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Eating Disorders and Gender Research Paper

… People who suffer from low self-esteem, depression, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, perfectionism, or who has a troubled or difficult emotional relationship have an increased likelihood of becoming anorexic or bulimic. However, more than either of the other two forms sociology and the pressures of society have more impact on a young woman than anything else. Eating disorders are generated by an incorrect psychological perception of the self. A press release from the May Clinic stated:

The modern Western cultural environment often cultivates and reinforces a desire for thinness. Success and worth are often equated with being thin in popular culture. Peer pressure and what people see in the media may fuel this desire to be thin, particularly among young girls (Staff).

In the modern period, the…. [read more]

Health Psychology Eating Disorders Among Asian American Term Paper

… Eating disorders among Asian-Americans

The following study attempts to explore and delineate the problem of eating disorders among Asian-Americans. The study presents an overview of the issue and found that there exists a serious problem with regards to eating disorders among Asian-Americans, particularly among women. This syndrome is exacerbated by the complexity of acculturation in American society. These and other aspects affecting eating disorders in this group are also discussed. One of the central findings of the study is that there has been relatively little research of quality conducted on this subject.

There is a common myth that eating disorders are usually found among white females and males and not among the Asian population.

In general "Many assume that certain "blanket factors" protect minority communities…. [read more]

Eating Disordered Mothers Influence to the Cause of Unhealthy Eating Behavior on Daughters Research Proposal


The literature review in this work is conducted for the express purpose of reviewing information and previous studies which examine whether mothers with eating disorders project unhealthy eating habits on their daughters. Toward this end a great deal of literature is reviewed and findings of the studies reviewed reported.

Review of Relevant Articles

The work of Nilsson, Abrahamsson, Torbiornsson and Hagglof (2007) entitled: "Causes of Adolescent Onset Anorexia Nervosa: Patient Perspectives" reports that "Previous research of patients' descriptions of causes illustrates the complexity of the illness and points to different possible contributors to the development of anorexia nervosa. Studies of the patients' views provide research and care providers with clues for prevention…. [read more]

Media by Term Paper

… In order to sell their products several companies depend on televisions and magazines and resort to advertisement strategies. They make a feeling in the minds of women, particularly teenagers that an ideal body is a thin body and their appearances are quite unattractive. Women try several techniques of rigorous strain to achieve their goal of an ideal body. But the image, which women try to achieve, cannot be attained for a majority of the population. Because of the influence of the media by way of advertisements negative effects are being placed on women and they end up having eating disorders and other physical and mental disorders. The gravity of this problem has been underestimated. This matter has to be brought to public attention, basically the…. [read more]

Eating Disorders the Media's Obsession With Weight Thesis

… Eating Disorders

The media's obsession with weight and its relentless portrayal of 'desirable' women with unrealistically thin figures has made eating disorders one of the leading health concerns of modern-day living, especially among young women. With as many as 11 million Americans currently suffering from eating disorders and about 80% of women reporting dissatisfaction with their appearance, it is no exaggeration to say that eating disorders have now reached epidemic levels in the United States ("Media's Obsession..." 2008). In this research paper, I shall present an overview of eating disorders, including a discussion of their types, symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention.

Types of Eating Disorders

The three most common types of eating disorders are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (BED). These are…. [read more]

Media Influence and Its Effects on Society Research Paper

… Media Influence on Society

In a matter of a few centuries, the availability of information to the average person in society has grown exponentially. Until the advent of the telegraph in the middle of the 19th century, even the most significant world events typically took weeks or more to become known outside their immediate region. Printing presses were tremendously expensive, rare, and prohibited by law in some parts of the world. Even paper was too expensive to produce for anyone outside of the wealthier classes to have access to it. Before that, the average person knew only what happened in a very small local area and many people living in relatively undeveloped border regions may not have even been sure what country they lived in,…. [read more]

Eating Disorders, and How Doctors and Psychologists Term Paper

… ¶ … eating disorders, and how doctors and psychologists treat them. There are three well-known eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. All of these disorders are now recognized as diseases, and they have spread from America around the world as women and girls obsess about their weight and body image. Eating disorders are dangerous and can be fatal if left untreated.

Perhaps the most well-known eating disorder is anorexia nervosa, usually referred to as anorexia. It has also been known as the "starving disease." Women (and some men) literally eat next to nothing, as they are obsessed with gaining weight and appearing fat or overweight. Many people do not know anorexia has been written about for centuries, but it is more…. [read more]

Nutrition Weight Control One of the Reasons Research Proposal

… Nutrition

Weight control

One of the reasons for the popularity of the now-banned Hydroxycut products was the advertising campaign for the product. The ads relied upon the promotion of transformation -- they used the presentation of 'before' and 'after' models to emphasize to the consumer that physical change was possible, even easy, while using the product. The ideal of an easy transformation of the self, a transformation that affects every aspect of one's life that can be brought about through a purchase seems uniquely American. After all, it is the promise inherent in fancy car and clothing advertisements, too, that changing what one buys can be self-empowering and improve one's self-esteem. Additionally, the ease promised by diet supplements is attractive. Just like we promote food…. [read more]

Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Males Term Paper

… BDD in Men

Various problems concerning female perceptions about body image have long been at the center of debate. In recent years men have also begun to confront negative concepts of body image. Although many people are uncomfortable with their body image, this discomfort can also lead to a serious problem known as Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). The purpose of this discussion is to focus on body dysmorphic disorder as it relates to men. The discussion will focus on muscle dysmorphia, the factors that contribute to the development of body dysmorphic disorder in men and the treatment of the disorder. Let us begin out discussion by defining BDD.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

According to Veale (2003), BDD is defined as mental disorder, which can be described…. [read more]

Teen Anorexia Nervosa Research Paper

… Anorexia Nervosa

Teen Anorexia Nervosa

One of the main eating disorder which has gained most attention in these days is Anorexia Nervosa. An irrational fear of weight gain and restriction of food are the main characteristics of this disorder. The patients suffering from the disorder are also characterized by a disturbed self-perception of one's body image. The development of the condition takes place in teen age and adulthood. The amount of food being consumed by the patients is highly restricted based on a great fear of weight loss. A number of hormonal as well as metabolic disorders are seen in the patients with this disorder. More than 8 million Americans suffer from anorexia. Ten times more females suffer from anorexia as compared to males. More…. [read more]

Health Weight and Society the Stress Research Paper

… Health

Weight and Society

The stress on women to appear and act in particular ways is so intensely embedded in their psyches that it's simple to miss the force that mass culture has on how they feel about themselves and their bodies. TV, magazines and newspapers, even surfing the Net, bombard women all the time with airbrushed imagery of ideal beauty and thinness. Inevitably they tend to take in the unrelenting communication that such beauty is the standard, and is attainable, if they could only be thin (Women, Websites and Body Image, 2008). This idea perpetuated by mainstream media that women need to be super thin in order to beautiful often leads to eating disorders. The purpose of this paper is to explore the ways…. [read more]

Participant's Experience: A Qualitative Research Research Paper

… 2). The form and body image signs and symptoms of anorexia nervosa comprise weight loss that is unquestionably dramatic (no medical reason), feeling fat, in spite of being underweight, fixation on body image, severely dangerous of appearance, and refute the fact of them being way too thin (Healthguide, 2001-2010, sec. 2).

What are the causes of anorexia nervosa?

Social pressures are what is said to play the dominant force for the reason of anorexia nervosa. A lot of the cultural standards of feminine beauty over the years as mentioned above have gone through the changes and the media has endorsed extremely slim models and celebrities. If a young person were to turn on their television and look at the shows or videos on MTV or…. [read more]

Ballet Dancers and Non Term Paper

… ¶ … eating disorder patterns between ballet dancers and non-dancers is well written especially in its presentation and the details of the technical aspects of the study. Having said so, there is a feeling that the article could have gone a little more into the aspect of what anorexia is and the causes of anorexia and the reasons that it is seen so much in ballet dancers as against non-dancers, as well as exploring aspects like the impact of ballet dancing on children with respect to eating disorder patterns, whether any difference is seen in the frequency of eating disorders in professional ballet dancer and non-professional ballet dancers. These aspects are dealt with in detail here to provide a better picture on eating disorder patterns.…. [read more]

Developmental Psychology Body Image Term Paper

… Several psychiatric disorders might lead to increasing risk of eating disorder, including neurotic and depressive symptoms, bipolar disorder, manic depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive personality characteristics, history of sexual abuse, severe family problems, extreme social pressures, insecurity, being controlled by others, distorted body image, etc. (NIMH, 2001). In addition, extreme negative dissatisfaction with their bodies may be a factor in its existence, even though not a predictor of eating disorders (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).

According to Johnson, Cohen, Kotler, Kasen, & Brook (2002), teenagers diagnosed with depression might be at a higher risk for the onset of eating disorders during middle adolescence and early adulthood, because eating disorders and depression in children and adolescents are closely related. Nevertheless, disruptive disorders might also contribute to recurrent…. [read more]

Dysfunctional Behavior That Strikes Term Paper

… She was earlier admitted to the College of Costa Mesa Hospital for stabilization of mental illness, medical management and relapse prevention, but she said that she was not coping and that she continued to be severely depressed and lack energy. So she was discharged from the Costa Mesa Hospital and, consequently, admitted to this College Hospital of Cerritos. The patient was anxious, mildly confused, disheveled and crying when her history was taken from her verbal and voluntary report and account.

B. Development History

The patient was the eldest child of a Japanese father and an American mother and the first to be subjected to distinct cultures in upbringing - Eastern and Western. Japanese culture, specifically, emphasizes efficiency and endurance in both sexes and an intolerance…. [read more]

Anorexia Criteria for Diagnosis Physical Term Paper

… Society has to accept much of the blame for the population of anorexia sufferers. Society has labeled the image of the 6ft, size 6-8 model as the ideal, which the majority of normal women do not comply with. Not only is this image being promoted (through the media) as the ideal in aesthetic terms, it is also associated with success (professionally and personally), happiness and good fortune. But then, it is the individuals that make up society, so we are also to blame for this situation. If society did not find such a ready market for promoting unrealistic images of the body beautiful, then society would not be promoting it.

Anorexia, a form of eating disorder, remains a blight on our society. It is symptomatic…. [read more]

How American Advertising Causes Anorexia in Women and Female Teenagers Essay

… Advertising and Anorexia

American Media Images Influence Unhealthy Eating Habits in Order to Stay Skinny

Everyone has a little obsession with beauty. It is natural for human beings to want to look and feel attracted, because society often rewards those that fit its concept of what is attractive. Yet, sometimes, images can take it too far and subliminally portray a message that demands young American to fall in line with that ideal. One of these concepts is the issue of being skinny, which is glamorized consistently in media images. Covert and overt messages are tied to images glamorizing skinny, which is then often internalized by young teens that will turn to unhealthy habits, like eating disorders like anorexia, in order to reach that ideal weight…. [read more]

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Research Paper

… Anorexia nervosa (an) is blamed on many factors, including media images of ultra-thin models and actresses, family conflicts, and genetics. The first case was recorded in 1689, suggesting that genetics and family issues are involved (DeAngelis, 2002). Symptoms can include distorted body image, very low body weight, obsession with losing weight, fear of food and gaining weight, excessive exercise, purging, and amenorrhea (Hatch & al, 2010). Of course anorexia is just one form of eating disorder; experts from the National Association of Eating Disorders claim that as many as 10 million Americans are suffering from some form of eating disorder "at any given time" (Novotney, 2009), and today it is estimated that up to 13% of patients are male. Anorexia often gets worse with time…. [read more]

Should Underweight Model Size 0 Be Used for Fashion Show and Magazine Ads Research Paper

… Size Zero Debate

The size zero and subzero body image is an enduring image that has pervaded the media off and on since the 1960s, with the popularity of the size zero (maybe even subzero) model and actress Twiggy. The debate regarding using such women, in a natural state or not, meaning they are simply small by nature or they work very hard and some would say live unhealthy to maintain it, is a debate that has endured since the 1960s as well. The current trend in fashion to seek a way to be more ethical about model choices, trying to choose healthy models over the age of 16, has again sparked the debate, as some organizations and companies have even gone so far as…. [read more]

Diets and Young Women Term Paper

… Then the plan gradually begins to add some of these items back into the diet. The first two weeks may be so difficult that many dieters do not stick with the plan long-term.

The Atkins diet is so popular that a whole industry of low-carb foods has grown up around it. However, this low-carbohydrate diet is so restrictive, that it is difficult to stay on for any length of time, and it cuts out nearly all fruits, grains, and sugars, especially in the initial stages of the diet, so it is quite difficult to maintain, and it is quite expensive, since it relies heavily on proteins, such as meats and cheeses. This diet is not concerned with fat, and it might be perfect for those…. [read more]

Outstanding Fact: Americans Love Term Paper

… It is for all of these reasons that a safe and effective diet can work wonders for people struggling with weight issues. A balanced, healthy diet can lead to weight loss, more energy and a much more positive outlook on life. Just by having someone ask you if you have lost weight can take a person with low self-esteem and turn him or her into a person who becomes happy with themselves, how they look, and how they feel.

Another great benefit of dieting is improving the quality of life. As an overweigh adult there may be many quality of life issues that tend to haunt you apart from the health and self-esteem issues. People look at you funny as you walk down the street.…. [read more]

Obesity Affect on Military Readiness Term Paper

… Military Readiness

The issue of Obesity in America has been a serious concern in recent years. In addition to healthcare, the issue of obesity affects many different aspects of our society, including military readiness. This study is significant because it will shed light upon an issue that has become a serious problem and even a threat to national and international security. It is apparent that one of the most critical and detrimental impacts of obesity on the military is the decrease in the ability to recruit young people. The rapid increase in childhood obesity has led to a shortage of young people who are fit enough to face the rigors of serving in the military. This greatly affects military readiness because of the increased demands…. [read more]

Using Sex Appeal to Market Our Athletes a Case Analysis Into This Growing Issue Term Paper

… ¶ … Sex Appeal to Market our Athletes?

Women are performing very well in sports. Since women have become part in the world of "sports" and/or athletics, the capabilities of women are becoming continuously noticeable. However, the skills of the women in various sports categories are not the only thing noticeable nowadays because the kinds of clothing and the concepts of advertisements involving women are also becoming conspicuous.

Women are very good in sports, but it seems that their ability to play excellently are not the only thing that people loved watching but also the scantily uniforms being designed for them. Many would have recognized the fact that the physical attributes of the female athletes are more highlighted today than their skills.

The media is…. [read more]

Biomedical and Biopsychosocial Models of Health Essay

… ¶ … Biomedical and Biopsychosocial Models of Health

Prior to 1977, the biomedical model was the key model used by physicians to explain the causes of illness and disease. It postulates that illness is a consequence of abnormalities/malfunctions in the physiological body processes, and that social and psychological factors are not in any way related to the disease process (Taylor, 2009). In addition to this single-cause aspect, the biomedical model was driven by three other major assumptions; i) the mechanical metaphor -- that the body works as a machine; ii) mind-body dualism -- that our values, beliefs, and ideas, which are matters of the mind, play a significant role in the physiological/biological processes of the body; and iii) the discounting emotion factor -- that physicians…. [read more]

Causes of Anorexia Nervosa Research Paper

… Anorexia nervosa (AN) a serious illness which negatively affects the body and the mind of its victims (Bulik et. Al,2005). The illness is a very common eating disorder which is universally linked to emaciation as well as a marked increase in the level of physical activity. Persons with Anorexia nervosa are not capable of maintaining a normal and healthy body weight. This is because most of them drop to about 85% of their normal body weight (Bulik et al., 2005). Despite the rise in cachesis, individuals having Anorexia nervosa (AN) are largely possessed about their body weight and largely remain dissatisfied with the largeness of their own bodies. They therefore tend to be engaged in activities and behaviors that are designed to increase weight loss.…. [read more]

Advertising Aims to Convince Us Term Paper

… The anthropologist Anne Becker was surprised by the change; she had thought that Fijian aesthetics, which favor voluptuous bodies, would "withstand" the influence of media images. Becker hadn't yet understood that we live in an empire of images and that there are no protective borders." Bordo's findings suggest that our obsessions with dieting and being thin have more to do with a portrayal of beauty fabricated by the media, and less to do with being healthy.

It becomes clear that the media, with its insistence on thinness and symmetry, helps contribute to the widespread dysfunction that exists. There are more than one hundred scientific studies on the impact of "perfected," advertising images on girls and women. These studies suggest that negative effects do occur in…. [read more]

Fictional Case of Ms. Jean Harlow Term Paper

… ¶ … fictional case of Ms. Jean Harlow and her need for a treatment plan. The beginning of the paper describes the case in detail of Ms. Harlow and her mental disorder. It describes the events that took place in her life that would lead her to seek the attention of a psychiatrist as well as a more in depth look in how someone with a mental disorder might behave in order to be able to observe and evaluate.

The treatment plan for her mental disorder involves antipsychotic medications as well as antidepressants. She demonstrated symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder with Mood-Incongruent Psychotic Features. This was evidenced by her hearing voices and feeling lethargy and disinterest in her daily life and social interactions.

In the…. [read more]

Freud Was Right, Peter Muris Research Paper

… In addition, through modeling, children may repeat their parents' behavior, specifically abnormal behavior. Learning experiences, particularly aversive life events, can play a role in psychopathology, including simply the acquisition of negative information. Societal-level influences can include things such as the impact of racism leading to higher levels of anxiety in black South African children than in white South African children, which is linked to the socioeconomic differences between the two groups.

Muris discusses the impact that early intervention during youth can decrease adult psychopathology in impacted youth. These interventions can include parental training and various forms of cognitive behavioral therapy. However, interventions have not necessarily been specifically tailored to those working with problem youths. Moreover, many children may lack access to help because of the…. [read more]

Racist Beauty Ideals and Racial Term Paper

… Werrlein holds that the Dick and Jane stories equate white privilege with a version of Americanness that occurs outside of history, arguing further that the poverty and suffering of the Breedlove family symbolizes America's brutal history of racial persecution. Through her portrayal of Pauline and Cholly, Morrison suggests that parents who emerge from histories of oppression might reproduce that degradation within the family unit. Instead of Cholly protecting and providing for his family, he burns down their home and later assaults his daughter. Instead of nurturing her offspring, Pauline rejects them, seeing in them a reflection of her own ugliness. She much prefers to spend all her time working as a domestic for the Fishers. Pecola's pregnancy and psychosis represent extreme consequences of racism. Werrlein…. [read more]

Impact of Paternal Abandonment on Female Adult Obesity Term Paper

… Paternal Abandonment and Female Adult Obesity

This work will explore the obesity epidemic, first through a comprehensive analysis of its development, as well as through a literature review pertaining to obesity and its controversial causes. The work will then go on to describe in detail the findings of independent research regarding the issue of paternal abandonment between the ages of 6-19 and its effects on adult obesity in women. The initial findings from this study indicate that there is a causal relationship between adult female obesity and paternal abandonment between the ages of 6 and 19. If this is the case further exploration of this correlation is needed to better understand the development of such results.

Table of Contents


Statement of Problem


Review…. [read more]

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