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Discovery of Blood Types Goes Essay

… Discovery of blood types goes to the credit of Nobel Laureate Karl Landsteiner who in 1901 found that all human blood couldn't be dumped into a single category. This led to the discovery of blood groups a, B, AB, O depending on the presence of certain antibodies and antigens. The discovery was in itself revolutionary and worth every bit the Nobel Prize that it was awarded much later in 1930.

The time that it took people to recognize the significance of his study was due to the poor understanding of blood types at the time of publication of Lansteiner's research. when Landsteiner discovered the different blood types, it was not exactly know how his research would be significant because during 17th and 18th centuries, blood…. [read more]


Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of the Twentieth Term Paper

… ¶ … foundationally promising research discoveries of the twentieth century is Stem Cell Biology. Only announced as a possible scientific breakthrough in late 1998, significant research has begun on stem cells, yet even the announcement of the potential benefits by the National Academy of Science that comes with the then recent isolation of human stem cells did little to curb potential controversy and conflict.

Shannon 9)

Within the recent elections the issue of stem cell research has come to the forefront of consideration by voters, experts, opponent groups and proponent groups. The most substantial challenge to the recent federal rulings against stem cell research, by the Bush administration, is the passing of proposition 71 in California, which will create, and fund a 3 billion dollar…. [read more]


Versus Type II Diabetes Mellitus Term Paper

… Diabetes: Caring for Your Emotions as Well as Your Health. Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1998.

Fackelmann, K.A. Pregnancy raises risk of Type II diabetes. Science News; 11/4/1989;

Gavin, James R. "Special Section on Diabetes." Ebony Mar. 1997: 115+. Questia. 6 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com / .

Gestational Diabetes. American Diabetes Association: http://www.diabetes.org/gestational-diabetes.jsp . Accessed Jan 3, 2004.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. http://64.233.161.104/search?q=cache:o8Ko47awmHsJ:www.diabetes.ca/cpg2003/downloads/gdm.pdf+Type+1+versus+type+2+diabetes+mellitus+in+pregnancy+and+adverse+pregnancy+outcome:+& hl=en& start=12 Accessed Han 4, 2004.

Harris MI. Gestational diabetes may represent discovery of pre-existing glucose intolerance. Diabetes Care. 1988; 11:402-411.

Moses RG, Moses M, Russell KG, et al. The 75-g glucose tolerance test in pregnancy: a reference range determined on a low-risk population and related to selected pregnancy out comes. Diabetes Care. 1998; 21:1807-1811

Mullooly, Cathy. Keeping fit for 2. Diabetes Forecast; 12/1/1997;

Metzger…. [read more]


Korotkoff Phase Term Paper

… The following key words were used to search the databases:

Hypertension

Pregnancy

Pre-eclampsia

Korotkoff Phases

Sphygmomanometry

Oscillometric

Auscultatory

Electronic/automated monitoring

Subject Population

The subject population of the literature review will be limited to studies reported in English concerning pregnant women in the United States.

Literature Review

Literature Selection and Identification

The literature reviewed for this project was conducted using the search terms noted above, in isolation and in combination. Based on the appropriateness of the identified research, the following literature was selected for inclusion in this study. As with many other areas of clinical research, there is a paucity of research concerning the appropriateness of which Korotkoff phase should be used as the endpoint for the measurement of diastolic blood pressure during pregnancy. Further complicating…. [read more]


Scientists Have Been Aware Term Paper

… Scientists want to study stem cells in the laboratory in an effort to learn about their important properties and what differentiates them from specialized cell types. As scientists discover more about stem cells, it may become possible to use the cells not just in cell-based therapies, but also for screening new drugs and toxins and understanding birth defects. However, human embryonic stem cells have only been studied for only a few years. Thus, in order to develop these types of treatments, scientists are studying the fundamental properties of stem cells, which include (National Institute of Health, 2002):

Determining precisely how stem cells remain unspecialized and self renewing for many years; and Identifying the signals that cause stem cells to become specialized cells.

Scientists today are…. [read more]


Sickle Cell the Outcome of Preoperative Transfusion Multiple Chapters

… Sickle Cell

The Outcome of Preoperative Transfusion Therapy in Sickle Cell Disease Patients Undergoing Surgery: A survey of Practice in Saudi Arabia

Sickle cell disease was first discovered and described in 1904, in a dentistry student in Chicago (Savitt & Goldberg 1989). Admitted to a hospital suffering from "anemia," Walter Clement Noel -- a wealthy man from the West Indies in his first year of study towards becoming a dentist -- was examined by Dr. James B. Herrick, who noticed, "peculiar elongated an sickle-shaped" red blood cells in his patient's samples (Savitt & Goldberg 1989). Though it would be some time before the disorder was more fully understood, and indeed the symptoms of sickle cell and been noted decades prior to Herrick's discovery, this was…. [read more]


Albert Hofmann Thesis

… Albert Hofmann and the Discovery of LSD

The association between psychedelic drugs and counterculture or youth movements is the driving force in the public perception of substances such as salvia, peyote, psilocybe 'magic' mushrooms and Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). The manner in which its usage is frequently depicted correlates its hallucinogenic properties to recreational abuse, ingestion during music festivals, the promotion of irrational or dangerous behavior, the persistence of negative neurological conditions and the association with the abuse of other recreational drugs. It is also understood in a limited context that such hallucinogenic substances relate to the spiritual practices and ritual traditions of a wide array of tribal or aboriginal cultures. However, a reflection on the life, work and philosophy of Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann…. [read more]


Diamond Catalyst Shows Promise in Breaching Age-Old Assessment

… ¶ … Diamond Catalyst Shows Promise in Breaching Age-Old Barrier

Not all elements and minerals are desirable, especially in an era where global warming has become such an issue. Modern science has tried to work with combinations of chemical reactions to change these more unfavorable components into more useful elements. The article "Diamond Catalyst Shows Promise in Breaching Age-Old Barrier" on Science Daily suggests that new developments in chemistry and scientific testing that could make changing nitrogen to ammonia a much easier and potentially man-made process.

In the natural world, nitrogen only changes into ammonia in extreme conditions. It takes a ton of energy to break through the barrier between ammonia and nitrogen, which has been unpractical to do in past decades. Thus, the catalyst…. [read more]


Male Figures in Works Essay

… Beowulf is one of the first of the great heroic literary characters. From the first moment he is mentioned, it is established that he is a great man. He is the bravest, the strongest, and the best of the men who come to aid their neighboring country fight the monster Grendel. Unlike some of the other male pairings discussed, in Beowulf, Grendel, rather than serving as an important part of the quest, actually is the quest. Beowulf has already been initiated into the world of warfare and violence and soldiering. However, the battle he has with Grendel is the most daunting up to that point in his life. Grendel, unlike human villains, has superhuman strength and a voracious appetite for bloodshed. He is not strategic…. [read more]


Gaming as an Instructional Strategy in Nursing Education Term Paper

… Gaming as an Instructional Strategy to Enhance Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Learning

Nurse educators play a key role in preparing a future workforce of nurses to provide quality care that meets the health care needs of the population (the National League of Nursing [NLN], 2002). Nurse educators are responsible for facilitating student learning and evaluating outcomes. In 2003, the NLN stated that nursing curricula needed to be evidence-based, receptive to the needs of students, flexible, and incorporate current technology. To better meet the needs of today's students, an educator must become familiar with the characteristics and ways of preferred learning of today's learner. Recently, the NLN (2006) identified 72.1% of baccalaureate nursing students being comprised of the millennial or net generation. The millennial student was born…. [read more]


Historical Significance of Anesthesia Research Paper

… Anesthesia means temporary loss of sensation including pain. It is a Greek word, which literally means "to negate sensation." (Silver, 1957) the main significance of Anesthesia is its ability to provide painless procedures of surgery by causing analgesia, unconsciousness and amnesia in patients, subsequently it also results in undesirable suppression and relaxation of muscles. Combinations of drugs are required in order to achieve these effects quickly and effectively. Until the discovery of anesthesia, performing surgery and tooth extraction was an extremely painful procedure. Therefore, the significance of anesthesia is to relieve anxiety and stress in patients and making them comfortable for the surgery. Pain is an undesirable symptom which tells our body that something is wrong. Over time several efforts has been done to get…. [read more]


Ethical Debates Surrounding Stem Cell Research Thesis

… What follows is a brief description of the primary types of human stem cells that have captured the interest of scientists, clinicians, ethicists, policymakers, and religious organizations.

Fetal stem cells. The most controversial stem cells are those derived from human embryos, but in contrast to adult stem cells, these are truly pluripotent and therefore have captured the attention of biologists and medical scientists interested in understanding human development and how these cells could be used to treat and possibly cure disease (Blow, 2008). ES cells have been derived from discarded embryos generated during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments (National Institutes of Health, 2002). Typically, multiple oocytes are fertilized during IVF procedures and only a select few are transferred to the womb. The remaining fertilized embryos…. [read more]


Role of Genetics in Ataxia Term Paper

… Role of Genetics in Ataxia

Ataxia is a neurological disorder that is characterized by unsteady walking, loss of muscle coordination and slurred speech. It is no longer a rare condition in that more is known about it. It is dominant hereditary, recessive or sporadic. It is dominant hereditary if both parents pass the gene on to their offspring and DNA tests detect this condition. It is recessive when only one parent transmits the gene. And it is sporadic if there is no evidence to show this. Friedrich ataxia is the most common recessive type of ataxia, with first symptoms developing in childhood. The ataxia gene may also be mutated and develop into ATM. No cures are known for ataxia and the prospects are dim.

Ataxia…. [read more]


Pharmaceutical Industries Have to Operate Term Paper

… The data that was evaluated was a combination from book, journal articles, review papers and the Internet. The information reviewed pertained to a wide variety of situations and industries. There were some common trends observed in all the material. The commitment of the management and the involvement of the worker are critical no matter what the condition of the external and internal environment the company faces. Integrating the core function -- marketing and sale of products along with the goals and the objectives of the organization is the new route the organization has to now follow.

A distillation of the interviews will be provided in Chapter 2.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY -- ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY AND THE INTERVIEWS

Understanding the main…. [read more]


Risks of Epidural Anesthesia in Normal Vaginal Delivery Outweighs the Benefits Research Paper

… Risks of Epidural Anesthesia in Normal Vaginal Delivery Outweighs the Benefits

Impact of Epidural Anesthesia on the Health/Medical State of Mother

Impact of Epidural Anesthesia on the Health State of Baby

Impact of Epidural Anesthesia on the Psychological Well-being of Mothers

Social Disadvantages of Epidural Anesthesia for Mothers and Babaies

Anesthesia is a part of general medicinal practices that are commonly employed in present times. Its vital purpose is to reduce the pain/discomfort during surgery or any pain inflicting procedure under medical scenario. Furthermore, Epidural anesthesia is one of the most familiar types of anesthesia that are being performed currently. It plays a significant role in reducing pain experienced by women during labor and childbirth; however, it encompasses several risks that cannot be disregarded at…. [read more]


Ted Bundy: All-American Serial Killer Research Paper

… 134). Law enforcement officials then compiled and printed a list of names that appeared twice (600 results, including Bundy), four times (400 results, including Bundy), and five times (25 results, excluding Bundy).

While police were sorting through this information in Washington, he was being tracked down in Utah. On August 16, 1975 at 2:30 A.M., in Granger, Utah, Sgt. Bob Hayward pulled Bundy over for suspicious activity (Bell, n.d.). During a search of Bundy's car, police uncovered handcuffs, a ski mask, ice pick, bits of rope, and torn strips of sheets. Despite being taken into custody, being charged with evading police, and being fingerprinted, he was released because they did not have any evidence to hold him (Vronsky, 2004, p.137). It was only after Utah…. [read more]


Mathematics Z-Model Framework in Middle School Thesis

… This unique framework has 4 domains, and while this study investigates the Z-model's use in the mathematics curriculum, this framework is focused on improving and enhancing students' achievement in any course of study.



The four domains involved in the Z-model create a comprehensive educational understanding and framework for use in improving educational progress. They are:


  1. Brain development, and efforts in the classroom which can enhance/promote brain development.

  2. How project-based learning can be utilized in order to fully engage the student in the learning community.

  3. Data-Driven instruction (the second half of the breadth - vs. - depth debate). The students must be held accountable to learn a specific knowledge base of facts, figures, and formulae. Without objective measurement of the educational progress,…. [read more]


History of Rsd Term Paper

… In RSD/CRPS, the sympathetic nervous system functions abnormally. It fires, with pain and swelling responses when the body does not reactively require it. In a sense therefore, one might also implicate the failure of the parasympathetic nervous system in bringing the body back to normal function. (Blumberg et al., 1997).

Progress of the Disease

CRPS Type 1 progresses in four stages. These are Dysfunction, Dystrophy, Atrophy, and Irreversible Failure of the Immune System. Because of the complexity and problems with misdiagnosis, many research panels have decided to avoid the process of staging. The disorder has been considered too complex to categorize. Incorrect categorization leads to significant problems for patients. Though RSD does not itself cause death, one has to be cautious of the problems with…. [read more]


Technological Fix and Anatomical Essay

… [footnoteRef:4] In addition, from his response, he says the lobotomy helped calm the patient and general decreased responsiveness; viewed as lobotomy's benefit. However, his lobotomy went awry since at this time, surgeons had little knowledge of the brain since and lacked scientific tools useful in visualizing the brain and its activities. [4: Stone, James L. "Gottlieb Burckhardt: The Pioneer of Psychosurgery." Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 10 (1), 2001: 79-92.]

Criticism of Freeman's Technological Fix

During Dr. Freeman's time, frontal lobotomy was performed on individuals suffering from serious psychiatric conditions. According to medics, this technique was barbaric as it was initiated and performed on the mentally ill patients in asylums. In addition, Freeman's critics argue that frontal lobotomy's cure rate was low since…. [read more]


Odontology in Criminal Justice Forensics Term Paper

… Odontology in Criminal Justice Forensics

Odontology has been historically used or indeed, one might say misused within the framework of the judicial system to sway juries against factual evidence and to gain a conviction because the jury fails to understand or cannot understand how evidence can be molded purposely away from the truth or how by being little understood can enhance the perceived importance assigned to those facts.

Flynn McRoberts and Steve Mills write in the Chicago Tribune report entitled: "From the Start, a Faulty Science" states: "The nation's leading forensic experts held their annual meeting in 1970 at Chicago's Drake Hotel, and all of the old guard was there. Fingerprint experts. Document examiners. Pathologists. Mingling among them on that late-winter day was a cluster…. [read more]


Olmec Civilization Research Paper

… Olmec Civilization

http://www.crystalinks.com/olmec.html)

The Olmec culture has been the focus of intense discussion and archeological exploration in recent years. It is considered to be one of the most interesting and also one of the mysterious ancient civilizations. The Olmec civilization is considered to be the first known ordered civilization to arise in Mesoamerica.

It was also the first civilization in the region to build huge monumental temple mounds and building.

In the Preclassic Period, the period when this civilization flourished, the following Gulf Coast sites were occupied in overlapping succession; Firstly, San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, which was occupied between 1450 and 400 BC., then at La Venta from 2250- 500 BC and Zapotes from 1000-50 BC.

One of the most remarkable relics that we have of…. [read more]


AIDS and HIV Term Paper

… ¶ … HIV and AIDS

Gallo, R. & Montagnier, L. (2003 Dec 11). The discovery of HIV as the cause of AIDS. The New England Journal of Medicine, 349(24). Retrieved November 17, 2006, from ProQuest database.

Gallo and Montagnier's (2003) article is a qualitative review of the research and history that led to the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of the article was to demonstrate how this discovery followed the typical twisting path of scientific research, comprised of "a mix of good and bad ideas, good and bad luck." The methodology was a qualitative review of research that both authors were heavily involved in.

The tale of scientific discovery begins in the late…. [read more]


Radioimmunotherapy for the Treatment of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas Term Paper

… ¶ … radioimmunotherapy for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas. Section 1 - deals with the definition and the explanation of cancer, and how it affects the human body. Cancer is the way in which the cells that are always dividing and reproducing within the body, when there is a change in the orderly and organized method in which this takes place, react to the change by multiplying constantly and unabatedly, due to which there would be a lump formed in the region where the cells are deposited. This results in the formation of a so-called 'tumor'. This tumor can either be benign, meaning that it is non-cancerous, and malignant, meaning that it is in fact cancerous. Since it is a well-documented fact that cancer is…. [read more]


Early Influences on Joseph Smith and Origins of the Book of Mormon Term Paper

… Joseph Smith and the Book Of Mormons

Joseph Smith, Jr. was the fourth child of Joseph Sr. And Lucy Smack and born in Sharon, Vermont on December 23, 1805. The Smith family lived under arduous and unstable financial circumstances that compelled them to move in and around New England several times in those years (Wikipedia 2004). One of Joseph's legs got seriously infected when he was 7 years old and the doctors wanted to amputate it but the Smiths refused. He later recovered but he had to use crutches for several years and limped for the rest of his life (Wikipedia).

His parents both indulged in mysterious habits. His father, Joseph Sr., engaged in treasure hunting, witchcraft and superstition, while his mother was superstitious and…. [read more]


Language, Vocabulary and the Overall Organization Term Paper

… ¶ … language, vocabulary and the overall organization of a text or an article is adapted to the audience that the writer is addressing. Scientific texts will certainly be entirely different from texts addressing the overall public. The four texts analyzed here below clearly point this out.

"At Conference, Hope for Success Is Further Attenuated" from Science (18 November 1994)

First of all, we should not that the tone of the article is casual and explanatory. Indeed, the idea is to present in the least possible technical and medical terms what the experiments have brought about and how this will influence AIDS research. Even if this type of explanatory work usually requires a certain amount of technicality, the author manages to avoid such language and…. [read more]


Stem Cell Research Imagine Term Paper

… Stem Cell Research

Imagine that it is the end of the twenty-first century: we are living in a world where doctors can create new human organs to order, re-grow crippled spines and damaged hearts, and reverse the damage caused by Parkinson's disease and diabetes without much trouble. Are we imagining an impossible science-fiction scenario or a realistic scientific probability? If the promise shown by the exciting field of stem cell research is anything to go by, all of above and more, may well become a reality much before the end of this century. This essay explores the topic of stem cell research by looking at what stem cells really are; the types of stem cells, their possible benefits and the ethical debate surrounding the issue.…. [read more]


Radiology Reducing Patient Exposure and Maintaining Image Quality Term Paper

… Radiology, Reducing Patient Exposure and Maintaining Image Quality

Radiology as a branch of medicine was born due to the pioneering effort of German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen who accidentally discovered X-rays while researching in his lab in 1895. The amazing benefit that X-rays offered to medical science was recognized and, with the research of French scientists Marie and Pierre Curie after the discovery of Roentgen, scientific and technological developments have resulted in the vital contribution which radiology has presently come to offer in the diagnosis and treatment of various ailments. Radiology is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic instrument. In order to recognize diseases and other conditions inside the human body, diagnostic imaging makes use of several varied modalities like plain radiography, CT scanning, Magnetic…. [read more]


Stem Cell Research Define Stem Cell Technology Term Paper

… Stem Cell Research

Define Stem Cell Technology

Potential of Stem Cell Research

Future Trends

Political Spectrum

Trim Tab

Action Plan

Stem Cell Research

This report will attempt to present insights into the new technology of Stem Cell Research while also presenting views into the political spectrum surrounding the use of this new technology. Through the education of the public domain into some of the potential advantages this new technology, reports like this one may open the eyes of the skeptics and the radically closed minded individuals that could be blocking the health of our nation and man's quest for immortality. The report will describe some of the significance of and problems related to regenerative medicine and why it is this important to the future of…. [read more]


HIV / AIDS on American Essay

… What they found in that research was that there has been a dramatic decline in coverage of the HIV / AIDS epidemic as well as a "…shift in portrayal of risk in the U.S." (Stevens, et al., 2013). There was a shift in focus over those fifteen years of newspaper coverage, Stevens explains, and the newer focus was on the HIV / AIDS problems internationally, not in the U.S. (Stevens, 352).

Hence, because there was more attention paid to the HIV / AIDS epidemic overseas, the impact on Americans was given reduced visibility; and the "racial disparity" that was indeed found in that newspaper coverage failed to provide "context" -- and the authors find that fact an uncomfortable one given the seriousness of the illness…. [read more]


Non-Intrusive Monitoring Research Paper

… Non-intrusive monitoring, developed by George Hart, Ed Kern and Fred Schweppe in the 1980s at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is commonly used in terms of non-intrusive load monitoring, a means of monitoring an electrical circuit which encompasses a particular number of appliances which are all able to turn on and off independent of one another. Instead of attaching a monitor to all of these appliances, non-intrusive monitoring uses electric meters to determine the different uses of power in a given home. Similarly, nonintrusive appliance load monitoring, engages via "a sophisticated analysis of the current and voltage waveforms of the total load, the NALM estimates the number and nature of the individual loads, their individual energy consumption, and other relevant statistics such as time-of-day…. [read more]

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