Viewing papers 31-60 of 343 for deviance AND and AND social AND control

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Crime Control Theory Understanding Criminal Inclination Thesis

… Crime Control Theory

Understanding Criminal Inclination in Society

The Cost of Crime

Crime is one of the most expensive drains on public funds and other resources in the United States. In California, it is particularly costly as result of various factors including widespread gang activity, disaffected youth, the physical proximity to Mexico and the economics of the foreign influx of drugs, as well as the state's tough criminal laws and mandatory sentencing guidelines (Roback Morse, 2003). The cost of maintaining the state's inmate population exceeds 5 billion dollars annually (Roback Morse, 2003), representing a tremendous amount of money that could be better spent on education and infrastructure repair and maintenance, among many other worthwhile public projects and services.

Significance of the Problem

Despite overwhelming evidence…. [read more]


Crime and Social Theory Deviance Essay

… References

Bewley-Taylor, Dave, Hallam, Chris, and Allen, Rob. (2009). The incarceration of drug offenders: An Overview, Report Sixteen. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme, International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College of London, University of London. Retrieved June, 2011 from http://www.idpc.net/php-bin/documents/Beckley_Report_16_2_FINAL_EN.pdf

Giugliano, John. (2004). A sociohistorical perspective of sexual health: The clinician's role. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 11, 43-55.

Lo, Celia C. (2003). An application of social conflict theory to arrestees' use of cocaine and opiates. Journal of Drug Issues, 33, 237-266.

Mauer, Marc and King, Ryan S. (2007). A 25-year quagmire: The War on Drugs and its impact on American society. The Sentencing Project: Research and Advocacy for Reform. Retrieved June, 2011 at http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/dp_25yearquagmire.pdf

National Public Radio. (2007). Timeline: America's War on Drugs. Retrieved…. [read more]


Criminological Theory Self-Control Theory vs. Differential Association Research Paper

… Criminological Theory

Self-Control Theory vs. Differential Association Theory

The term 'deviance' is a difficult one to assess objectively. Its implications are of an act, pattern of behavior or psychology which reflects a clear and significant divergence from sociological norms. However, this is a definition that is inherently riddled with philosophical problems. Particularly, it is unclear exactly how these divergences are defined and who is entitled to define them. Yet, it is also typically clear that in cases where criminal behavior, violence or depravity of an extreme nature have occurred, some degree of deviance may be easily identified. This denotes that while there is a cause to define deviance as a way of understanding those divergences which reflect a direct danger to society or civil order,…. [read more]


Self-Control Theory of Crime Essay

… Self-Control Theory of Crime

One of the most stringent criticisms of self-control theory of crime is that it minimizes the effects of race and economics and appears to target parenting as the source of low self-control in children and youth, often reaching into adulthood. This criticism is locked in the idea that not only do forces other than parents establish norms and standards in children but their overall environment and social status also significantly influence these standards and norms. In short it is clear that too much blame is placed on individual parents and not enough responsibility on society to create equal opportunities and avenues of success for all children. The basic premise of self-control theory of crime is that: "...the motivation for crime is…. [read more]


Media Violence and Social Deviance Term Paper

… Media Violence/Social Deviance

Media Violence and Social Deviance

For decades, there has been concern over media violence and its influence or potential influence on public behavior, and while there have been countless studies and volumes of research devoted to this topic, the issue appears still open for debate.

Ever since television began becoming popular in the 1950's, the pubic has been complaining that there is too much violence in television programming, and has continually put pressure on Congress and the television industry to reduce the amount of violence (Potter). During the past fifty years, social scientists have been conducting analyses of the violent content on television in an effort to document the amount of violence in order to inform the public however there is a…. [read more]


Head Start, Social Control Theory Term Paper

… The Social Control theorists start with the idea that human actions are by character disruptive and aberrant.

Travis Hirschi affirms that people do sins because it is in their nature to do so and we are all animals and are in nature capable of doing criminal acts. The query that really needs a solution is why do most people do not make sins. Social Control theorists would see offenders as acting out of their most primitive likings. This viewpoint asserts that members in society form union with other members in society or association in society such as parents, pro-social friends, churches, schools, teachers and sports teams, to name a few. (Box, 1981, p.15)

The devotion to social norms of behavior and to achieve in regard…. [read more]


Medical Marijuana and Social Control Article Review

… Dispensaries provide a quality environment for patients and reduce the harm created by the unregulated transactions. The dispensing system has created many employment opportunities to both users and non-users of marijuana. Dispensaries need employees in the growing warehouses as caretakers and in the dispensaries as budtenders. Participants in the unregulated world have also obtained legitimate employment through licensing of dispensaries. Students report that the legalization and medicalization of marijuana has helped them avoid the risks of arrest and fines once you have a legal card.

Medicalization of marijuana has also prevented discontinuation or suspension from the university. It prevents a user to be perceived as a criminal in the society and helps to maintain a clear file record for employers, parents, and criminal justice system…. [read more]


Social Control and the Life-Course Essay

… For instance, one might interpret the "social capitol" accumulated via transitions and turning points as the factors motivating individuals with criminal tendencies to maintain self-control, which ultimately demonstrates the claim stated earlier, namely, that both consistency and inconsistency in behavior may be explained by sociological factors such as important transitions and turning points, because every individual in society is constantly being challenged or reinforced by the sociological factors surrounding them. Thus, while Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory offers some useful insights into the causes of crime, only within the larger framework of the life-course perspective do these insights become useful and widely applicable.

Social control theories attempt to discover the social factors that may influence criminal behavior, and a number of disparate theories fall under this…. [read more]


Diversity Inclusion and Social Justice Regarding to Children Essay

… Rights and Social Inclusion: Homeless Children & Youth in the UK

Poverty and homelessness are of growing concern in all regions of the world, but the economic downturn of recent years is hitting developed nations rather hard and the UK is no exception. With inflated costs of living, inflated housing markets and limited resources for alternatives the homeless population is on the rise. Not only is this population on the rise but it is changing in demographic, with more and more families, but especially single parent households being affected on a much larger scale. The homeless population, which is both rural and urban is proportionate to welfare cuts and personal, familial economic distress and has become an increasing problem for families, especially women, children and…. [read more]


Sociology Social Stratification Is the Ranking Essay

… Sociology

Social Stratification

Stratification is the ranking of an entire group of people in order to perpetuate inequality or unequal rewards and life chances. Social Status is the prestige, honor, respect, and lifestyle that is associated with different positions or groups within society. It is often influenced by occupation and schooling. It is possible for one to have a social class that differs from their social status. Behavior patterns, likes and dislikes, success in situations, who you meet, whom you marry, employment choices and chances are all seen as consequences of class. Likes and dislikes of each class are different and need to be learned and applied to those in the case of vertical mobility to be part of that social class. Stratification is motivated…. [read more]


Psychodynamic Theory, Learning Research Paper

… These aspects of learning theory provide valuable insights into how and why adults best learn in the workplace, including group members assigned new tasks (Kenner & Wienerman, 2011).

Social Exchange Theory

Propounded by Homans (1961), social exchange theory is based on the notion that, "Social exchange occurs when one is attracted to another in expectation of reward due to that association. Individuals' social exchanges are anchored in self-interest and characterized by interdependency, the terms of which may be defined by psychological contract" (Turnipseed & Wilson, 2009, p. 201). These types of dyadic exchanges typically involve some type of reward that allows group members to work better (Turnipseed & Wilson, 2009). Social exchange theory has been used by human resource practitioners to improve employee performance, enhance…. [read more]


Anti-Social Personality Disorder Antisocial Annotated Bibliography

… Anti-Social Personality Disorder

Antisocial personality disorder is a chronic mental illness characterized by abnormal and destructive ways of thinking and perceiving situations. People with antisocial personality disorder have difficultly differentiating between right and wrong, which puts them at risk for lies, violent behavior, drug and alcohol problems, and conflict with the law. They may have inconsistent work histories. Antisocial behaviors tend to peak during the patient's 20s, but other characteristics of the disorder will remain throughout the lifetime. The disorder is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors; environmental factors may trigger the development of the disorder. There is no cure for the disorder, though treatments are available to manage the symptoms of the disorder. These treatments include psychotherapy, stress…. [read more]


Emile Durkheim on Social Solidarity Essay

… In as much as Durkheim does a good work of outlining the social order and the way this order can be maintained, he fails to comprehensively cover the clear differentiation between the individual mind and the social the community that shapes that particular mind. He holds the individual accountable (through punishment) to the disorder that the community moulds him to commit due to the social solidarity. He further emphasizes that the ideas and deeds that individuals within the group display is a projection of the social needs that the society has, this gives room and escape route for those who involve in abnormal things and then points at the social mesh and the level of integration.

References

Amity Institute of Higher Learning, (2010). Durkheim -…. [read more]


Deviance Behavior Essay

… Family Violence

In recent years society has become increasingly more violent. This violence exists in many different spheres of life. One of the most harmful forms of violence is family violence. Family violence is defined as "the continuing crime and problem of the physical beating of a wife, girlfriend or children, usually by the woman's male partner (although may be female violence against a male ("Family Violence)." Additionally family violence is also classified as an anti-social mental illness. In addition, in many cases a woman's dependence, low self-esteem, and fear of leaving the offender cause her to stay in the relation or fail to protect her children. Also, "Prosecutors and police often face the problem that a battered woman will not press charges due to…. [read more]


Bastards of the Party and Social Deviance Essay

… Bastards of the Party and Social Deviance Theories

Anomie Theory:

The Anomie concept of human social behavior dates back to the turn of the 20th century and sociologist Emile Durkheim. According to Durkheim, the dramatic changes in society brought on by the Industrial Revolution resulted in profound economic changes and fundamental changes in the way many people worked and lived. Those whose means of earning livelihoods were rendered obsolete by the new industrial age found it more difficult to achieve the median standard of living and to participate in "normal society."

More specifically, Durkheim described the source of tension as the discrepancy between the continually improving lifestyles that became achievable through industrialization and what was, in fact, actually achievable for individuals whose economic and social…. [read more]


Social Problems Behind Sexual Deviance Term Paper

… Pornography

A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective on Pornography

The issue of pornography -- usually phrased as the "problem of pornography" is a perennial one, at least in the United States with its conservative Christian heritage and current political and cultural climate. Pornography has both a narrow legal definition -- which is something that has no cultural, social, or artistic merit -- and a broader social definition, which generally means anything with explicit sexual content. This paper examines the ways in which pornography is typically defined as a problem in American society, including what are generally seen as the causes of pornography and its consequences for both the individual and society at large.

The theoretical perspective used for this paper is that of symbolic interactionism, which is…. [read more]


Criminology and Social Learning Theories Answer Essay

… Third, Hirschi argued that there is a disparity in belief in the moral legitimacy of laws. Lastly, the theory indicates that involvement in conventional activities such as sporting and educational activities diminish the time available for partaking in delinquency.

On the other hand, the general theory of crime formulated by Gottredson and Hirschi asserts that all illegitimate activity is the manifestation of a single fundamental cause, which is low self-control. In this theory, crime is delineated as acts of force or fraud carried out in search of self-interest. The authors make the argument that all crime can be elucidated as an amalgamation of criminal opportunity and low self-control. Gottredson and Hirschi postulated that the self-control of a child, substantially impacted by how they are…. [read more]


Social Construction of Marijuana Term Paper

… Marijuana Social Threat

The Social Threat of Marijuana: How Blowing Smoke Led to Legislative Repression and Other Practical Problems

Marijuana, known by many names around the world and perhaps one of the world's oldest drugs, has only recently been the subject of intense legal and political scrutiny. Though it seems impossible to imagine, it was less than a century ago that marijuana became illegal in the United States, and initially it was only individual states that outlawed the substance (Goode & Ben-Yehuda, 2009). Now a federally controlled substance with dubious "medical" allowances in many states, marijuana and its use continue to be sources of extreme controversy amongst the public, lawmakers, and a variety of special interests. There are many negative consequences that are supposedly extreme…. [read more]


Perplexing Questions About Human Psychology Term Paper

… ¶ … perplexing questions about human psychology revolves around the role of deviance. We know from empirical observation that if rats are placed in too crowded conditions, aggressive behaviors peak. When we study history, we are often amazed at the dichotomy between a species that can create such phenomenal beauty -- Beethoven, the Sistine Chapel, acts of kindness and benevolence; and such utter ugliness -- the Holocaust, Idi Amin, and Jeffrey Dahlmer. We also know, from psychological experiments, that there is a dark side within most everyone's psyche -- one that expresses itself only at certain times.

In a seminal study from 1972, for instance, Professor Phillip Zimbardo published the Stanford Prison Study and follow-up work attempting to understand the pathology of torture in greater…. [read more]


Moral Panic Over Asylum Seekers Term Paper

… Moral Panic Over Asylum Seekers

In every country around the world, there always come a time when asylum seekers and refugees flock inside the country. This so happens because of various reasons such as:

there are numerous and uncontrollable problems from the origin country and people would want to free themselves from these problems people found out that the country they would want to move on can offer a better life for them... this may be because industrialization and modernization is imminent in those countries; social benefits such as medical benefits and financial assistance are abundant in the "target" country; and lastly, rules for migration in the "target" country is lenient and that any refugee or asylum seeker could then easily get their permit to…. [read more]


John Rommel Case Study

… His neighborhood brothers became involved in the business as well. Last, the social conflict is evident based on the perceived inequities of the social classes. Insomuch, John felt society was an unfair and unforgiving system, which repressed the lower social class.

3.Choose 3 theories, one within each theoretical foundation, that apply to the case study. If a foundation does not have an applicable theory, state why, and what behavior could have been exhibited that would have reflected that.

Structural-Functional: Social facts ~ A social fact is every way of acting, fixed or not, capable of exercising on the individual an external constraint; or again, every way of acting which is general throughout a given society, while at the same time existing in its own right…. [read more]


Breakfast Club Constructs of Sociology Book Review

… 1-3). Social groups can be large or small and share some type of common interest. The group can have shared values, representations, or social background (Sheehy, 2006). Social groups are mainly a product of social interaction, and at the high school level social interaction is a priority for most. Although groups are comprised of a collection of individuals, shared values and representations by the group often label the individual. This can result in stereotyping and an oversimplified view is fixed on the group. For example, someone proclaiming "all jocks are stupid" places a highly oversimplified stereotype on the social group.

The course of the film is plotted with the removal of stereotypes from social groups that are relevant to high school. At the beginning of…. [read more]


Society as We Know Exerts Term Paper

… Conformity is a powerful force that can manifest in form of a strong social pressure or subtle unconscious influence. The pressure to fit into a group norm or flow with the guidelines followed may rob one the ability to express his or her self-identity.

In conclusion, conformity and obedience have been discussed in light of their influence on individuals. These two forms of social influence have been seen to alter people's attitudes, behaviors and values. Individuals in a group are forced to conform to the group norms, and by so doing are forced to abandon their individuality. Similarly, subordinates are forced to obey the directives issued by their superiors and cannot express their individuality. Deviance occurs when individuals desire to express their unique individuality. Positive…. [read more]


Adverse Responses to Homosexuality Essay

… " Thus, when a film or television show features heterosexual relationships nothing is made of it, but when homosexual relationships are included, the focus almost inexorably goes towards those relationships and their sexual elements, such that even texts which purport to normalize homosexual behavior actually end up further ostracizing it. (Piontel, 2012, p. 123-124). Obviously, homosexual people can control their sexual interests as well as heterosexuals, which is actually evidenced by the fact that homosexuals have already been serving in the military, albeit not openly.

From here, however, those forces that continue to react adversely to the idea of having homosexuals serving in the military make a curios movement, suggesting that allowing homosexuals to serve openly would create problems with unit cohesion, as heterosexual service…. [read more]


Thinking Through Queer Deviance in the Film Heavenly Creatures Term Paper

… ¶ … film Heavenly Creatures (Peter Jackson, 1994), queer deviance is represented as the embodiment of the "other," an intrusive force countering the traditional and normal in society. The contrast between the norm and some difference is made from the beginning of the film, which starts with an image of a traditional travelogue-type booster film for New Zealand. The sort of bland images of people on the streets of the city and in rural regions suggest a unified society with an accepted culture subscribed to by all. However, that sort of image is not the full truth, and the image is shattered in the film by cutting to the two girls who are the central figures in the film as they are running through the…. [read more]


My Modern Application of Control Theory Research Paper

… In The reasoning criminal (pp. 119-128). Routledge.

  • Hirschi, T. (2017). On the compatibility of rational choice and social control theories of crime. In The reasoning criminal (pp. 105-118). Routledge.

  • Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. R. (2017). Punishment of children from the perspective of control theory. In Control theories of crime and delinquency (pp. 151-160). Routledge.


  • Appendix

    Interview Q&A



    Q: Can you describe an experience in which you broke the rules?

    • A: Which rules? Any rules?


    Q: Any rules. Any time you violated some social norm or maybe broke a law or did something that might be considered wrong or deviant.


    • A: Back when I was dating my wife, I cheated on her with her friend. Does that count?


    Q: Yes. What can…. [read more]


    Money Laundering What Is the Deviance/Crime Research Paper

    … Money Laundering

    What is the deviance/crime, legally what level felony?

    The crime of money laundering is defined as a "financial transaction scheme that aims to conceal the identity, source, and destination of illicitly-obtained money."

    It is a federal felony in the United States, for which the penalty is "…a fine of not more than $500,000 or twice the value of the property involved in the transaction, whichever is greater, or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both."

    Who is the victim(s)?

    In money laundering, there are a number of victims. The most direct victim is the financial institution through which the money passed, which are typically deceived by the money launderer as to the source of the money. The crime victimizes nations in…. [read more]


    Sociology: Deviant Behavior Term Paper

    … Starr also seems to be suggesting however that the norms in society are shifting based on increasing exposure to violent activity. Conflict theorists generally support the notion that with a shift in norms come a shift in rules and decisions.

    Laws and rules are generally passed because they support the desires of the people, at least according to conflict theory. If people become de-sensitized, it is feasible to conclude that the laws and regulations may change at some point in time.

    Generally within society the notion that gunfire and homicides are deviant behavior is widely accepted, and this fact is supported by laws and regulations. It is possible however that a shift is occurring in what is considered normal based on Starr's analysis of people's…. [read more]


    Law and Society the Nature Term Paper

    … Same-sex adoption is a matter of civic and possibly constitutional but not criminal law.

    Social Control and Social Change -- Abortion

    Abortion is one of those issues that is clearly related to social control, but which is rarely framed that way. The presentation raises the important question of "Should a parent be able to force a child to have an abortion?" Yet the presentation did not present the converse question, which is just as important if not more so: "Should a parent be able to prevent a child from having an abortion?" The answer to the latter question is more important because some states do have restrictions on abortion; some teenagers need parental consent. If the parents are opposed to abortion, they are essentially forcing…. [read more]


    Gangs as Culture and Subculture Essay

    … If we do not know much about them, how can we effectively combat their dangerous activities? Esbensen et al. explicate as to why the lack of knowledge about gangs can be dangerous or detrimental:

    For example, research on the extent and nature of the gang problem faces three possible outcomes: (1) accurately stating the gang problem with the best definition for the research question, (2) underestimating it with a far too narrow definition, or (3) overestimating it if the definition is too broad, capturing individuals, groups, and behavior that are of little interest to the intended audience. (Esbensen et al., 2001,-Page 106)

    Defining and agreeing upon what a gang is central to intervention efficacy with the support of public policy.

    When dealing with gangs, a…. [read more]

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