Viewing papers 1-13 of 13 for dispositional AND attributions AND attribution AND differences AND in AND dispositional AND attributions

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Attribution and Cultural Differences Essay

… Suicides of people involved in business scandals are far more common in Japan than in the U.S. "While launching a business anywhere is no picnic, Japanese start-ups face cultural, funding and regulatory hurdles much higher than counterparts in the U.S., for example. Not least…is an unforgiving tradition of viewing business failure as a personal disgrace. Small company bankruptcies often involve the total ruin of their owners, with an accompanying grim toll in resulting suicides" (Dickie 2011). To fail in business is to bring shame to the institution, one's family, and one's self. It is never viewed as 'purely business matter' nor can other individuals or market conditions be blamed. Japan is often called a business culture of 'no second chances' (Dickie 2011).

American individualism and…. [read more]

Dispositional Attributions Attribution Differences Essay

… ¶ … Dispositional Attributions


Differences in Dispositional Attributions Between Participants From Western and Eastern Cultures

The fundamental attribution error describes the tendency for people to make a dispositional attribution when observing the behaviors of others. Previous research has indicated that non-Westerners do not show a strong effect, especially those from more collective cultures such as those from the East (e.g., Asian cultures). These individuals tend to explain behavior based on context or situational factors. This is believed to be due to Eastern cultures' emphasis on collective values and interdependence and Western values of independence. The following study looked at differences between 16 Western Americans and 16 Eastern Americans on their tendency to make internal attributions to explain the behavior of characters they read about.…. [read more]

Racial and Ethnic Differences National Essay

… , 2002).

Supreme Court voting rights and reapportionment decisions heavily emphasize two legal principles, majoritarianism and minority access. The "majority rule" principle holds that decisions should be made and candidates chosen by an electoral majority, and Court decisions emphasizing majoritarianism are numerous (Livingston, 2002). It is a simple, efficient construction of democracy, but one that arguably leads to wasted votes and alienates groups that never receive representation (Reynolds et al., 2000). The minority access, or "group rights," principle holds that all significant groups warrant access to representation (Sommers & Ellsworth, 2000). These legal principles are incorporated in a study by (Issacharoff et al., 2002) in two ways suggested by social justice theories. First was the examination of the extent to which group differences are mediated…. [read more]

Attribution Theory Essay

… Attribution Theory

In general terms, attribution theory explores and sheds light on aspects of the psycho-social perception of reality. More specifically, this theory refers to the way that individuals make decisions and judgments about the actions and behavior of others, as well as their own actions and emotions. This theory provides a method of understanding social and individual perception and refers to the important aspect of control that attribution facilitates in the life of the individual. The significance of this psycho-social theory also extends to the field of education and has contributed to the understanding of motivation and the way that attribution relates to high and low levels of achievement. An overview of this theory also sheds light on health- related issues, such as depression…. [read more]

Online Multitasking Term Paper

… Change Management

Online Multitasking

Perhaps the very best question that you can memorize and repeat, over and over, is, what is the most valuable use of my time right now?'" - Brian Tracy, Motivational Coach and Author (Tracy, N.d.)

Eons of Multitasking

College students, as well as, businessmen/women, and parents, particularly moms, practiced multitasking eons before the Internet came into their lives and individuals attempt to realize more from their valuable time. One study, the Internet Goes to College, by Pew Internet Projects (Jones, 2002), suggests that the multitasking behavior students currently present online is not a new technique, but rather a supplementary method to reproduce types of multiple interactions students previously performed offline. Researchers report that currently, a number of college students use multiple…. [read more]

Actor-Observer Affect Examined With Young Term Paper

… The specific questions asked the students whether they thought their driving actions could be considered risky, and how often they drive that way. A follow up question asked them to make the same judgment of their friends' driving acuity or lack thereof. The students were invited to fill out the questionnaire, then handed it back to the researcher without any discussion.

Since the responses to the questions were open-ended, they had to be coded in some way. The researchers separated the responses from the students, these were then broken down into six categories: fun, adrenalin buzz; showing off/acting cool; angry, upset or impatient; not paying attention/inexperience; in a hurry/late; peer pressure (812). The responses were then entered by the two researchers, and, if there was…. [read more]

Perusing the Journal of Personality Essay

… The differences in the two papers really reflect the audiences they are written for. The language of scholarly material is written for scholars; lay material is written at a grade school level. Material written for lay audiences is not concerned with statistics, proper methodology, analysis, controls, etc. News sources are written to sell newspapers, be descriptive (often at the expense of being biased), be interesting, offer filler, and maybe stimulate thought or support a point-of-view. They leave the science to the scientist. Scientific peer-reviewed material should be aimed at being objective and controlling biases. Understanding relationships between variables and concepts, stimulating thought, and stimulating more research are the goals of scholarly research.


Calder, B.J., Phillips, L.W. & Tybout, A.M. (1982). The concept of external…. [read more]

Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Term Paper

… However, some have questioned whether these results would have been the same if the groups of people had known one another. In the experiment, the boys were not acquainted with one another prior to the experiment. Believing that such a scenario is too artificial to make it generalizable to the population at large, Tyerman and Spencer conducted a similar experiment, but used an existing Scout troop, where the boys knew one another, as the source of the study population (Tyerman & Spencer, 1983, p.519, para.5). Moreover, the divisions in the study were natural divisions. "The subjects had been accustomed to functioning within their four distinct patrol groups at previous camps, meetings and other activities over a long period. At camp, the seven-boy patrol units, although…. [read more]

Raise Research Proposal

… ¶ … raise to the authors regarding the sample of individuals used for this study?

Given the relatively small size of the survey, the disproportionate emphasis on certain demographic characteristics raises questions about its validity. First of all, the study was extremely slanted in terms of gender: of the 169 employee surveys that were returned, 24.4% were derived from male responses while 75.6% were from women. Women and men may feel different levels of stress, and respond with different behaviors, based upon different types of negative stimuli. Also, the sample was drawn from a narrow range of professions, mostly from the administrative professions -- from academic and financial sectors. The personalized and hierarchical nature of the workplace in these two fields may mean there may…. [read more]

Validity and Reliability Questions of a Study Thesis

… Validity and Reliability

Questions of a study's reliability and validity involve two, separate yet interrelated issues. A study is reliable if it produces consistent results. A study is valid if it measures what it purports to measure. According to the article "Does your coworker know what you're doing? Convergence of self- and peer-reports of counterproductive work behavior" from the International Journal of Stress Management, serious questions of reliability and validity often arise with work-related behavioral surveys, as workers may underreport negative behaviors for fear of reprisals. There are also more generalized problems with self-reportage, namely the tendency to view one's self in excessively favorable or unfavorable terms, or simply to be blind to routine personal behaviors obvious to others.

To ensure that there would be…. [read more]

Organisational Psychology This Chapter Reviews Term Paper

… Goldman (1995, p 149) stated that 'Corporations have gone through a radical revolution within this century, and with this has come a corresponding transformation of the emotional landscape.' When exploring the current changes taking place within organizations, an important consideration may be the impact of these changes on the underlying emotional system within the organization. It can be demonstrated how crucial emotions are to the welfare of the organization when considering the impact that emotions such as anxiety and fear have on work and the individuals involved (Briner, 1999), (Lord, 2002).

Rational self at work

Organizations are usually studied from either rationalistic or normative perspectives, suggesting that they are immune to emotion (Flam, 1990).(e.g. is this a point of fact you are making that is…. [read more]

Existence and Use of Mainstream and Classical Motivation Theories in the Turkish Businesses Multiple Chapters

… Motivation Theories in Turkey Textile Tactics

Motivation Theories

turkey textile tactics

The News Reports

Area of Study

Organization of Study

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs


Self-Perception Theory

Goal Setting Theory

Motivation in Factories

Potential for Pursuing Empirical Research


Discussion of Results in relation to Objectives.

Discussion of those in relation to Survey Results

Discussion of these in relation to the Theory.

Discussion of Interviews


Four Components of Empirical Research

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Conditions Affecting Goal Effectiveness

Table 2: Maslow's Hierarchy and Descriptions of Needs



"Turkey's textile industry, which began in small shops in 1960,

has rapidly evolved and transformed Turkey into a global competitor"

("Turkey exports 20 bln…" 2010 ¶ 8).

The…. [read more]

Sociology and Psychology Term Paper

… Sociology and Psychology

Social and Psychological concept of Identity:

Sociology refers to the scientific study of society while psychology refers to the study of individuals. However, psychology can be aptly described as the study of the mind. Conventionally, "Identity" was a personal quality. Erik Erikson, personality psychologist, discovered the term 'identity crisis' in the framework of personal human development when he talked about the ontological suspicions facing the adolescent self. This term, however, got shifted to sociology by taking into account the personal characteristics of groups. In this paper, we will explore the concept of Identity with regard to youth, human behavior and work place behaviors. (Shifting Identity Individuals, Groups, and the Science of Society)

Identity in relation to Youth:

According to Hume, we are…. [read more]

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