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Deviance in Society Term Paper

… Deviance as a Sociological Term

The term 'deviance' is a difficult one to assess objectively. Its implications are of an act, pattern of behavior or psychology which reflects a clear and significant divergence from sociological norms. However, this is a definition that is inherently riddled with philosophical problems. Particularly, it is unclear exactly how these divergences are defined and who is entitled to define them. Yet, it is also typically clear that in cases where criminal behavior, violence or depravity of an extreme nature have occurred, some degree of deviance may be easily identified. This denotes that while there is a cause to define deviance as a way of understanding those divergences which reflect a direct danger to society or civil order, it has often…. [read more]


Social Psychology Research Paper

… Nazi Germany used the images and methods of mass advertising to help Adolf Hitler come into power and to control the mass mind once the Party had taken over the state. E.H. Grimbach, the famous art historian and exile from the Third Reich thought that racist and anti-Semitic images were at the very heart of the Nazi worldview, and that the leaders really believed their own propaganda, especially Hitler. These images always showed the Fuehrer as a powerful man of destiny, a hero, savior and messiah who had saved Germany from its enemies. Very often, it even portrayed him as inspired by God as well. During the 1933-45 period, Nazi images also showed how a "virtuous young Germany fought manfully against evil schemers, above all…. [read more]


Social Control Theory Term Paper

… Social Control Theory

All control theories play on the theme that deviance is mainly a function of the kinds of constraints to which people are exposed. The most well-known specific theory of this genre is Travis Hirschi's revised theory of social control (1969). It contends that everybody is motivated toward deviance, but only those who are relatively free of the bonds of commitment to, and belief in, the conventional order, attachment to others, and involvement with conventional institutions of society actually manifest their deviant motivation in unacceptable behavior.

Following especially the work of Emile Durkheim, control theorists argue that individuals are freed to commit crime when their ties to the conventional social order are weak or broken. In the late 1800s, Durkheim concluded, "The more…. [read more]


Deviance of Homosexuality Research Paper

… Deviance of Homosexuality

Homosexuality: Deviance and normalization

The history of homosexuality as 'deviance'

Without the cultural concept of 'heterosexuality,' homosexuality does not exist, according to the 20th century French philosopher Michel Foucault. Although homosexuality or heterosexuality might 'feel' like an intrinsic component of one's identity, Foucault stresses that in earlier eras, only homosexual and heterosexual 'acts' existed. Sexuality was not seen as part of the 'self.' For Foucault, sexual categorizations of identity are social constructs and the idea that homosexuality is deviance and heterosexuality is the norm is an intellectual construction, not a 'fact' in a positivist sense. "In the History of Sexuality, Foucault attempts to disprove the thesis that Western society has seen a repression of sexuality since the 17th century and that sexuality…. [read more]


Deviance Among Canadian Youths Deviation Essay

… Why are youth strongly associated with crime in Canadian society?

Canada has experienced an increased in the number of deviant behaviors being associated with the youths. Although that the government has put controls on deviant behaviors, there has been a high number of youths found guilty of deviant behavior. A number of reasons have been found to contribute to the high numbers of youths engaged in criminal behaviors. The following three reasons explain why the youth in Canada is strongly associated with crime and deviance in the Canadian society (Platt, 1999).

The first reason is 'attachments'. In this regard, attachments refer to the mutual bonds that bind together societal members. In many societies, people are attached to one another due to a number of factors…. [read more]


Deviance Refers to Behaviors Essay

… ¶ … deviance refers to behaviors that are considered wrong or undesirable within a particular cultural context. Deviance is all over society -- from the minor etiquette breaches that engender frowns or gossip to behaviors that require legal or psychological interference. However, what seems to be the real essence of deviance is that it elicits somewhat of a varying degree of negative response from a part of the dominant cultural group (audience), which then, in turn, elicits social control from that group to the individual. What is interesting is how much culture causes variation in deviance. Some people regularly deviate and are never punished, other mildly chastised, some given therapy, others are incarcerated. In the examples we review below, we will see that clearly a…. [read more]


Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Essay

… Society teaches young people act in 'deviant' ways (Goode 2006: 420). For example, the lack of opportunities offered to young people in poor, urban communities increase the incentives to be involved in the drug trade, given the limited venues for self-improvement outside of drugs. A lack of positive role models in the community; family members who abuse drugs; and peer influences can all increase the likelihood of abuse and 'teach' young people to find refuge in substance abuse.

Conflict-based theories of abuse stress the role of poverty exacerbating the problem of drug addiction. "Conflict theory argues that inequality is the root cause of drug use, at least the heavy, chronic abuse of and dependence on 'hard' drugs such as crack cocaine and heroin" (Goode 2006:…. [read more]


Social Psychology Differ When Applied Term Paper

… For example in the Japanese culture the employees tend to identify themselves by the companies that they belong to rather than their own individual identities (Nakane, 1970)such as, if they meet someone instead of introducing themselves by talking about their position at the firm they will say that 'they belong to ABC firm' etc. In Japanese culture more importance is given to the group identification rather than the personal attributes. However, if we talk about the behaviour of the American employees in a cultural context, for the Americans group identification is secondary while individual or personal identification is of primary importance (Johnson, 1985; Nakane, 1970)

It has been noticed that in the Japanese culture the loyalty to the company or firms that the employees work…. [read more]


Internet Crimes Deviance Research Paper

… biz was a subsidiary that hired English and German speaking affiliates (both male and female) to impersonate victims to bypass phone authorization systems of various financial institutions. This marked an important milestone because law enforcement in Belarus cooperated with the FBI, even though the two countries have no diplomatic ties.

Deviant theory can be applied in this situation as scholars have described that there is need to stop the crimes by punishing those who breach the social norms. (Abrahamson, 1978)

Conclusion

There is prevalence of internet crimes. Spam emails, home jobs, pay per click are the most common tools on the part of cybercrime committers. There are also malicious software and downloads containing codes as well as some screensavers which are designed to steal the…. [read more]


Deviance and Social Control Term Paper

… Deviance and Social Control

Gang development is closely connected to social theories, as there are a series of socioeconomic factors behind the formation and existence of every group of criminals. Cle Sloan's documentary film Bastards of the Party goes at providing the public with insight on gangs, gang members, and the factors influencing them. Several social theories can be employed in studying the movie and the individuals in it, so as to gain a better understanding of the social phenomenon.

People are influenced by society in most of their activities, as it is the cause of almost everything humans do. The subcultural theory is responsible for explaining the phenomena setting off gangs and how gangs operate. When a particular territory is presented with poverty, the…. [read more]


Deviance Biography Susan Smith Term Paper

… Like most cases of pathological gambling, Susan, too, sought the high of winning for a sense of excitement, confidence and accomplishment. She even deluded herself into thinking that gambling would provide her with a livelihood encouraged by a streak of early wins and a big jackpot during her days as a mere social gambler. Eventually, Susan like all other addicts began stealing in order to finance her gambling.

Susan's intentions were never dishonest to the extent that she always intended to pay off her debts with the next big win and to that extent was no different from the definition of a pathological gambler as defined by the task force on gambling addiction in Maryland: "...formerly intelligent, honest person...weakened understanding between right and wrong...." (1990,…. [read more]


Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents Research Paper

… Thus, how children think and relate to others is heavily influenced by their parents over a number of different factors from parental warmth to the overall style of parenting. Moreover, early attitude formation regarding one's expectations of others, stereotyping, one's political views, etc. are shaped by parental interactions (Grusec, Goodnow & Kuczynski, 2000; White, & Matawie, 2004).

Peer Influences

As adolescents mature they become more capable of abstract thinking and questioning the status quo (Piaget, 1954). There is a tendency for adolescents to seek others who think like them or who think and act like they wish to be (Dodge, 1993). Much of the study of the impact on peer influence and social cognitive development in children and adolescents has concentrated on the negative connotations.…. [read more]


Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Term Paper

… However, some have questioned whether these results would have been the same if the groups of people had known one another. In the experiment, the boys were not acquainted with one another prior to the experiment. Believing that such a scenario is too artificial to make it generalizable to the population at large, Tyerman and Spencer conducted a similar experiment, but used an existing Scout troop, where the boys knew one another, as the source of the study population (Tyerman & Spencer, 1983, p.519, para.5). Moreover, the divisions in the study were natural divisions. "The subjects had been accustomed to functioning within their four distinct patrol groups at previous camps, meetings and other activities over a long period. At camp, the seven-boy patrol units, although…. [read more]


Deviance in Society Essay

… Deviance in Society

The sociology of deviance has been a profitable endeavor for decades. It has contributed valuable knowledge to social theory and criminology. Yet today the study of deviance is in disrepute among some sociologists for reasons of political correctness and the bankruptcy of ideas. Some sociologists wish to refrain from stigmatizing or pathologizing people through a label of deviance (see Goode, 2004, p. 114). Others from a feminist angle criticize its reliance on patriarchal notions. Indeed, Sumner (1994) has even written its obituary. Despite such dissenting opinion, a valuable inquiry into theories of deviance can still be made. This essay aims to compare the normative and labeling approaches to deviance, clarifying their perspectives and applying them to examples. Both approaches have strengths and…. [read more]


Deviance and Social Control Term Paper

… Deviance and Social Control

Deviance is any act or thought (especially when expressed) that goes against the idea of the culture's social order. Deviance can develop into crime, though this is not necessarily the case. Deviance can be described as anything that verges on deviant, or divergent from the standards and traditions of a culture and can be different among cultures, though there are several issues of deviance (almost always defined as crime) that are universal to most cultures, such as the crime of unmitigated murder of another human being or incest as both of these issues are considered harmful to the individual and culture involved. (Bridges & Myers, 1994, p. 27)

Deviance can serve the function of defining the norm, as deviant behavior even…. [read more]


Social Construction of Deviance Essay

… The document provides information on the most common crimes when it comes to alcohol and drug use, and how they are related to race. Then, how they are punished is addressed, because that also focuses on and is related to race. Sociologically, drug and alcohol abuse is a public health issue that is much more than just a person who is misusing or abusing substances. It is something that affects the individual, along with his or her family, and society as a whole. This is the reason why it is so valuable to get people who are abusing substances to stop doing so, and to make sure they are punished for their crimes. However, the punishment has to fit the crime, or the wrong message…. [read more]


Social System, Institutional Values Book Review

… As such the will use the norms common within the society and push against them to the extent necessary to ensure that they work in their interests. However, when the norms of the society do not work in their favor and frustrate them to an extent that they no longer feel useful, and then subject to values they attach to social relationships, such individuals will employ methods outside the norms and codes they would in other circumstances wish to apply to such behaviors (Burton, 1965). Society will subsequently label them deviants. This doesn't deter them because they are prepared to pay any price to fulfill their needs. In fact, terrorists are more than prepared to pay the ultimate prize even if it means sacrificing their…. [read more]


Social Change Term Paper

… There were several societies in the British governed North American, which, though shared some similarities, were widely different in their culture and educational system (Rury, 2005).

Schools were small and they reinforced traditional values. There was numerous informal education that included apprenticeship and literacy circles, which helped to develop essential skills more than schools.

During the 1800s, there were tremendous changes in the American system. State supervised schools evolved that brought in primary schools followed by high schools and universities. A great number of people began entering the school system and stayed for longer period of time.

Industrial society

During the 19th century America faced tremendous social and economic changes where industrial development and urbanization gained prominence. Industrial revolution, that was strong in England, flourished…. [read more]


Role of Deviance Term Paper

… This list provide practitioners a basis with which to create prevention and counseling programs for individuals who are at risk for dropping out of school (Campbell pp). To participate in a prevention program, one has to meet at least two of the markers, "i.e., a black male receiving free and reduced lunch and has a history of school detentions, just as, a black female, who has parents that dropped out of school and who has been sexually active since twelve years of age" (Campbell pp). Campbell says that by using this framework it becomes obvious that an "at risk" program uses the values and assumptions of those in positions of power and authority (Campbell pp). The outcome of this endeavor is to assimilate the victim…. [read more]


Behavior Experiment the Experiment Took Term Paper

… Social influence determines the choice of labeling. A child may be labeled as retarded at school, but normal around friends. Furthermore, reasons of what constitute a labels are dynamic and change over time. Erikson (1966), assert that various definitions assigned to deviance at different levels pose a challenge to the study. For instance, Loseke & Cahill (1984), confirm that the way contemporary experts view the issue gender violence and specifically the question of why women continue living with mates who abuse them, has created an additional category of deviance. Nonetheless, Gelles (1975), confirms that child abuse is a deviance and a direct result of social labelling.

Interactionist Perspective

Erikson (1966), raises the question of the influence of one's background on deviant behavior, even more puzzling…. [read more]


Homosexuality, Parenthood, and Social Deviance Essay

… Namely, deviance is substantially determined by entirely arbitrary social norms and values. Homosexuality in general and gay marriage in particular are only "deviant" because of the dominance of so-called "traditional" social norms and values. By way of example, in earlier generations, mixed-race relationships were also considered "deviant" and mixed-race marriages were illegal in some states until the 1960s (Schmalleger, 2008). The same is true of premarital sexual relationships.

In the context of Social Control Theory, delinquency, antisocial behavior, and criminality of children, the only type of "deviance" that likely contributes to negative social behaviors in children would be those forms of deviance that are inherently antisocial rather than those forms of "deviance " that are objectively benign but defined as deviant strictly as the result…. [read more]


Gun Control as a Social Problem Research Proposal

… Gun Control as a Social Problem

A recent report in the Washington Post states the following:

More than 4,000 children and teenagers are killed by guns every year in the United States. That tragedy is drawing thousands of marchers to Washington this week. The organizers, who are calling the Mother's Day event the Million Mom March, want stricter gun laws. They say new laws would mean that fewer children -- and adults -- would be hurt or killed ( Shen).

In this context, the calls for stricter gun control laws are therefore not seen as an individual problem but as a social issue that threatens the safety and well-being of the community and which requires action from the leadership and governance of the society.

However,…. [read more]


Social Control Integration of Knowledge Essay

… " (2003, p.752) Carr states that the information gained during the findings of the Beltway study should be "viewed in the context of discovery." (2003, p.755)

Systemic theory is reported as based upon the work of Kasarda and Janowitz (1974) which holds that local community is "…a complex system of friendship and kinship networks and formal and informal associational ties rooted in family life and ongoing socialization processes" (p. 329). The complex of network social ties mediates between neighborhood structural variables, length of residence for example, and outcomes for the community, among them the informal control of crime." (Carr, 2003, p.756)

The concept of informal social control is tied to systemic theory by Janowitz (1975) who is reported to hold "for a return to what…. [read more]


Control Theory: Understanding Criminal Behavior Research Paper

… On the other hand, those with strong social bonds are not expected to become criminals, or at least that's the way the theory works. Bonds of course are "variable," which means they can be strong over a person's life, or they can be "extinguished at any point" and the individual that had been held steady and stable by those bonds may now not be in control of his actions the way he once was (Gottfredson, 79).

Meanwhile a study that was conducted in Canada, using 1,311 young people from across the nation, verified the assertions that are made in Hirschi's social control theory. Data were gathered from these 1,311 youths at the age of 10 and 11 (in 1994-95); again data was collected when the…. [read more]


Deviance Term Paper

… According to Howard Becker, the notion of deviance is always socially constructed or that social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance; by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as "outsiders," they become deviants (Turner, 1996). He further defined the term "outsiders," as those who are judged by others to be deviant from others deemed normal members of the group; also, the person that is viewed as deviant may see the people making the rules as outsiders (1996).

Becker proclaimed that specific social groups create those social rules. He also established that we live in highly differentiated societies that are split along lines of social class, ethnicity, occupation, and culture. The resulting differences cause the development of divergent…. [read more]


Sexuality Deviance Social Stratification Research Paper

… ¶ … incest taboo found in every society?

The incest taboo is found in every society, with close relatives generally excluded as possible partners. However, given that there is tremendous variation between cultures about how to define incest, with some cultures permitting sexual relationships between relatives as close as brother and sister. Some suggest that incest taboos are cultural implementations of biological preferences to seek sexual partners that do not share genes because of the potential negative consequences of inbreeding. Another cultural suggestion is that intermarriage between groups promotes alliance-formation that is important for a culture; therefore, one would expect incest taboos to be stronger in societies where between-group alliances are less important.

Explain how the gay rights movement is a civil rights movement.

The…. [read more]


Corporate Deviance in Their Seminal Works Term Paper

… Corporate Deviance

In their seminal works on corporate deviance, experts like David O. Friedrichs (1996) were critical of the lack of attention given to corporate or white collar crime. This lack of interest was due to the mistaken belief that white collar crimes were less harmful that violent street crimes. However, as cases such as the WorldComm case and the Enron trials have shown, corporate deviance could cause far-reaching harm.

There are a number of sociological theories on deviance that could help to explain Functionalist sociologists believe that the concept of deviance helps a society define the limits of acceptable behavior. In the United States for example, formal and informal methods of social control were in place to guard against such unacceptable deviant behavior as…. [read more]


Social Control Theory of Juvenile Term Paper

… Rather, the potential weaknesses in Hirschi's theory might be that they fail to account for other factors that might be significant in contributing to the development of the individual in terms of his or her relationship to society. Possible counterexamples to Hirschi's theory would include deviant behavior, juvenile delinquency, and criminality among individuals who exhibit high levels of all of the specific elements of connectedness described by Hirschi. In that regard, one would have to consider the proverbial straight -- A student or "model citizen" who is discovered to be leading a double life as a criminal or who suddenly perpetrates crimes that would have seemed completely out of character and that completely contradict the apparent connectedness of the individual to society and community.

Therefore,…. [read more]


Durkheim Four Principles of Deviance Essay

… Due to its popularity the culture eventually changed. Rock and Roll became acceptable by 47% as early as 1959 and has know grown immensely as one of the top forms of American music earning Billions of dollars annually today (Digital Dream Door, 2005).

3. When there is deviant activity it will cause those of similar values and morals to band together (Macionis, 2006). In the case of Rock n Roll, teenagers and young adults secretly found ways to purchase and listen to the music they loved. The response from older adults was outrage and further measures to inflict censorship and control over the youth. The adults enlisted the support of the local and state lawmakers against playing Rock n Roll. According to Durkheim this was…. [read more]

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