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Deviance Using Interactionist Perspective in Sociology Essay

… ¶ … Deviance

Using interactionist perspective in sociology, Degher and Hughes explain a four-step process that characterizes identity change. The first step is the "initial status" where an individual assumes oneself to be in a state of normal behavior. The second step is "recognizing" where, in response to external and internal cues (and the cues can be active or passive), an individual comes to assume that the present status is an inappropriate one. The third step is "placing" where the individual continues to respond to cues and find a new "place" which he or she considers appropriate among those available. And the fourth, "the final phase of the identity change process involves the internalization of a negative (deviant) definition of self" (Adler & Adler, 2012,…. [read more]

Deviance in Society Essay

… Deviance in Society

The sociology of deviance has been a profitable endeavor for decades. It has contributed valuable knowledge to social theory and criminology. Yet today the study of deviance is in disrepute among some sociologists for reasons of political correctness and the bankruptcy of ideas. Some sociologists wish to refrain from stigmatizing or pathologizing people through a label of deviance (see Goode, 2004, p. 114). Others from a feminist angle criticize its reliance on patriarchal notions. Indeed, Sumner (1994) has even written its obituary. Despite such dissenting opinion, a valuable inquiry into theories of deviance can still be made. This essay aims to compare the normative and labeling approaches to deviance, clarifying their perspectives and applying them to examples. Both approaches have strengths and…. [read more]

Behavior Experiment the Experiment Took Term Paper

… Social influence determines the choice of labeling. A child may be labeled as retarded at school, but normal around friends. Furthermore, reasons of what constitute a labels are dynamic and change over time. Erikson (1966), assert that various definitions assigned to deviance at different levels pose a challenge to the study. For instance, Loseke & Cahill (1984), confirm that the way contemporary experts view the issue gender violence and specifically the question of why women continue living with mates who abuse them, has created an additional category of deviance. Nonetheless, Gelles (1975), confirms that child abuse is a deviance and a direct result of social labelling.

Interactionist Perspective

Erikson (1966), raises the question of the influence of one's background on deviant behavior, even more puzzling…. [read more]

Social Problems Behind Sexual Deviance Term Paper

… Pornography

A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective on Pornography

The issue of pornography -- usually phrased as the "problem of pornography" is a perennial one, at least in the United States with its conservative Christian heritage and current political and cultural climate. Pornography has both a narrow legal definition -- which is something that has no cultural, social, or artistic merit -- and a broader social definition, which generally means anything with explicit sexual content. This paper examines the ways in which pornography is typically defined as a problem in American society, including what are generally seen as the causes of pornography and its consequences for both the individual and society at large.

The theoretical perspective used for this paper is that of symbolic interactionism, which is…. [read more]

Sociology: Deviant Behavior Term Paper

… Starr also seems to be suggesting however that the norms in society are shifting based on increasing exposure to violent activity. Conflict theorists generally support the notion that with a shift in norms come a shift in rules and decisions.

Laws and rules are generally passed because they support the desires of the people, at least according to conflict theory. If people become de-sensitized, it is feasible to conclude that the laws and regulations may change at some point in time.

Generally within society the notion that gunfire and homicides are deviant behavior is widely accepted, and this fact is supported by laws and regulations. It is possible however that a shift is occurring in what is considered normal based on Starr's analysis of people's…. [read more]

Sociological Perspectives on Social Problems and Physical Health Term Paper

… Sociological Perspectives on Social Problems and Physical Health

Labeling Approach to Deviant Behavior

Howard Becker, famous for his social reaction theory, developed the labeling approach to deviant behavior. In his book, "Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance," he discussed the political situation and social problems around that concluded him that deviance is a behavior that is being accepted by the social group and not what is really right or wrong. According to Becker (1963) on the online source,

According to Becker (1963), studying the act of the individual is unimportant because deviance is simply rule breaking behavior that is labeled deviant by persons in positions of power. The rule breaking behavior is constant, the labeling of the behavior varies (Becker 1963). Becker (1963)…. [read more]

Corporate Deviance in Their Seminal Works Term Paper

… Corporate Deviance

In their seminal works on corporate deviance, experts like David O. Friedrichs (1996) were critical of the lack of attention given to corporate or white collar crime. This lack of interest was due to the mistaken belief that white collar crimes were less harmful that violent street crimes. However, as cases such as the WorldComm case and the Enron trials have shown, corporate deviance could cause far-reaching harm.

There are a number of sociological theories on deviance that could help to explain Functionalist sociologists believe that the concept of deviance helps a society define the limits of acceptable behavior. In the United States for example, formal and informal methods of social control were in place to guard against such unacceptable deviant behavior as…. [read more]

Crime and Social Theory Deviance Essay

… References

Bewley-Taylor, Dave, Hallam, Chris, and Allen, Rob. (2009). The incarceration of drug offenders: An Overview, Report Sixteen. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme, International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College of London, University of London. Retrieved June, 2011 from

Giugliano, John. (2004). A sociohistorical perspective of sexual health: The clinician's role. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 11, 43-55.

Lo, Celia C. (2003). An application of social conflict theory to arrestees' use of cocaine and opiates. Journal of Drug Issues, 33, 237-266.

Mauer, Marc and King, Ryan S. (2007). A 25-year quagmire: The War on Drugs and its impact on American society. The Sentencing Project: Research and Advocacy for Reform. Retrieved June, 2011 at

National Public Radio. (2007). Timeline: America's War on Drugs. Retrieved…. [read more]

Juvenile Deviance on the Streets and in Schools Term Paper

… Sociology of Deviant Behavior

Violence, Deviant Behavior, Labeling and Conflict Theories in "Code of the Street" by Elijah Anderson

In the study of human society, people as social actors are analyzed based on their interactions with each other. Furthermore, it is through an analysis of people's interactions that social norms and rules are formulated -- that is, beliefs, behavior, and actions that are further reinforced and collectively followed by the members of the society.

Despite the establishment of these social norms and rules, there are still individuals who do not conform, or "deviate," from the established norms and rules in the society. Schaefer (1998) identifies deviance as a "behavior that violates the standards of conduct and/or expectations of a group or society" (160). Directly linked…. [read more]

Patients and Their Doctors Research Term Paper

… Patients and Their Doctors

Research into the dynamics that are part of the patient-doctor relationship has been an ongoing theme for many years. In this paper the way in which the patient-doctor relationship has evolved will be reviewed. Also that relationship will be reviewed from a functionalist perspective, from a conflict theorist perspective and also from a symbolic interactionist perspective.

The Annual Sociology Review white paper -- published by the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) -- references thirty years of research into physician-patient interaction. In the review (Heritage, et al., 2006, p. 351). This paper offers a good perspective of the physician-patient interaction over the years. In 1972, for example, a revealing study (Korsch & Negrete) was conducted at the Children's Hospital of…. [read more]

Problems Behind Sexual Deviance Research Paper

… Pornography: A Growing Problem Behind Sexual Deviance

Pornography: A Growing Problem

Behind Sexual Deviance

In today's technologically savvy world, pornography is as easy to access as it has ever been. With pornographic and obscene materials easily available for view by men, women, and children, it is reasonable to assume that there may be some link between the viewing of such materials and deviant behavior after seeing said materials. In looking to understand the role of pornography as a social phenomena, one must look into several factors including: the problem itself and how pornography affects the individuals who view it, including men, women, and children. In order to gauge the issue accurately from a sociological background, one must also look at the three major theoretical perspectives…. [read more]

Crime Control Theory Understanding Criminal Inclination Thesis

… Crime Control Theory

Understanding Criminal Inclination in Society

The Cost of Crime

Crime is one of the most expensive drains on public funds and other resources in the United States. In California, it is particularly costly as result of various factors including widespread gang activity, disaffected youth, the physical proximity to Mexico and the economics of the foreign influx of drugs, as well as the state's tough criminal laws and mandatory sentencing guidelines (Roback Morse, 2003). The cost of maintaining the state's inmate population exceeds 5 billion dollars annually (Roback Morse, 2003), representing a tremendous amount of money that could be better spent on education and infrastructure repair and maintenance, among many other worthwhile public projects and services.

Significance of the Problem

Despite overwhelming evidence…. [read more]

Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription Term Paper

… g., social class, ethnic and religious influences, neighborhood values); family and peer (e.g., personalities and interaction patterns of parents and peers, child-rearing patterns, peer socialization, and parental/peer modeling of alcohol use); and intra-individual (e.g., genetic predispositions, cognitive and personality variables) (Morrison, et al. 2007). Drinking is seen as influenced directly only by intra-individual factors. These in turn are influenced by the social variables (directly through intimate groups and both indirectly and directly by the sociocultural and community environment). Conversely, drinking behavior is expected to influence intra-individual attributes, which will in turn influence other domains.

When considering a model for adolescent substance abuse, it is important to incorporate differential effects of factors in relation to the developmental stage of the adolescent. The relative contribution of factors…. [read more]

Doctor/Patient Relationship Talcott Parsons Essay

… The use of online medical information by a patient in a clinical setting can be construed as a challenge to the authority of the doctor. This challenge is made worse when patients decide to follow a course of treatment based on their own research that is opposite to the advice of their physician. In the past, patients have abided by the advice of physicians without the resources to question this information. Unfortunately, physicians are frequently unfamiliar with the medical resources their patients use, and physicians retain a higher degree of doubt about online data than their patients. The prospective for this antagonistic relationship becoming the typical dynamic, though, is thought to be low (The Doctor-Patient Relationship in the Internet Age, 2011).

Long gone are the…. [read more]

Theoretical Treatments of Symbolic Interactionism Term Paper


This story featured investigative reporter Ana Garcia, a young Latina women who is known from the NBC affiliate's expose series "Get Garcia," reviewing the trade in illegally trafficked animals which continues to plague the city. An attractive White women, Jill Bandemer, is presented with the subheading "Fashion District Shopper," and she goes on to describe her experience shopping on Maple Street and encountering vendors selling illegal rabbits. Hidden camera footage shows anonymous Latino men, holding cages rabbits and counting handfuls of cash, as they peddle their contraband to passersby on the street. An official from the Fashion District, a middle-aged White man named Kent Smith, is also presented as an authority figure on the issue. Finally, a young Latino man named Juan Mena is…. [read more]

Labeling Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … labeling theory and its specific relevance to the condition of juvenile delinquency. Through references and studies the effect of negative as well as positive labeling will be discussed and a reviewed for its particular impact on the younger offender. Also considered will be the part that labeling theory, as well as other social interactions, has played in affecting the justice system's sentencing of juvenile offenders. Though labeling theory focuses primarily on the negative impact on juveniles, it has also played a part in correcting many misuses of power in the justice system.

Labeling Theory

Social interaction is an extremely important aspect of human behavior and is an integral part of the survival instinct of the species as a whole. The human brain has…. [read more]

Theories of Crime Causation Term Paper

… Crime

Kirkpatrick (2005) in the New York Times writes about the passage of a law to address the issue of gang activity to increase "federal efforts to fight street gangs and imposing new mandatory minimum sentences for gang-related crimes" (para. 1) the reason for the law is first that gang activity in America's cities has reached such high proportions, with a great deal of violence involved, and often centering on drug activities. In addition, there is the perception that the cities have not been able to do as much as is needed to address the problem and face a growing threat from heavily armed gangs.

The law will of several establish minimum penalties to replace the mandatory sentencing guidelines struck down last year by the…. [read more]

Tom Shulich ("Coltishhum") a Comparative Chapter

… 40).

Thus, from the perspective of the bottom rung of Indian society, it is Lapierre's contention that the self/other dichotomy if not fully eradicated, at least becomes practically irrelevant. Lapierre's slum dwellers refuse to entertain invidious distinctions between self and other. The familiar as well as the stranger, the healthy and the diseased, the old and the young -- all are taken in and cared for in one big, harmonious community of the urban poor. In a society of unfortunates who all must struggle simply to survive against great odds, no one is rejected "marginal." The denizens of Calcutta's slums, Lapierre tells us, "had reconstructed the life of their villages in urban exile" (p. 41).

Stephan Kovalski, an expatriate Polish priest, is the main European…. [read more]

Suicide and Society Term Paper

… Anomie is defined as the state of individual alienation from society, which tends to result in unsocial behaviors. This social isolation can originate from either an excess or a lack of social integration, occurring more in urban societies where displays of increased social and professional specialization are seen, allowing for more heterogeneity and thus a loss of common culture. It is a paradoxical situation where the rate of suicides tends to increase when choices and freedoms increase, allowing individuals more control over their own lives. The resulting anomic condition is more likely seen during periods of prosperity and poverty, primarily affecting the mobile, professional, educated, and divorced people in the social group. This trend demonstrates that people need limits, and limits are set by a…. [read more]

Media Analysis Essay

… Traditional gender roles revolve around the fact that the woman is supposed to be the weaker sex and is subservient to the wills of men. Thus, men can do with women whatsoever they desire. In the movie this concept is demonstrated by the fact that many of the women killed were oftentimes raped beforehand. The notion of gender roles and the other sociological concepts in this movie can best be understood by functionalist theory, which posits that society operates with a number of different mechanisms to help it maintain a healthy balance (McLelland, 2000). Thus, the issue of gender roles is one of the problems that the film, which educates and empowers people about it, serves to help.

Another sociological concept that the reader sees…. [read more]

Sociology and Feminist Theories Term Paper

… Of particular interest to the casual observer are the differences in relational dynamics and social interaction and perception between African-Americans and white Americans. African-American societies are by far one of the most dominant societies in the U.S., and have also been subject to different stereotypes and stigmas that have been existing for many years.

In fact, racial and gender differences are the most common forms of stratification that society tends to look in an individual. In the case of the American experience, African-American males are perceived differently by society as compared to white American males and females, as well as African-American females. In Myra and David Sadker's article entitled, "The Miseducation of Boys: Changing the Script," the authors discuss the significance of race and gender…. [read more]

Juvenile Delinquency Is a Socially Constructed Concept Term Paper

… Juvenile Delinquency is a socially constructed concept, viewed as a creation of the intermingling of varied social, political, economic and religious transitions. Such changes initiated with the inception of Renaissance during 1300-1600 however, most prominent during Enlightenment in mid-1600-late 1700 and during the Industrial Revolution in 1760-1900. The origin and development of the concept is seen in at least three important historical developments. Firstly, it is the discovery of childhood and adolescence as an isolated and differentiated stages of life; secondly the emergence of parens patriae in English equity law that entailed legal authority to the state for protective regulation of children when parents could not be able to accomplish child-rearing responsibilities, and finally, the growth of positive criminology that infused scientific methods to the…. [read more]

Workplace Violence Term Paper

… This is because they know that s/he was not acting as prescribed, and is being punished for it through humiliation. This is indeed an effective process due to the fact that it involves a supervisor being reminded and refreshed about his or her duties and limitations. It is an embarrassing experience for one because of the fact that the rehabilitation process is one in which there are multiple points tat which the supervisor of manager is openly reminded about where s/he fell short or took granted his or her authority. (Braithwaite, 1989)

So far in this paper, mild bullying has largely been discussed, but simple bullying is not always the case. There are several individuals especially in smaller organization that have suffered at the hands…. [read more]

Sociology: Changing Societies Book Report

… A union leader in Washington, D.C., isn't a miner, but miner's groups are his reference group because he identifies so strongly with their needs and aspirations.

Primary groups refer to groups where a person received his or her first important lessons about life and social realities - most often, a typical primary group is the family. Individuals develop their self-concepts and their sense of themselves in a primary group. In a secondary group, such as the HR department at work, a person is less emotionally connected, and feels less totally included in the group's values and actions. A secondary group allows for roles to be played in order to carry out that group's utilitarian functions, whereas in a primary group, one's role is pretty much…. [read more]

White Collar Corporate Crime Research Paper

… White Collar/Corporate Crime

White Collar crime is a quickly arising topic in the field of criminal justice. Recently, it has just been dubbed very popular with cases that are high-profile like the companies of Enron and Martha Stewart. In the book, Controversies in White Collar Crime by Gary W. Potter, author of the book thinking about Crime Professor James Q. Wilson, "discharges the significance of white collar crime." He makes the point that four different views of why white collar crime is not considered "real" corruption or should be taken as life-threatening as the so called conventional crime that goes on nowadays. The primary concentrate of real crime is, "the stimulation of terror and the incidence of grievance ," the second, "a tearing apart of…. [read more]

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