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Diseases and Pathogens Are Disease-Causing Essay

… ).

Fungal Infection: Ringworm

Ringworm is categorized according to the part of the body, which is infected (Earthtym 2012). The scientific name begins with tinea, followed by the part of the body involved. Infection appears to be transmitted by air-borne spores, which infect only locally, such as the scalp, eyebrow and lashes; the body or skin; nails; the groin area; the feet; the hands; and the beard. When there are enough spores, the entire area will be infected. Other than these observations, it is not clear why the infection is transmitted to others in a family but does not spread. Yet at other times, ringworm is very contagious (Earthym).

Ringworm often develops on the exposed parts of the body (Earthtym 2012). The fungus forms circular…. [read more]

Diseases I.E. Lung Cancer Term Paper

… According to estimation, 30-35% of Americans are fat or obese ("obesity," 2012). The main cause of obesity is the intake of additional calories than the energy requirement as the surplus calories are stocked up in the body as fat. Other factors that may contribute to obesity are immobility and inadequate exercise. Overeating may be a consequence of unhealthy patterns of ingestion ascertained by the family and cultural setting. Obesity may be intensified due to psychological suffering, an emotional reliance on food or the easy access to high-calorie foods ("obesity," 2012).

The major treatments for weight loss include wiring shut the internal parts of mouth, reduction of stomach size via operations and operations related to intestinal bypass in which a the outsized area of the small…. [read more]

Paget's Disease of Bone James Research Paper

… Diet is also an important part of health and is especially important if a patient is being treated with pharmaceutical agents such as bisphosphonates. Increasing a patient's intake of Calcium and Vitamin D is another extremely important factor for the uptake of calcium which strengthens bones. And finally, maintaining mobility and bone strength is essential for a patient with Paget's disease, and nothing can do that better than regular exercise. While some activities could be harmful, consulting a doctor and fitness specialist can help in developing a program of exercise that is optimal.

Paget's disease of bone is a disease that interferes with the normal biological processes of bone tissue, causing a number of adverse effects which could include things from abnormal bone growth to…. [read more]

Chronic Lyme Disease Essay

… Chronic Lyme disease Illiteracy

A nurse practitioner at the Lancaster County hospital was on record stating that patients are not interested in the debates. What they need is an effective treatment that is free of imitating the traditional Lyme treatment methods. The hospital treats its patients with a combination of the traditional and alternative cures. Immune boosters and supplements also form the ingredient of the final medication. Antibiotics come in handy if the patient's infection is active (Rosner, julie and Huckleberry 325). The management of the hospital confesses that there are no physicians in Delaware with substantial knowledge over the Lyme infection. Most of the casualties infected with the disease at the hospital come from Delaware. The management of the hospital reiterates that they apply…. [read more]

Typhoid Fever Disease Essay

… The severity of the disease is fueled by the fact that proper treatment of patients with the disease through efficient antibiotic therapy is increasingly becoming more complicated by strains resistant to the existing antimicrobial agents (Lynch et al., 2009). Generally, this disease is considered as an acute, life-threatening febrile illness that can cause severe health effects if it remains untreated.

As a potentially fatal multi-systemic disease, typhoid fever illness is likely to result in severe cases when it's left to develop. If the illness remains untreated, it's likely to progress to intestinal hemorrhage, delirium, bowel perforation, obtundation, and even death within one month of infection. Moreover, the survivors of the disease are also likely to experience permanent or long-term neuropsychiatric complications.

Therefore, the possible estimated…. [read more]

Communicable Diseases I Christiew Handle Essay

… Protection of medical staff also prevents the spread of both diseases. This is a global requirement where medics are encouraged to use gloves and protective gears like masks when handling all patients. For both diseases, vaccines are not available, but they are undergoing trials.

Influence of environmental factors, lifestyles and socioeconomic status

Both HIV and Herpes being sexually transmitted diseases have a certain relationship with the lifestyle of the people who contract the disease. It has shown that people who practice anal sex have a higher risk of contracting the infection. The same applies to people with multiple sexual partners' e.g. commercial sex workers. The HIV / AIDS epidemic is regarded as a socioeconomic problem. The HIV epidemic seems to be influenced by factors that…. [read more]

Oral Health and Heart Disease Research Paper

… The study consisted of 10 monozygotic twin pairs, with one twin presenting with coronary heart disease and one twin an absence of heart disease. All the subjects underwent detailed dental examinations including radiographic imaging, as well assessments of teeth, gums, and soft tissue health, hygiene, measurement of periodontal pocket depth, and bleeding upon probing. Results indicated that twins with coronary heart disease demonstrated significantly more symptoms of periodontal disease than twins without heart disease, while no significant difference was found for any other factors including marital status, smoking, employment, education, income, or body mass index (Tabrizi et l., 2007). Furthermore, a shared genetic factor may be considered to be less likely of a confounding variable in the association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease based…. [read more]

Oral Health Link to Increase Cardiovascular Disease Research Paper

… ¶ … periodontal diseases and cardiovascular diseases (Mizoue et al.,2008). The role that oral health plays in the etiology of the cardiovascular disease has been given a lot of attention (Oliveira, Watt and Hamer,2010).Several epidemiological studies have concluded that there is a link between periodontal diseases and the health risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD).Poor oral health as well as heart diseases are prevalent in the United States. According to the statistics from the American Heart Association, about 36.3% (Representing 1 in 2.8) of all deaths in the year 2004 were as a result of cardiovascular disease (Xu et al.,2006). The 2010 statistical update from the American Heart Association indicated that more than 81 Million adults (more than 1 in 3) in the U.S. have…. [read more]

Alcoholic Liver Disease Essay

… This is in combination with enteral nutrition as a suitable preference to corticosteroids in a patient with alcoholic severe hepatitis. Pentoxifylline or PTX was demonstrated to improve the condition of a patient with alcoholic hepatitis through the down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the same time, it possesses antibiotic effects that respond to disease severity. Furthermore, it asserts antifibriotic effects by enhancing both profibrogenic cytokine and procollagen effects. And lastly, it reduces mortality by reducing the incidence of hepatorenal syndrome by improving renal microcirculation and hemodynamic mechanism (Frazier).

If the patient is a chronic heavy drinker, he is likely to suffer from other disorders related to drinking (Makdissi & Stewart, 2013). A chronic heavy drinker consumes at least 50-60 grams of alcohol daily. These disorders…. [read more]

Improving Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries Research Paper

… Improving Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries

The developing nation that I believe would benefit greatly from a refined disease surveillance system is India. Such a system would provide early warnings of outbreaks of diseases and consistently monitor their progress (WHO, 2006, p. 1). India's developmental situation is curious. Despite having overthrown the yoke of British colonization some time ago, there are still parts of the country where there are childhood prostitutes, children regularly eschew school to beg for money (No author, 2012), and preventable disease -- particularly tuberculosis is rampant. In fact, a 2012 publication from the World Health Organization maintains that "India and China together account for almost 40% of the world's TB cases) (WHO, 2012, p. 2). When examining all of the various…. [read more]

Periodontal Disease and Respiratory Essay

… Moreover, the authors note that all three of the diseases in question (periodontal, pneumonia, and COPD) are "complex, multifactorial, and have many risk factors," (p. 7). Some of the potential intervening variables include smoking status, medical history, age, dental caries, missing teeth, dysphagia, and low socio-economic status (p. 7).

Low socio-economic status is something that practitioners should be taking into account when treating patients. The authors point out that, "Canadians living in urban, low socioeconomic areas are 2.7 times more likely to be hospitalized from COPD than those in higher socioeconomic areas," (p. 3). Age and physical condition is also a factor that practitioners need to take into account. This is especially true with regards to aspiration pneumonia, which can be caused "when food or…. [read more]

Disease HIV Disease Is Viewed Term Paper

… ¶ … Disease

HIV disease is viewed as a continuing progressive damage to the immune system from the period of infection to that of the manifestation of severe immunologic damages by means of neoplasms, opportunistic infections, wasting, or further by means of low CD4 lymphocyte count that indicate AIDS. (Epidemiology of Disease Progression in HIV) People first became aware of HIV disease with publication of a brief report in 1981, published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, of a rare pneumonia generated by Pneumocystis carinii, presently recognized as P. jirovecy, along with other uncommon infections in 5 young homosexual men in Los Angeles. This has become spread as an epidemic with increasing reports on similar immune deficiency syndromes concentrating in New York, California and…. [read more]

Food Nutrition and Culture Term Paper

… Food Nutrition and Culture

Food, Nutrition, and Culture- food safety problems

Radiation in Japan

Food safety is not an option but a compulsory condition to maintain life on earth. While the food is responsible to fuel human body to perform daily tasks, the bad quality of food can also risk human lives and health. The importance of food safety programs has increased in Japan second time in the history when the country faced nuclear disaster a couple of years ago. The radiations have spread in a vast area and the lives of people are in danger. While the country exports seafood internationally of worth over one and a half billion dollars, it is vital to ensure that the seafood does not contain radiations and is…. [read more]

Food Justice Many Facets Essay

… Food Justice

Many Facets of Food Justice

Background on Gottlieb and Joshi's Food Justice.

Background on Garcia's The Future of Food.

Introduction of the broader issues of social, economic, and political justice.

Labor Issues (mainly related to Food Justice)

Modern-day slavery


Need to introduce labor issues into the food justice discourse.

Consumer Issues

Awareness, knowledge of pesticide content, GMOs.

Awareness of social justice issues

Labeling of products

Ecological Issues

Control over life itself

Disempowerment of people

Related to Omnivore's Dilemma.

Food Justice Politics and Power

Power over food = power over life

Power over the genetic content of food = power over life on a grander scale

Power over workers' lives

D. Knowledge is power; keep consumers and workers in the dark

Food justice…. [read more]

Foodborne Illness Foodborne Diseases and Illnesses Research Paper

… Foodborne Illness

Foodborne diseases and illnesses are becoming increasing severe and widespread in the world. This type of illness is defined by the World Health Organization ( WHO) as follows: "Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. Every person is at risk of foodborne illness" (Food safety and foodborne illness: WHO)

The diseases that can be caused by bacteria and toxins in food and water and include illnesses such as Salmonellosis, Campylobacteriosis and the devastating disease of cholera (Food safety and foodborne illness: WHO). Salmonellosis is a disease transmitted in food that occurs in many regions of the world and is caused by the Salmonella bacteria often…. [read more]

Celiac Disease Term Paper

… Nutrition

Celiac Disease

What can you find out about the digestive system and nutrition?

The precise cause of celiac disease has still yet to be determined. The intestines contain projections which are known as villi. The function of villi is to take up nutrients. When celiac disease is not diagnosed or left untouched, these villi become compressed. This has an effect on the capability to absorb nutrients correctly. Taking away all harmful grains from one's diet is the greatest significant measure that one can do in order to get healthy and stay that way (Celiac disease -- sprue, 2010).

What can you learn about Celiac Disease?

Celiac disease is an ailment of the digestive system that harms the small intestine and hinders the uptake of…. [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease: The Onset as Alzheimer's Diseases Term Paper

… Alzheimer's Disease: The Onset

As Alzheimer's diseases is believed to be the "dementing order" because of the recognized changes in the behavior and line of thinking of the person with the said disease. From the researchers' and the physicians' point-of-view, there is a possibility that anyone can get it, regardless of the age. More so, people should realize that Alzheimer's disease is not really a normal part of aging. It is not something that is inevitable. There are some people who reached the age of 75 and up who are not even suffering from any dementing disorder. Because of this, it should be considered that Alzheimer's disease is actually "an exception, rather than the rule, of old age" (Light and Lebowitz, 1989).

There are enough…. [read more]

Minamata Disease Term Paper

… Environmental Science

Minamata Disease

This is a paper on Minamata Disease. There are six references used for this paper.

There are a number of diseases which have had profound affects on people throughout the world. It is important to examine Minameta Disease and determine how it was discovered, its causes, how it was settled, the roles played by the government in settling the event and the things which are still unsettled.

Discovering Minameta Disease

The first case of Minameta Disease was reported in 1956, "in Minamata City located on the Yatsushiro Sea coast in Kumamoto Prefecture, in a patient suffering from neurological symptoms of unknown cause (" This case led Minameta City to immediately develop the "Committee on Unknown Disease to take measures against the…. [read more]

Celiac Disease Term Paper

… It presents as an intensely itchy skin eruption with small papules or vesicles. The symptoms of intense burning, stinging and itching cannot be overemphasized. The lesions are usually symmetrically distributed on the extensor surfaces of the body: over the elbows, knees, buttocks, scalp, posterior, neck, sacral (lower end of the spinal column) and shoulder areas. The face and facial hairline are occasionally affected. Very rarely the lesions occur within the mouth. Varying in its severity, the condition usually persists indefinitely and is a lifelong condition. There are only a few patients in whom the disease remits for long periods of time.

The lesions may first appear as discolorations and next consist of small bumps called papules and small blisters called vesicles. These lesions tend to…. [read more]

Anthrax as a Disease, Anthrax Primarily Affects Research Proposal

… ¶ … Anthrax

As a disease, anthrax primarily affects farm animals, such as cattle, goats, pigs, sheep and horses, and is caused by the bacterium known as Bacillus anthracis which is almost always fatal in these types of animals. Humans most often acquire this disorder when a break in the skin comes into contact with an infected animal, but it can also be acquired by inhaling the spores of the bacterium. As to its basic characteristics, anthrax usually begins with a reddish-brown lesion that ulcerates and then forms a dark scab (Glanze, 2002, p. 74).

In humans, the signs and symptoms that follow includes internal hemorrhaging, muscle pain, headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting. This is known as the cutaneous form; the other form, sometimes called…. [read more]

Infectious Disease Salmonellosis Term Paper

… Salmonellae may also cause large-volume choleralike diarrhea or may be associated with tenesmus (Salmonellosis1 pp). An initial transient diarrhea may occur, however, established infections with S. typhi or S. paratyphi are associated with abdominal pain and either constipation or recurrent diarrhea (Salmonellosis1 pp). Also common are fever, abdominal cramping, chills, headache, and myalgia, with the fever usually resolving within forty-eight hours (Salmonellosis1 pp).

Determining whether Salmonella is the cause of illness depends on laboratory tests that identify Salmonella in the stools of an infected person (Salmonellosis pp). However, these tests are usually not performed unless the laboratory is instructed to look specifically for the organism (Salmonellosis pp). Once identified, further testing can determine its specific type and which antibiotics can could be used to treat…. [read more]

Causes Complications Diagnosis Latest Discoveries Research Paper

… The objectives of treatment are to curb inflammation, correct nutritional challenges and alleviate symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhoea and intestinal bleeding. It must be noted that treatment only inhibits the condition by reducing the number of times of recurrence but does not cure it as there is no cure. Treatment largely relies on the extremity of the disease, its location, complications and a patient's response to former medication when treated for recurrence.

Drug therapy for Crohn's disease includes the use of anti-inflammatory drugs with mesalamine as an ingredient such as Sulfasalazine, Pentasa, Dipentum and general 5-ASA agents. Documented side effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, heartburn and headache. Corticosteroids may also be administered in extreme cases. Drugs such as Pednisone are given and their dosage…. [read more]

Cardio-Vascular Disease (CVD) Term Paper

… Cognitive therapy would be aimed at symptom removal by identification and correction of the patient's distorted, negatively biased, moment-to-moment. This study is important because it provides an overview of the contemporary modalities that are available. The reference provides a comprehensive review of the methods to be used in their study.

The researchers proposed using The Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO) method in evaluating the results of the intervention. SIPSO is a brief self-complete measure which addresses both quantitative and qualitative aspects of activities and interaction that is reliable and valid. SIPSO emphasizes perception of the patient and includes assessment of the quality of activities and interaction. (Trigg, Wood and Langton, 1999) major study at Cornell University was undertaken to study the biological…. [read more]

Communicable Diseases the MMR Vaccine Essay

… There are some preventive strategies that can be used to prevent botulism these are primary levels of prevention. This emphasizes on the general promotion of health, reducing risk factors and other heath protective measures. They include health education and promotion programs on the factors that cause botulism. These include following of strict hygiene procedures so that there can be prevention of food contamination hence prevent foodborne botulism. There should also be boiling of foods since the toxin is destroyed by high temperatures.

The secondary prevention involves early detection and prompt treatment of the disease. The purpose of this measure is to cure the disease, slow down the rate of progression of botulism and reduce its impact on individuals or communities at large. There can be…. [read more]

Aricept Alzheimer's Disease Is a Progressive Form Research Paper

… Aricept

Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive form of pre-senile dementia, which similar to senile dementia, except that it usually starts in the 40s or 50s, and with initial symptoms of impaired memory, then impaired thought and speech and, finally, complete helplessness (Lexico Publishing Group LLC 2006). It is a disease in the brain, which makes the sufferer forget how to use a key, walk, talk or eat (Liebman 2002). Recent statistics showed that approximately a third of all people older than 85 have Alzheimer's or another type of dementia. Around 1,000 are diagnosed with it each day in the U.S. And records revealed that the number has been increasing. The projection is that there may be up to 14 million Americans with this disease by…. [read more]

End Stage Renal Disease Term Paper

… End Stage Renal Disease

End-Stage Renal Disease


This study addresses a patient named 'George White', born 7/15/1950. He is married to Donna White, born 1/5/65, and has two children: Jamal (male), born 9/25/92, and Rasheeda (female), born 7/11/97. Mr. White has a 2nd daughter and two grandchildren. His oldest child Kia, from prior relationship, was born 10/23/70, and she has 2 children: Kijay, born 6/18/90, and Quadir, born 8/14/96.

Summary of health problems/disease:

Medical history of patient George White: (a) Diabetes Type 2; (b) Hypertension; (c) Congestive heart failure; (d) Chronic hepatitis C; (e) end-stage renal disease (analysis topic); and (f) patient has been on Hemodialysis treatment since June, 2011.

Medical history of Patient

diabetes type 2


congestive heart failure

chronic hepatitis C…. [read more]

Anorexia Nervosa Parkinson's Disease All People Contract Essay

… Anorexia Nervosa

Parkinson's Disease

All people contract a disease sooner or later, and their well-being depends on the severity in form of the respective malady. There are numerous diseases known to mankind and some of them go back to the early ages where people had been aware that maladies exist and that they need to be treated some way or another. Parkinson's disease has been known of ever since medieval times, but it had officially been admitted in 1817 when James Parkinson wrote about it in his writing "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy."

Doctor James Parkinson used to call the disease "the shaking palsy." Because of the fact that the doctor had dedicated much of his time to discovering symptoms of the disease, people…. [read more]

Huntington's Disease Research Proposal



National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Huntington's disease "results form genetically programmed degeneration of brain cells, called neurons, in certain areas of the brain." (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2009) Caused by the degeneration is "uncontrolled movements, loss of intellectual faculties and emotional disturbance." (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2009) Huntington's disease is stated to be a familial disease and to be passed "from parent to child through a mutation in the normal gene." (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2009) the chances of a child inheriting this disease from a parent are stated to be a 50-50 chance. If the…. [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease and Aging at What Age Term Paper

… Alzheimer's Disease And Aging

At what age do people start to get Alzheimer's?

Alzheimer disease (AD) usually does not start until around 65 years of age or older. It is characterized by gradually worsening dementia (forgetfulness) caused by cerebral atrophy (deterioration). It is the most common form of dementia. Fewer than 2% of families with AD have early-onset familial AD (EOFAD), in which symptoms occur before the age of 65 years. EOFAD only refers to families in which multiple cases of AD occur. Early onset may happen in the 40s or early 50s, although early onset in the 30s has been reported. Sixty-one percent of individuals with early-onset AD had a positive family history and thirteen percent affected individuals in three generations. EOFAD is not…. [read more]

Celiac Disease Is "An Inflammatory Term Paper

… This is generally because the gluten-derived peptides which stimulate the T-cells will obviously no longer exist and the initial cause for the disease will no longer create the chain reaction. An interesting thing to note is, as the article has mentioned, that the only known treatment for the celiac disease is represented by the removal of gluten from one's alimentation. However, upon the re-introduction of gluten in alimentation, the disease is most likely to appear again for the same individual.

The problem with this treatment, which may appear simple at first sight, is that the patient needs to carefully check all the products that he uses in his alimentation in order to identify any form of wheat or grain- related products, which may contain gluten.…. [read more]

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