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DNA Technology in Law Term Paper

… Ongoing research is unlocking the biological mechanisms by which a comparatively small number of genes regulated by complex protein synthesis and enzymatic actions accounts for the profound differences between human beings and fruit flies, whose genome sequence is approximately two thirds as large as ours (13)

Within a few decades, scientists will have revolutionized medicine with a comprehensive understanding of all genetic diseases and the ability to prevent them at the genetic level, rather than treat them at the macroscopic level. Before the middle of this century, it will quite literally, be possible (if not common) to posses our personal genetic code engraved onto a CD. Many experts believe that we will conquer all forms of cancer during this time as well as all genetic…. [read more]


Technology and Law Enforcement Essay

… There is also the concern of the public using this medium to air too many irrelevant comments or non-constructive criticism of the police.

Remedies to the challenges

In order to avoid the misuse of such site by an individual within the team, there is need to have the department concerned with managing the page craft very strict media policies that will guide the use of this site and even what can be allowed to remain on the page having been posted by the public. Since the pubic will be consistently posting comments on the page such that the public can see, there must be two or three people charged with editing the page consistently and deleting the offensive posts or those of content that are…. [read more]


DNA Technology Term Paper

… The stories of innocent people being held or victimized needlessly due to the wait for DNA evidence to clear their good names are disturbing. Raymond Holder was accused of raping a 12-year-old girl and arrested on August 25th, 1993. He asked for a DNA test to prove his innocence. It took nine months for the DNA results to exonerate Mr. Holder (Ferrara).

In another example of how delayed test results affect innocent people, on August 31st, 1998 a woman was raped and stabbed. The Virginia Division of Forensic Science received a victim's rape kit, physical evidence, and on November 13th, they received a suspect's blood sample. The suspect, Christopher Banks, was being held on the rape chargem but was due to be released. As such,…. [read more]


DNA Evidence DNA as Evidence Organisms Research Paper

… DNA Evidence

DNA as Evidence

Organisms on planet Earth use DNA as their genetic blueprint, and each individual organism, including humans, have a DNA sequence that is unique to that individual. That means even within the same species, which share a high percentage of DNA similarity, each individual still has a unique DNA profile. With the discovery of DNA technology, the science of forensics has incorporated DNA technology into the identification of criminal suspects with increasing regularity. But how a suspect's DNA is discovered, linked to the crime scene, and used as a means of identification is an important aspect to the use of DNA in forensics.

Each individual organism possesses a unique DNA signature that can be used as a means of identification. By…. [read more]


Technology and Social Responsibility Research Paper

… " (Fukuyama, 2002) Fukuyama states that this type of technology should be regulated by governmental bodies and although "biotechnology is clearly unlike nuclear technology, whose destructive potential was immediately clear and war from the outset tightly rigged with political controls." (Fukuyama, 2002)

Eugenics, or the testing of babies for genetic predispositions is becoming increasingly popular and this is stated to be particularly true for individuals in the Jewish communities. This is stated to be due to the fact that so many people wish to avoid carrying on genetically caused diseases and disorders into their offspring which makes sense and will serve to better the health of future generations. However, with every good thing also is the potential for misuse. Fringe medicine has proposed the use…. [read more]


Capital Punishment and DNA Evidence Term Paper

… Other features of those twenty-eight wrongful convictions included reliance on apparently erroneous or misleading forensic evidence, and alleged government malfeasance or misconduct, including perjured testimony at trial, intentional withholding from the defense of exculpatory evidence, and intentionally erroneous laboratory tests and expert testimony." (Findley, "Learning from Our Mistakes…," Page 339 -- 340)

Perhaps then, the issue should be taken all the more seriously when those within the system, who are not the alleged criminals themselves, advocate for systemic changes in criminal justice practices:

"The sheer number of exonerations due to innocence in capital cases has raised growing concern and recent calls for further reform.1-33 Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens stated in a speech before the American Bar Association in August 2005 that he believes…. [read more]


DNA Fingerprinting Research Paper

… " Journal Of

Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 13.1 (2012): 3-

21. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.

Ai, Bingjie, et al. "The Elimination Of DNA From The Cry Toxin-DNA Complex Is A

Necessary Step In The Mode Of Action Of The Cry8 Toxin." Plos One 8.12

(2013): e81335. MEDLINE. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.

Butler, John M. Forensic DNA Typing: Biology, Technology, And Genetics Of STR

Markers. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, 2005. eBook Academic

Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 14 Oct. 2014.

Dietrich, Dimo, et al. "Improved PCR Performance Using Template DNA From Formalin-

Fixed And Paraffin-Embedded Tissues By Overcoming PCR Inhibition." Plos

One 8.10 (2013): e77771. MEDLINE. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.

"DNA Fingerprinting." Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia (2014): 1p. 1. Funk…. [read more]


DNA Cold Case Research Paper

… 'It's an awful tragedy to lose a person to a homicide. It is terrible miscarriage of justice not to know who carried out the crime against your loved one.'" (Gast, p. 1)

This story highlights an especially compelling dimension of DNA testing, in that it can be used not just to continue in the pursuit of perpetrator leads in cold cases but also in that it can be used to identify as yet unknown victims. The opportunity to bring peace to these unidentified murder victims remains a powerful motive for state police and missing children advocacy groups. To the point, the director of the unknown victim identification team for the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, Angela Williamson points out that there remain a…. [read more]


Law and Evidence Essay

… Federal Rules of Evidence

The issue here is whether the suspension of the license should be overturned because the police report was inadmissible. The second issue is whether the finding that Walker was drunk should be overturned because there was not enough evidence to prove, beyond a reasonable doubt ("BARD"), that Walker was drunk.

Rule: Hearsay is an out-of-court statement offered to prove the truth of the matter asserted. (FRE 801). Such statements may be admissible if they are a Recorded Recollection: "A memorandum or record concerning a matter about which a witness once had knowledge but now has insufficient recollection to enable the witness to testify fully and accurately, shown to have been made or adopted by the witness when the admitted matter was…. [read more]


DNA Fingerprinting and Its Impact on the United Kingdom Research Proposal

… DNA Fingerprinting in UK

The Impact of DNA Fingerprinting in the United Kingdom: A Case Study

The Introduction/Development of DNA Fingerprinting

The use of DNA in the tracking and prosecuting of suspected criminals has gained great fame in recent years due to its frequent appearance in television crime dramas. The technology is not, of course, quite the silver bullet that such programs make it out to be, but it still remarkable in its ability and its applications -- and it is relatively new, as well. Developed in 1985 by Sir Alec Jeffreys, the rise in the use and acceptance of DNA fingerprinting technology has been meteoric when compared to other methods of investigation and criminal prosecution (DNA's Detective Story 2004). Ironically, despite its now widespread…. [read more]


DNA an Investigators Silent Partner Term Paper

… DNA- An Investigator's Silent Partner

This essay is about DNA fingerprinting and how it has become a silent partner in the war on crime. The ever popular O.J. Simpson murder trial in the early 90's made DNA evidence another household concept. Since that trial, DNA evidence has become a common feature throughout American criminal trials and jurisprudence. "As a forensic tool, DNA analysis was initially used to link an already known suspect to a particular crime scene. In these situations, law enforcement officers obtain DNA from the suspect and compare it to DNA recovered from the crime scene." (Peterson) Direct analysis of known suspects DNA has become a very common forensic tool.

Today, the FBI and many other law enforcement agencies house individuals DNA samples…. [read more]


DNA During the 1990's, DNA Testing Term Paper

… DNA

During the 1990's, DNA testing became popular in the area of Law Enforcement and the criminal justice system. Today hundreds of cases, both cold and live, have been solved using DNA evidence as a primary tool during both investigation and trials. While the power of DNA analysis, particularly combined with the Combined DNA Index System, or CODIS, has great advantages to law enforcement, there are also disadvantages to such technology.

When collected, documented, and stored appropriately, DNA evidence, or biological evidence, can be a useful tool for crime scene investigation, even after several years (National Institute of Justice (NIJ), 2002). Since hair, blood, semen, and other bodily fluids and tissues contain DNA specific to each individual person, much like fingerprints, crime scene investigators can…. [read more]


Filtration-Based DNA Preparation for Sexual Term Paper

… 48, No. 5

Real Time Quantitative PCR (QPCR) represents a potential advance in the identification of usable DNA material in biological samples over technologies currently in use by the Center of Forensic Sciences, such as the Perkin-Elmer

QuantiBlot ™ test. While this system of quantifying DNA in forensic casework samples is considered reliable and appropriately sensitive, it is also time consuming and labor intensive.

Equally important is the fact that slot blot methods incorporate a subjective element. Automated instrumentation for identifying usable human DNA material offers the prospect of reducing the time and effort necessary to do so, in addition to requiring less laboratory space and increased accuracy.

QPCR has already demonstrated the ability to distinguish human DNA from concentrations as dilute as one part…. [read more]


Advances in Technology. The Internet Essay

… Mapping software (GPS), etc. also aids law enforcement in more quickly finding locations (Harries, 1999)

Less-Lethal Technology assistance -- Law enforcement needs to control violent and combative individuals in order to preserve the law and safety of themselves and the public. The use of less-lethal technologies provide officers alternatives to lethal force. These include conducted energy devices (like a Taser or stun gun); directed energy devices (radiated energy); Chemicals (pepper spray, tear gas, sedative gases); distraction (noise, bright lights); vehicle stopping technology (stopping cars during high speed chases); and barriers (lightweight nets, foams and physical barriers) (Types of Less Lethal Devices, 2008)

Information Management -- Computer and telecommunications have developed so much that using fully integrated information systems and data mining, with sophisticated algorithms that…. [read more]


Principles Policies and Rules in Legislation and Police Power Term Paper

… Law and Police Powers

Recent changes to the law in Queensland, and to the powers of police there, mean that citizens need to think twice next time they stroll home after a night at the pub, climb a tree in a local park or question why a police officer has asked him or her to do something. Citizens' right to free use of public spaces is not as clear and unmitigated as it once was.

The two enactments of most concern are the police move-on powers located in the Police Powers and Responsibilities Act 2000 and public nuisance law as set out in the Summary Offences Act 2005. These are separate arms of the law, but have the effect of greatly increasing the number of…. [read more]


DNA in Criminal Cases Term Paper

… They began, 'We wish to suggest a structure for... DNA. This structure has novel features, which are of considerable biological interest.' They ended as modestly: 'It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for genetic material.'" (Lee) In 1991, nearly 40 years after the Nature article was published Watson wrote, "There is no substance so important as DNA... The key to our optimism that all secrets of life are within the grasp of future generations of perceptive biologists is the ever accelerating speed at which we have been able to probe the secrets of DNA." (Lee)

How can a narration of the structure and workings of DNA emerge into a claim that DNA is…. [read more]


Future Applications of Forensic DNA Essay

… More importantly, it would also help exonerate wrongly accused individuals (Dononue 2007). In this regard, one DNA scientist emphasizes that, "Any type of organism can be identified by examination of DNA sequences unique to that species. Identifying individuals within a species is less precise at this time, although when DNA sequencing technologies progress farther, direct comparison of very large DNA segments, and possibly even whole genomes, will become feasible and practical and will allow precise individual identification" (Drell 2009, p. 2).

Conclusion

The research showed that the past half century has witnessed the introduction of increasingly sophisticated DNA sequencing techniques that provide forensic scientists with the ability to verify the identify of people based on various types of biological specimens, including hair, blood, semen. The…. [read more]


History of DNA and of Its Use by the Criminal Justice System Thesis

… DNA

History of DNA Testing

The growth of DNA Testing and Interpretation over the years

DNA Testing Today 5

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Testing, Has grown in popularity in recent years. The testing of DNA came about in 1985 and was first used in the criminal justice system in 1987. The first case occurred in Louisiana using a DNA dragnet. During a DNA dragnet, DNA is collected from a large number of people that fit the description of a suspect. In this case the exclusion samples were taken consensually. As an investigative tool the DNA testing involves the examination of biological materials including hair, skin, blood, saliva and semen. Such testing can be crucial in determining the identity of a person because it "contains the complex…. [read more]


Technology Has Revolutionized Society: Communication Essay

… References

About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/

Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine

Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html

Kelly, R. (2008, July). What are the Ethical Issues Surrounding Personzlied Medicine? Retrieved from Let's Get Personal: http://www.reagank.com/2007/03 / what_are_the_ethical_issues_in.php

Lea, D. (2009). Basic Genetics and Genomics: A Primer for Nurses. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 14 (2): Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/-ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/-Vol142009/No2May09/Articles-Previous-Topics/Basic-Genetics-and-Genomics.html

Lea, D., et al. (2011). Implications for educating the next generation of nurses on genetics and genomics in the 21st century. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(1),…. [read more]


Impact of DNA Analysis on Criminal Cases That Involved Misidentification Term Paper

… ¶ … DNA Analysis on Criminal Cases' Misidentification

DNA, "the evidence that does not forget..." As Kirk (cited by Butler, 2005, p. 33) purports, aptly introduces the summary for the following paper. As DNA, present in every nucleated cell, constitutes present and biological materials left at crime scenes, Butler (2005. p. 33), it may, this researcher contends, lead into the jail yard, or in some instances, as this paper notes, free someone who has been sent there by mistake. (Columbia, 1996) When DNA samples are mishandled, however, during an investigation's initial stages, no amount of hard work in the final analytical or data interpretation steps will compensate.

Mishandling of DNA may consequently, lead to misidentification of an individual.

After it is collected, the proper handling…. [read more]


Police Technologies Term Paper

… ¶ … technologies used by the police. After reading through the paper, the reader will be well acquainted with the different methods and technologies being used today and for what reasons. Generally this paper covers the technologies used by the law enforcing agencies of the United States and overviews how the past and present governments of the United States helped in delivering the best of equipment to the law enforcing authorities.

An institution that enforces law and order in a country is highly vital to ensure a peaceful community where people feel secure. Such an institution is internationally known as "Police." Traveling from the past to the present, we see a change in the technologies used by the criminals and the different methods that they…. [read more]


DNA Research Term Paper

… Four years after he was set free, he received a pardon from the governor "…on the ground of innocence, which under Illinois law entitled him to compensation" for his wrongful imprisonment (Garrett, 66). According to Garrett, Bullock wasn't alone as a member of an ethnic minority to have been wrongfully imprisoned for rape -- and then be set free thanks to DNA testing. On pages 66-67 Garrett reports that of 200 convicted rapists his research located -- rapists that were later exonerated due to DNA evidence -- a stunning 73% were either African-American or Hispanic. This data opens up the issue or racial bias, which is not the focus of this paper but nonetheless a subject that could be explored in much greater detail.

In…. [read more]


DNA Database Term Paper

… DNA Database

The advantages of DNA profiling and databases

DNA profile refers to unique identifying characteristics of an individual. In brief, because a persons DNA contains elements that are totally unique to that individual, this means that developing a DNA database of individuals can be a very effective way of establishing identity in a criminal case, or of finding out the identity of a missing person.

The science of DNA profiling has many applications. The most common usage of this technology is to rapidly identify the criminal perpetrator in a crime. An article from the University of Utah states: "DNA profiling has helped to acquit or convict suspects in many of the most violent crimes, including rape and murder." (Can DNA Demand a Verdict?) DNA…. [read more]


Technology in Crime Analysis Essay

… The use of versatile disks is also a widely used method and the use of paper and filing has not died out yet (IEEE, 2012).

The retrieval process depends on the kind of storage device that was used. For some like the file system could be as easy as identifying the right file and pulling out to read the data. For others like in hard disks will require the availability of computer and the versatile disks will need a DVD player or devices with such capabilities. In the tapes, it will need a tape recorder to play it and the same applies to the visual reels used for storing video data.

Crime analysis is a major aspect of the community's bid to control and reduce…. [read more]


Bk Product Liability Research Paper

… What is inherently dangerous and generally displeasing is becoming more and more harder to define as opinions on the matter are so over-specified and over-focused we have lost sight on how we should humanely and reasonably treat each other. Lawyers and judges should have more respect for the law and cases like these could certainly be handled in a more discreet and useful manner.

Works Cited

Baker, R. (2013). 9th Circuit restores 'phlegm burger' suit following Wash. high court guidance. Reuters, 27 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://blog.thomsonreuters.com/index.php/9th- circuit-restores-phlegm-burger-suit-following-wash-high-court-guidance/

Gullo, K (2013). Burger King Suit Over Spit in Sandwich Revived by Court. Bloomberg, 12 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-02-12/burger-king- lawsuit-over-spit-in-meal-revived-by-appeals-court.html

Payne, C. (2013). State's high court: Washington Product Liability Act permits emotional distress in the absence…. [read more]


Technology Has Developed White Paper

… Most career law enforcement officers lack the advanced skills required for most intelligence positions and using civilian intelligence analysts also frees up career police personnel to patrol, investigate, and perform other field work. Additionally, the use of civilian intelligence analysts also creates a permanent and experienced body of personnel that lends a measure of consistency to the intelligence process.

As earlier noted, since 9/11 the role of analysis in the intelligence field has received increased attention. The move toward increased use of intelligence in the law enforcement industry had begun before 9/11 but the events of 9/11 brought to the surface the seriousness of the inadequacies in the field of law enforcement intelligence analysis

. It highlighted that intelligence analysis in the United States was…. [read more]


9-11 DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Term Paper

… 9/11 DNA Identification in Mass Fatality

The aftermath of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers

How important is DNA evidence in this case?

Will everyone get identified?

Restrictions on how DNA evidence can be used

Fragment sizes

Decomposing DNA

How does the analysis get proper resource and funding?

DNA management

Source of DNA samples

Using Identification Number on the site

Storing into the database

How DNA analysis (methods) can be utilized in making identification

DNA Extraction

DNA amplification and analysis (PCR)

Mitochondrial DNA

Single nucleotide polymorphism

Short Tandem Repeat analysis

Identifying victims

Probability ratio in linking to the victims

Linking victims using relatives and family member's DNA

Limitation of modern technology

Conclusion

References

An Analysis of DNA Identification of Mass Fatalities resulted from Terrorist…. [read more]


Patent Law and Genetic Medicine Term Paper

… Human Stem Cell Medical - Legal Implications

How Do Legal Issues in Patent Law Shape Ethical Decision in Human Stem Cell Research?

Patent Law & Genetic Medicine

This work examines the issue of human stem cell research from the view of the medical profession with an eye on funding, the public perspective and legislation historically affecting and futuristically possible in relation to research of the human genome. Specifically this work takes a look a the patenting process and how it is disputable as to whether patenting the human genome is plausible and what consequences might exist in this patents. This work notes the veritable quietness of the legal community at large in relation to this medical research issue and while this document is of the…. [read more]


Future of DNA Testing Research Proposal

… Future of DNA Testing

The Beginnings of Genetic Identity Testing

DNA fingerprinting

Genetic identity testing establishes the patterns of genetic material, which is specific and unique for almost every human being.1 The sequence differences between individuals are used as basis for identity testing. The techniques applied are DNA fingerprinting, DNA profiling, and DNA typing. Identity testing in crime investigation began with the analysis of the ABO blood group. Later, it proved useful in identity and paternity identification. But two decades ago, Professor and geneticist Alec Jeffreys of the University of Leicester in the UK found and introduced DNA-based identity testing.1

DNA is deoxynucleaic acid, the hereditary material in the nucleus of the human cell, according to the Department of Health and Human Services.

DNA analysis…. [read more]


Biomedical Technology Term Paper

… Biomedical Technology

The field of Biomedical Technology has been growing by leaps and over the past half-century. At the beginning of that time many research scientists and their funding corporations were starting to realize the amazing potential of this field for both for humanitarian and commercial use. The advances alone in the use of recombinant DNA techniques as well as that of cell fusion and other advances in were revealing tremendous potential regarding their impact on the health, life and the longevity of human beings. (Blackford, 2006, p. 526) Biomedical technology has become a tremendous boon to mankind creating completely new approaches in the treatment of diseases and the consequent extension of life expectancy than had never been imagined previously. In our lifetime we have…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.