creates a more well rounded and complete educational experience, rather than concentrating on science, technology, or occupational training. This is the main difference between the humanities and the sciences - the humanities is concerned with the philosophy and "why,"…. [read more]

Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art Essay

… Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art

The end of WWII brought the world a great sense of relief, but it also brought new issues to deal with for the modern human being. Artists, more than any other humans affected by the new era, brought forth the struggles they were going through, putting them into their art, the best way for them to express themselves. Since the early twentieth century, the world of art on the American on both sides of the Atlantic, was undergoing a tremendous process of change simply because the conventions of what the world knew as traditional art were no longer satisfying for the artists. The art in general, with a special accent on the visual arts, seemed to have reached a standstill,…. [read more]

Emergence of Aesthetics and the Artful Brain Reaction Paper

… Ramachandran's Theory of Neuroaesthetics: A Reaction

In his book the Tell-Tale Brain, neuroscientist V.S. Ramachandran makes many assertions about how the brain handles those distinctive attributes of human existence that many say "make us human." However, he is not too proud to also extend his explanations outside of H. sapiens when appropriate. As a reader, I was surprised to find that he did so in his chapter on the brain's response to art. However, the purpose and mechanisms that he posits for a human artistic sense force him to admit that what makes humans produce art might apply also to nonhuman "artists" like the bower bird (Ramachandran, 2011: 196). Below, I will describe Ramachandran's theory of aesthetics, the neural mechanisms he believes are responsible, and…. [read more]

History After WWI Through WWII Term Paper

… History after WWI through WWII

In general, world history can be considered a succession of experiments, just as modern science. On the other hand, both modern science and history are studied by gathering facts and figures and by putting together the information this obtained.

Surrealism, Dadaism, Fauvism, Cubism are some of the genres of 20th century art. They reflect, first of all, a quest for individual independence, for breaking rules in terms of the creation process, and an attempt to find new ways of expression rather than the classical ones. They also reflect a continuous experimentation in terms of form, shape and colouring.

Impossible for me to answer, since I don't have the book and don't know what the Shanfei story is.

The Indian National…. [read more]

Avant-Garde Concept in Modern Art Term Paper

… ¶ … avant-garde concept in modern art, and how various artists and movements attempted to achieve social and artistic changes.

Avant-garde in art refers to a small group of painters who formed their own "Salon" after being refused acceptance by the official Paris Salon that exhibited the works of established and up-and-coming painters of the 1860s. The "refues" created the Salon des Refuses that exhibited their artworks that had been rejected by the Salon. Some of the artists who exhibited at the Salon des Refuses included Camille Pissarro, Paul Cezanne, edouard Manet, and James McNeill Whistler, who would all go on to have successful careers as Impressionist, modernist, naturalist and other types of artists. Avant-garde came to mean breakthrough or progress and reform, and each…. [read more]

Art, Picasso, Matisse, Diego Rivera Term Paper

… These paintings contain certain principles of Picasso regarding heroic ambition and importance and are among the best paintings of Matisse in the cubist style. At the same time, Picasso continued on his pet theme of harlequin and ended up with Man Leaning on a Table in 1915. The use of the prostitute or harem girl was quite often used by Matisse and even Picasso used similar girls. This was probably a part of their styles. They were personal friends and this also contributed to their similarities. At the end of the War, Picasso and Matisse met in the south of France. Both artists were now wealthy and kept meeting regularly, and this was the period when their relationship became the closest.

Matisse's painting Large Red…. [read more]

Picasso's the Studio 1934 Essay

… Picasso's Psyche as Seen Through The Studio (1934)
Pablo Picasso was wildly popular and respected in his time, both in
Spain and throughout the world art community. Simultaneously, he was
criticized for the provocative nature of his work and for the steadfast
neutrality of his political orientation.
By the early 20th century, his work had served to largely redefine the
parameters of the art world, allowing for deep abstractions in presentation
and the exploration of subjects with shockingly frank implications. And in
his personal life, he showed a similar set of proclivities, engaging a
lifestyle and philosophical orientation which both inspired deep divisions
along ideological lines. Born in Spain in 1881, he would split his life
between Paris and Barcelona, drawing on his cultural experiences…. [read more]

Girl With Mandolin Term Paper

… There is no background or foreground in the painting whatsoever; although the girl playing the mandolin is the primary subject matter, she stands alone, hardly distinguished from the background in terms of color or depth perception. The non-dimensional nature of the painting contrasts sharply with the richly textured, multi-dimensional sensations of cubism. On the other hand, the lack of spatial depth in "Girl with Mandolin" testifies to the power of cubist art: its ability to employ empty space as part of the subject itself. Picasso depicts space and solid form as one in the same.

'Girl with Mandolin" is not entirely abstract, even though it tends towards total abstraction of the subject. As Golding states, "the legibility of this canvas demonstrates conclusively that although Cubist…. [read more]

Music, Art, Literature Trends Term Paper

… In fact, the blues and the scales that derived from it influenced rock and roll decades later. Many rock songs are based on blues scales, and many rock songs are cover versions of old blues songs. Blues does, however, deserve recognition as a genre in its own right, both for aesthetic and social reasons: the blues represented the unique creative expressions of the African-American community. Similarly, jazz evolved as a uniquely African-American creation. The improvisational aspect of jazz made the genre one of the most influential musical trends of all time. Jazz's popularity spread far beyond the borders of the United States, where it originated, and jazz continues to be a potent and expansive musical force. Rock and roll emerged from both jazz and blues.…. [read more]

Russian Constructivism Artistic and Architectural Term Paper

… 11).

The largest peaks for the success of women artists developed in the pre-revolutionary period and during the Constructivist period of the 1920's. As Yablonskaya notes, during the late 1920's and early 1930's, women artists led two contrary developments, "one of an intimate and personal character, as with the art of Antonia Sofronova, and the other more publicly affirmative as with the work of Sarra Lebedeva and Vera Mukhina," (Yablonskaya, p. 12). The woman artist that had a significant influence on the Constructivist movement was Lyubov Papova.

Popova was an influential Russian painter and designer who was born into a wealthy family and trained as a teacher before beginning her artistic studies with Stanislav Zhukovsky and Konstantin Yuon. Inspired by Russian architecture, she developed a…. [read more]

Bauhaus Movement Refers to the Design Term Paper

… Bauhaus movement refers to the design movement that began in Weimer, Germany in 1991 as the result of amalgamation of Academy of Fine Art with Van de Velde's old School of Applied Arts. German architect Walter Gropius initiated it. He believed in applying classical architectural techniques to design thereby introducing completely new set of design principles in art and crafts. Gropius essentially believed that art and craft couldn't be separated. 'Architects, sculptors, painters, we must all turn to the crafts. Art is not a "profession." There is no essential difference between the artist and the craftsman.' (Naylor: 50)

Some people believe that the real roots of Bauhaus can be traced back to 1902 when Belgian artist Henry van de Velde established a new art school…. [read more]

Social Black Experience Research Paper

… Social Black Experience

A Survey of Black Social Oppression in the Twentieth Century

Evelyn Waugh noted in his "Conservative Manifesto" in Robbery Under Law (1940) that "inequalities of wealth and position are inevitable….Men naturally arrange themselves in a system of classes [and] such a system is necessary for any form of co-operative work, more particularly the work of keeping a nation together" (16-17). What happened in 20th century America, however, was the development of more than a mere system "of co-operative work." It was a system of outright slavery, propagated by an elitist element of American society, as E. Michael Jones has chronicled to great extent in numerous works. This paper will analyze how the American government has gone beyond the strictures of the natural…. [read more]

Bauhaus After World War I Term Paper

… Poet and critic Vincent Katz, who wrote about the school, stressed that Rice envisioned an educational collective run by its teachers with input from the students instead of directives from a governing board. Students at the deliberately nonaccredited school took the courses they wanted and, when they felt ready to graduate, requested an examination to be administered by someone outside the college.

Black Mountain was not planned as an art school -- courses were always offered in science and mathematics -- but Rice believed the arts held a central place in a liberal arts education. The courses included painting, writing, drawing, constructions and assemblages, weaving, music, drama, architecture, photography, typography dance and design. Like the Bauhaus, Black Mountain College was a center for cultural production.…. [read more]

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