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Different Muscle Weakness Discussion Term Paper

… After hearing her husband\'s condition, his tearful wife asks you how it is possible her husband\'s brain might not function if it was his heart that stopped beating. How would you answer?
Since her husband had a history of atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus type 2, and coronary artery disease (CAD) this could have been contributing factors that resulted in the brain lacking enough oxygen resulting in minimal brain activity. The brain can survive with a minimal supply of oxygen and the supply takes place through the blood. The patient could have gone for a long time without breathing and this might have resulted in the brain not receiving enough blood supply, which limited the amount of oxygen received by the brain leading to brain damage. Atherosclerosis…. [read more]

Ford Mustang Marketing Research SWOT

… As a result, there are few opportunities for the Mustang brand. Ford already utilizes brand extensions within the category, and there may be room for growth overseas. As a result of the limited growth opportunities for the brand, the Mustang is under threat from competition. The Hyundai Genesis is listed as a competitor on the Ford website for head-to-head Mustang comparisons (, 2012). Such competition is likely to gain market share at the expense of existing players on the market. Additionally, the Mustang occupies the middle position in the market, with the Challenger as the low cost model and the Camaro as the more expensive premium car in the space, creating a difficult competitive environment for the Mustang.

Marketing Environments

The current market is an…. [read more]

Quality of Life Among Tawau Research Paper

… On the other hand, the tibia has two sockets (slightly cup-shaped) to meet the femoral condyles. A healthy knee alignment has femoral condyles that rest evenly on the tibia as well as applying evenly to both sides. However, knee deformity could lead to asymmetrical force distributions. A valgus (knock-kneed) deformity occurs when the knees closer together than normal. These deformities could lead to asymmetrical degeneration of the knee cartilage leading to osteoarthritic knee.

On the other hand, knee OA could occur due to the problem with the backbone.

Backbone of an individual is made of combination of bone structure. The backbone is generally referred as vertebral column that supports the body weight, and 33 vertebrae bone are made up of vertebra column. Apart from the…. [read more]

Facial Reanimation in Facial Paralysis Direct Muscle Neurotization Term Paper

… Facial Reanimation in Facial Paralysis, Direct Muscle Neurotization

Plastic Surgery- facial paralysis: Considerations

Paralysis of the face is uncommon and is estimated to occur one in four thousand persons. It is noted by various practitioners ranging from "neurologists and neurosurgeons, trauma surgeons, ENT surgeons, head and neck surgeons, plastic surgeons, internists, and psychiatrists." (1) the face being the most important part of the human existence, paralysis causes physical and psychological problems. For example the inability to animate one side of the face causes trauma and restricts normal communication. (1) People adopt various methods to disguise their paralysis and often avoid disclosure and sometimes express anger. The case of facial paralysis and the response by the patient vary with age. In children often tend to be…. [read more]

Neuro Signaling and the Structure of the Nervous System and Muscle Thesis

… Neurobiology



If the sodium/potassium pump were not working, an equilibrium both of charge and of Na+ a K+ ions would eventually (though gradually, due to the limited space available for permeating the membrane) be reached on both sides of the membrane. There would be no ability to form an action potential in such a situation, as there would not be any mass migration of molecules across the membrane due to an imbalanced charge or polarity. This implies that the quantity of ions that crosses the membrane during an action potential is directly related to the strength and possibly the speed fo the impulse.

The essential ion in causing the exocytosis of neurotransmitters from a presynaptic cell is Ca2+. The depolarization of the nerve…. [read more]

Anterior Cruciate Ligament, or ACL Research Paper

… ¶ … anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is one of four ligaments that connect the bones of the knee joint providing roughly 90% of the knee's stability (Health Information Publications, 2011). The ACL is one of the most important of the four ligaments and is often injured during athletic activities although it causes of ACL injury can be from non-athletic activities (Health Information Publications, 2011).

In order to better understand the ACL functions, injury causes, prevention of further or future injury, and the techniques used in surgically repairing a torn ACL, a brief discussion of the anatomy of the knee is both helpful and useful. The knee is a hinge joint and is the meeting place for the femur, tibia, and patella (Netter, 2011). Cartilage…. [read more]

Symptomatic Correlation Between Muscle Dysmorphia in Male Dissertation

… ¶ … symptomatic correlation between Muscle Dysmorphia in male individuals with OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) and those same males associated with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)


Personality Disorders

Categories of Personality Disorders

122.3 Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder in Men

133.0 Research Questions and Methodology

133.1 Research Questions

It has been found that men have an issue with their appearance, a problem commonly associated with women. An increasing number of men in the society are in most cases concerned with the image of their bodies. Studies have indicated that dissatisfaction with the image of the body is on the increase. Many students from the men's side are encountering a lot of eating disorders for the reason of keeping up with the perfect…. [read more]

Quality of Life Among Tawau Research Paper

… In a study that was conducted under the PraxArt project, it was found that OA has a negative effect on the quality of life of patients. The study also reveals that when a patient-centered intervention that allows for longer follow-up is not applied, the quality of life of patients which is measured by their satisfaction, presence of comorbidities and levels of stress and depression deteriorates Rosemann et al., 2005: 77



Jinks et al. (2007: 59)

also provide amodel for examining the quality of life of patients suffering from knee pain that may be associated with OA. Their study used a multi-method approach over a 12-month period and found that knee OA results to difficulties in conducting normal activities such…. [read more]

Multiple Sclerosis Etiology Multiple Sclerosis, Some Researchers Term Paper

… Multiple Sclerosis Etiology

Multiple sclerosis, some researchers argue, constitutes "a disease of unknown etiology," which reportedly implies a single causal organism triggers MS. Numerous infectious agents suspected as possible etiological agents include: "the corona, measles, Epstein-Barr, herpes simplex type 6, and canine distemper viruses, the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-I, an 'MS-associated agent' and, most recently, Chlamydia." (Poser 12) No one has been able to confirm any these infectious agents, however, this contention continues even though competent investigators routinely utilize sophisticated techniques to conduct exhaustive searches. (Poser 12) Numerous steps leading to the development process of MS remain invisible and unidentified. The contemporary consensus regarding MS. Albeit, posits it likely evolves from a genetically susceptible subject, of the immune system's activation by various viral agents,…. [read more]

Imagery Literature Review Guided Imagery and Pain Literature Review

… ¶ … Imagery Literature Review

Guided Imagery and Pain Management

Ferrell, Betty R., et al. "Pain management for elderly patients with cancer at home." CANCER-PHILADELPHIA- 74 (1994): 2139-2139.

The first study to be examined in this review was conducted by Ferrell and regards pain management techniques in elderly cancer patients who are living in a home environment. Here, the theory is that pain management is a great and noninvasive technique for managing severe levels of pain that cannot be cured through traditional methods. It can be seen as an alternative to overmedication, which can decrease the quality of the patient's live in his or her remaining days. Elderly patients have a particularly hard time recovering from more invasive pain management strategies, and thus this population…. [read more]

Bio-Terrorism Hypothetical Scenario Patients Case Study

… It results when the etiological agent of botulism is introduced into the wound from skin abscesses or traumatized tissues. Food-borne botulism is the most common form of the disease. It results from ingestion of improperly prepared food that contains C. botulinum that produces the toxin. This route is used for small scale bioterrorism attack. All a bioterrorist does is adding a botulinum toxin to a food supply.

The toxin can however hardly survive long periods in large volume of foods. This makes this mechanism unlikely for large scale bioterrorist attack. This bioterrorist settled on inhalation because it was the most effective when masses are targeted. Botulism that is food borne is the most natural form of botulism despite the fact that the toxin can also…. [read more]

Hero Has the Ability to Face Adverse Essay

… Hero has the ability to face adverse situations without any fear. They put the well-being of others before their own well-being. They do not necessarily have to be physically strong or have muscles that are able to life entire buildings at once; they just have to have a strong character. Although in modern society, it can be rare to find actual heros, individuals who are selfless and thoughtful of others, they are still found. Soldiers are today's modern heros. Specifically, soldiers fighting in the Middle East, whether it is Iraq or Afghanistan, are the individuals that everyone should look up to because of their bravery. They encounter the evils of war everyday, yet they persevere with dignity and ambition. Having to be on their toes…. [read more]

Educationists and Teachers Term Paper

… The child's sight is used in reading information, looking at diagrams or pictures, or reading what is on the teacher's board. The sense of hearing is used in listening to what the teacher says. A dyslexic child may experience difficulties with either or both of these senses. The child's vision may be affected by difficulties with tracking, visual processing or seeing the words become fuzzy or move around. The child's hearing may be satisfactory on a hearing test, but auditory memory or auditory processing may be weak.

(Bradford, J.)

An example of this teaching method is as follows.

The majority of dyslexic children experience confusion over the direction of 'b' and'd'. They can both be seen as a stick with a circle at its base.…. [read more]

Dysarthria Correcting a Speech Disorder Research Paper

… Dysarthria


This study used the descriptive-normative type of research in recording, describing, interpreting, analyzing and comparing data on dysarthria. It introduces communication disorders, specifically dysarthria and its causes, symptoms, assessment and treatments. The role of the speech language pathologist is outlined along with the methods he uses in every phase of diagnosis and treatment. Issues, however, still remain concerning some modes of treatment of the disorder and research continues on intervention.

Disorder or impairment in a person's ability to communication can be distressing if not recognized and adequately treated (Melfi et al., 2011). If one's voice quality, pitch or volume is different from others of the same age, culture or location, he may have a voice disorder. One type if called…. [read more]

Falls the Issue of Accidental Essay

… (2007) note that the financial implications for the hospitals themselves in terms of additional costs and addition bed-days per involved patient adds up to a significant amount, with the National Health Service of Great Britain having to settle claims on the order of GBP 7.7 million, the equivalent of $12.2 million (p177). Over half of these costs were attributed to hip and pelvic fractures alone, suggesting that, in the population surveyed in Great Britain, a pattern can begin to emerge, related to the overhwhelming incidence of such accidental falls involving elderly patients. These statistics are borne out by reporting on the subject by the CDC in America. The CDC reports that, in 2009, there were 2.2 million emergency room visits required by older adults in…. [read more]

Respiratory Infections Research Paper

… The patients with non-atopic asthma do not have elevated levels of IgE in blood serum and they do not have hypersensitivity to any allergens. However, there are certain immunologic mechanisms that have not been demonstrated Clark et al., 1999()

The risk factors of bronchial asthma usually lead to immunologic mechanisms whereby they cause irritation directly or indirectly as a result of denaturation of proteins. Bronchial asthma is also an occupational asthma and is suspected when the patient experiences these symptoms repeatedly when at work Chen, Schreier, Strunk, & Brauer, 2008()


Bronchial asthma is a hereditary disease. When a person gets infected, there is IgE stimulation which causes mast cell degranulation which causes the asthma attack. The attack can then lead to an altered immunologic…. [read more]

Physical Health of Mental Patients Using Antipsychotic Medication Essay

… Furthermore, there is a higher risk of antipsychotic induced prolactin elevation in the people who are carriers of the rs1800497 (Taq1A) A-allele of the dopamine D2 receptor gene ( Calarge et al., 2009 and Lopez-Rodriguez et al., 2011). This is due to the lower D2 receptor density in the striatum. Also, there is a possibility that the risk of increase in weight might occur by taking the antipsychotics as its use is linked to the polymorphism of the X-linked 5-HT2C serotonin receptor promoter gene rs3813929 (i.e., the absence of the T. allele) which is associated with weight gain (Reynolds et al., 2005, Risselada et al., 2011 and Ryu et al., 2007). Lastly, a relationship has been found to be present among the tragenic 5-HT2C serotonin…. [read more]

Aromatherapy: Raindrop Technique Essential Oils for Beautiful Term Paper

… Aromatherapy: Raindrop Technique

Essential Oils for Beautiful Skin and the Raindrop Technique

History and Overview of the Raindrop Technique

The Raindrop Technique of applying essential oils was developed in the 1980s by D. Gary Young. He based his research on the use of essential oils as antimicrobial agents, inspired by information that he learned from Lakota Elder, Black Elk. Now the Raindrop Technique continues to grow in popularity on a global basis. The story of the raindrop technique is the story of Young himself.

In 1973, Gary Young suffered from a logging injury that left him in a coma for three weeks and the next four months in intensive care. Gary was paralyzed and doomed to life in a wheelchair by the doctors. The following…. [read more]

Authors Communicate Essay

… A more thorough literature review might have elucidated this point prior to the study thereby rendering it more efficacious, if the authors had chosen to include review articles or educational reports (which they did not), or perhaps used some other literature review sources other than Pubmed and Cinahl. The relative paucity of articles reviewed for this study helped to offset some of the positive aspects of the review, which indicated that none of the previous studies were randomized clinical trials and that post-operative rehabilitation massage therapy had not been evaluated. The authors did a good job by conducting a study that incorporated both of these aspects, but should have reviewed more articles to find other areas that they could have tested as well.

There are…. [read more]

Women's Biology Review and Critique Essay

… Uterine fibroids are tumors that develop on the smooth muscles on the uterus. The tumors have a prevalence ranging between 20 to 50% of women based on the age, ethnicity and the intervention used in detecting the problem (Donnette & Horace, 2012).

In a recent research study conducted, these tumors were present in over 77% of post-mortem specimens examined. In that research, more than 50% of women tested asymptomatic. Hormone estrogen influences the development of uterine fibroids, is present after the menarche, and disappears after menopause. Usually, the patient feels inferior and the most affected women are from African ancestry. Some of the common problems of uterine fibroids include menorrhagia with symptoms of anemia, dysmenorrhoea, pressure signs, abdominal swelling, and infertility. Infertility is a severe…. [read more]

Physiotherapy Management of Whiplash Associated Disorders Term Paper

… ¶ … Physiotherapy management of whiplash associated disorders: A Literature Review

Biopsychosocial aspects of WAD

Physiotherapy and WAD

Preliminary Literature Review

Physical symptoms following whiplash

Psychological and cognitive aspects of WAD

Social and cultural aspects of WAD

Management aspects of WAD

Methodology / Method

Critical Review

Description of results

Critical review of results

Recent studies in the physiotherapy management of whiplash associated disorders: A Literature Review. Poor Research question.

I am not sure if any of these questions are better. I really need some suggestions for a research question.

What is the new evidence that will inform the CSP guideline review in 2010.

What is new in the Physiotherapy management of whiplash associated disorders: A Literature Review?

What is new in the Physiotherapy management of…. [read more]

Fibromyalgia More Than 50% of Patients Diagnosed Term Paper

… Fibromyalgia

More than 50% of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM) suffer from major depression. In light of this significant statistic, this Evidence-based Practice (EBP) study explores the problem of depression in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia, the clinical problem selected for this study.

In fibromyalgia, Antai-Otong (2005) stresses, pain management purports a pivotal treatment aspect for patients contending with the disease. To effectively treat FM, a holistic and interdisciplinary team approach focusing on pain management and mitigation of depression, along with other psychiatric symptoms proves pertinent. The most successful treatment strategies integrate: "pharmacotherapy, a graded exercise program, and cognitive behavioral therapy." (Hassett, Cone, Patella, & Sigal, 2000; Millea & Holloway, 2000; Thieme, Turk, & Flor, 2004; cited by Antai-Otong, 2005) Fibromyalgia, not deemed to be a…. [read more]

Application Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Research Paper

… Disorders of the Veins and Arteries

Chronic venous insufficiency and the deep venous thrombosis fall within the most common medical issues that the adult population is vulnerable to. These disorders have very common symptoms but mostly those symptoms are mistakenly diagnosed for a different medical problem. Earlier these disorders were thought to be of a simple nature but recent researches have shown that the cellular and molecular aspects of these disorders show 'complex multifactorial processes are reflecting both systemic abnormalities of connective tissue synthesis and cellular inflammatory reaction.' (Chieh-Min Fan, 2005).

Pathaphysiology of CVI and DVT

It is believed that the chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in the veins occurs primarily because of the weakness of the vein walls. A regular normal vein includes compliance providing…. [read more]

Stress What Does Term Paper

… Stress

What does Stress actually mean and connote? Stress is a state of tension and mental strain or suspense, and it is also a force that is responsible for producing a certain amount of strain on the physical body. Some sort of disturbance or anguish in the mind could cause it, and stress is generally accompanied by a whole lot of worries and anxieties and constant doubts and fears, and also, at times, suspicions and doubts. (Definition of Stress on the Web) Stress is found everywhere and is so widespread a phenomenon that it is almost impossible to read a newspaper or a magazine without seeing some sort of reference to the word 'Stress'. What is the reason for the obsession and fascination with the…. [read more]

Nursing Lessons From Tuesday With Morrie Essay

… Tuesdays with Morrie by Mitch Albom is a non-fiction book that centers around the relationship between Albom and his former professor Morrie Schwartz. Schwartz was dying of ALS during the time of the book. The narrative is that Albom and Schwartz had been reconnected and Albom began to see Schwartz every Tuesday until Schwartz passed away. The book is focused on the perspectives and life lessons that Albom gained from these visits, and his subsequent reflection on them. These are the only two main characters in this book.

The role that these two play in the book starts with the student-professor relationship, but after they reconnect they do so more as adults on equal terms. There is still a mentorship aspect to their relationship, however,…. [read more]

Slac Wrist Term Paper

… Carpal instability is any mal-alignment of the carpus, which becomes evident on plain radiography as a static deformity (Bernia and Shin 2005). It may appear after a single traumatic event or secondary to the chronic attenuation of supporting ligaments after the traumatic event or on account of an underlying disease process. Examples of disease processes are rheumatoid arthritis and pseudo-gout. Authoritative studies found that 10% of all carpal injuries resulted in instability. The most widely used diagnostic technique was dynamic radiography. Reviews of 134 distal radius fractures found radiographic evidence of carpal instability in 30% of the cases. The incidence of carpal instability has thus been highly associated with specific fractures. Carpal instability results from an injury of one or more of the bony constraints…. [read more]

Heat Pill Body Temperature Monitoring Term Paper

… Heat Pill: Body Temperature Monitoring

The 'Heat Pill' has made possible calculating core body temperature in a non-laboratory environment on a realtime basis. For assessing hyperthermia on the field, the 'heat pill' offers the best technological means and thus the most useful life saving screening method for the Trainers. The 'Heat Pill' could possibly eliminate heat stroke, which is currently the third leading cause of death among athletes in America. There is no question of doubt that the 'Heat Pill' will serve as a life saving technological advancement for athletes around the world.

Heat exhaustion and heat stroke are a major concern for athletes around the world. Particularly for people living in hotter climatic regions, heat illness presents a dangerous situation. Prolonged exposure to heat…. [read more]

Neurofibroma and Anesthesiology Research Paper

… Neurofibroma: Genetic Traits and Impact

Neurofibroma is an inheritable genetic condition whereby benign neural tumors (neurofibromas) form on the dermis, subcutaneous skin levels, in the brain and on the spinal cord.1 Neurofibroma possesses a high prevalence rate in terms of genetic transmission from parent to offspring. Generally, if one parent is a carrier for this condition, each offspring has better than a 50% probability of developing the disease.2 Aside from being inherited, Neurofibroma can be demonstrated in families with no genetic predisposition to the disease 3 This is the result of a genetic mutation is either gamete (sperm or egg). Specifically, this genetic anomaly is caused by the gene that regulates the expression and regulation of the protein nuerofibrin4. Like any genetic abnormality the results…. [read more]

Migraine Headache Term Paper

… ¶ … million Americans suffer from migraine headache, which is the most common neurological disorder in the modern world and modern times. This affliction reduces work performance by 50% and accrues to wasted resources and a generally low-quality of life. The more common type of migraine afflicts 80% of all sufferers, who mostly do not consult with physicians. At present, migraine attacks are managed with pain-killers, herbal medications, and alternative therapies. But research continues to discover more effective, safer and readily available modes to its control

An estimated 28 million Americans suffer from migraine headaches and this affliction accounts for much loss of time from work, school and daily activities (Khosh 2002). Many sufferers report severe disability at 80% and 23% have taken recourse in…. [read more]

Direct to Consumer Advertising History Term Paper


The National Institute for Health Care Management, a nonprofit watchdog agency, estimated that expenditures in pharmaceutical advertising in the U.S. grew from an estimated $55 million in 1991 to $2.5 billion in 2001. While the numbers seem exponential, the Institute points out that the ads represented merely 16% of the entire budget for drug promotions in 2001. A historic perception perpetuated by the drug industry is that costs are driven by expenditures in research and development. This has been considered a valid argument, as advances in drug research are indeed beneficial to humanity. However, recent examination of the industry's expenditures indicates that marketing (34.4%), not R&D (13.7%), comprise the lion's share of the industry's operating expenditures.

Families USA is a nonprofit…. [read more]

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