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Ebola Outbreak Research Paper

… Ebola Virus and Its Effect on Humans

The Ebola Virus

How ebola Virus Affects Host

The ebola Symptoms

Transmission of the Disease

The Spread of the Disease

Diagnosis of Ebola Virus

Investigation of Ebola

Management of Ebola

Fluid and electrolyte replacement

Treatment of Ebola Symptoms

The Emerging Treatments


Ebola is one of the latest killer diseases that have affected humans. It is often fatal with no known vaccinations for the disease. The fatality rate for the disease is nearly 90%. The Ebola virus disease appeared for the first time during two simultaneous outbreaks in 1976 in two regions of Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The disease got its name from an adjoining river where the disease broke out in the Democratic Republic…. [read more]

Western Africa Ebola Epidemic ) Essay

… An understanding of social structures and institutions in Western Africa is essential to help health care workers contribute to the minimization or elimination of Ebola. Rural communities have several features that are absent in urban communities or communities outside of Western Africa. For instance, there may be a strong emphasis on and belief in sorcery, witchcraft and the supernatural among community members that can impact the efficacy of healthcare interventions. Likewise, there may be a lack of authority or infrastructure in health care. Belief in sorcery and witchcraft can be "problematic," but these beliefs do not necessarily need to interfere with treatment interventions and attempts to prevent the spread of the disease (Hewlett & Hewlett, 2005, p. 291). Culturally sensitive communication and education is necessary…. [read more]

Ebola Virus Description, Symptoms Essay

… Symptoms and conditions

The duration of the incubation period for Ebola virus varies between 2 to up till 21 days depending on the severity of the virus. The symptoms of the virus include severe headache and joint pains, high fever, sore throat, weakness and muscular pains. These are then followed by a decline in health with vomiting, diarrhea and stomach aches. There can also be found red eyes, external as well as internal bleeding, constant hiccups and other such symptoms.

There however lies a mystery as to how some patients fight back and recover from Ebola HF while the condition for others deteriorate to an extent that they are unable to survive and eventually die (Geisbert et al.,1992).

Diagnosis and Treatment

The diagnosis for the…. [read more]

Ebola Outbreak in US Term Paper

… Biology

The Ebola Virus

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the book "The Hot Zone" by Richard Preston. Specifically it will discuss the realities of an Ebola virus outbreak in the United States. "The Hot Zone" discusses the Ebola virus, a deadly virus that has spread to many areas in the world through monkeys imported from Africa. When it first became know, it was difficult to recognize and almost impossible to treat because doctors did not recognize it or know how to treat it. Compounding the difficulties are the several different types of Ebola viruses and their differing treatments and diagnosis makes these viruses extremely difficult to treat and control. Ebola is deadly, there is no real treatment for it, and…. [read more]

Southeast Asia SARS Outbreak of 2003 Term Paper

… Southeast Asia SARS outbreak of 2003: The anatomy of an epidemic.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome or SARS is a viral respiratory illness that emerged as a serious global threat to health in March 2003. It first appeared in Southern China in November 2002. The illness was to spread to over a dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before it was contained. (Basic Information About SARS)

While the epidemic has been contained yet it raises a number of important issues that will be discussed in the paper. These include the question of the genesis and origins of the virus and the consequences, in both the short and long terms, of SARS as one of a number of previously unknown viral infections affecting…. [read more]

Analyzing the Ebola Virus Essay

… ¶ … Biological Terms Used

Apoptosis: denotes a programmed cell disintegration process, occurring in multicellular life forms.

Coagulopathy: represents a condition wherein the blood's clotting ability gets impaired.

Lymphocytes: a type of small white blood cell or leukocyte having a lone round nucleus, found particularly in lymphatic systems.

Malaise: general discomfort, uneasiness, or illness, whose precise cause cannot be easily identified.

Myalgia: muscular pain.

Parenteral: Common kinds of injections such as intravenous (injected into veins), intramuscular (injected into muscles), and subcutaneous (injected under skin).

Septic shock: Complication associated with an infection in which toxins trigger full-body inflammation.

Basic Background Information on Ebola

The Ebola virus comes under the Filoviridae or Filovirus family of viruses, which cause profuse internal and external bleeding or hemorrhagic fever. The…. [read more]

Policy the State Response Essay

… The state's role will be to maintain a sense of calm among the public, and ensure that the members of the public are adequately educated about the risks, and about preventing Ebola from spreading, should it enter the community. Combined with the mandate for fiscal restraint, and the state should adopt the first alternative. It is recommended as well that funds could be made available on a contingent basis just in case there is an outbreak. Such an event will likely be contained within a health care facility, and the funds would be used to ensure that the facility is handling the outbreak effectively.

Overall, this policy reflects the balance between fiscal responsibility, public perception, and genuinely protecting the health issues of the community. When…. [read more]

Contagious Disease and Its Impact on Society Term Paper

… Contagious Disease and Its Impact on Society

The movie Outbreak chronicles the fictional events of an ebola-like virus, known as Motaba, which is contracted from an African monkey which has been illegally smuggled into the United States and spreads within a town known as Cedar Creek (Petersen, 1995). Ebola, a member of the family Filoviridae, is a highly lethal virus whose infection is characterized by the onset of hemorrhagic fever (Cavendish, 2007; Groseth, Feldmann, & Strong, 2007; Preston, 2009). Among the symptoms of ebola infection are extensive hemorrhaging internally and from external orifices and severe fever, headache, and general confusion (Cavendish, 2007; Preston, 2009). Due to the high lethality of Ebola, up to 90%, and the lack of available treatments, it is classified as a…. [read more]

Policy Proposal the Public Essay

… When Nigeria was declared free of Ebola, the list of agencies and bodies involved in the containment effort was very long, highlighting the need for a plan to be in place prior to any cases so that coordination of efforts among these bodies is smooth (Kroll, 2014).

The third reason is that communication is very important in containing the spread of Ebola and maintaining the social order. The more educated the public is about the disease, the less likely that there will be destabilizing panic, and the more likely that people will understand the dynamics of its spread. Containment requires the cooperation of everybody, all stakeholders, and with that in mind it is necessary that some sort of response policy should be developed.


Kroll,…. [read more]

flows of freight have of late Essay

… ¶ … flows of freight have of late been a critical element of the modern changes in the financial and economic systems at the local, regional and global scales. Looking at these changes one must only do so at quantitative, structural, and operational levels. Structural changes largely entail manufacturing systems with their production geography, while operational changes largely involve freight transportation and its distribution geography. Thus, the key question not only involves the nature, and movements of freights, but also the manner in which this freight is moving (Hesse & Rodrigue, 2004).

The multifaceted perspectives of friction in view of modern supply chain management involve a number of factors. Hesse and Rodrigue (2004) noted that transport expenses, the intricacies of the supply chain, the physical…. [read more]

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UNHCR…. [read more]

Christopher Columbus - Hero or Villain? Research Paper

… Christopher Columbus

Although may concede he was not the first man to reach the Americas, there is no doubt that the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Caribbean and North America in 1492 was a seminal moment in world history that completely changed the historical arc and path of both the Americas as well as that of Europe. While the net result over the ensuing centuries has largely been positive, the slave trading and imperialism that occurred from 1492 until the 1900's had some very negative and long-reaching effects. While many hold that 1492 was the genesis of what has since grown to be the modern area, it was also the starting point for a lot of suffering and/or displacement for Africans as well as…. [read more]

Police Officers Essay

… Police officers must well verse in popular communication techniques. Communication is an essential function of a police officer's role. The ability to effectively communicate strategy, knowledge, or insights is critical to protecting the public at large. Many individuals make the mistake of believing speech is the only form of communication. However, body language and tone are also very important as it relates to communication. Offices must be aware of their tone and body language when conducting themselves with various individuals. As mentioned above, officers are in constant interaction with the community. It is therefore required that officers have varied forms of communications to better interact with different individuals. Communication with the Attorney General for example, will be different than individuals within a gang. By having…. [read more]

Hot Zone, by Richard Preston Term Paper

… As such, Preston's book is ultimately a positive influence that helps to improve the mainstream audience's understanding of emerging infectious disease, but this positive influence is undermined by the book's often sensationalistic approach and inaccuracies.

Works Cited

AnnOnline. Biography: Richard Preston. Copyright © 1998-2001, SaraDippity Productions, Inc. 28 march 2004.

Eckardt, Steve. Review: The Hot Zone By Richard Preston. ZMagazine. 27 March 2004.

Jost, Amy. A review of Richard Preston's the Hot Zone. 28 March 2004.

Maloney, Chris. The Hot Zone: Reviewed 5/16/1999. 28 March 2004.

Matthews, Connie Kargus. Review: The Hot Zone, Richard Preston, Doubleday, New York, 1995. 28 March 2004.

Preston, Richard. 1995. The Hot Zone. Anchor.

Shell. Library Books, The Hot Zone by Richard Preston. 27…. [read more]

Asian Tourism Critical Issues Research Paper

… Quite often, people will engage in travel just because of the permissiveness or at least lax law enforcement of certain areas. Some countries react by being overly sensitive about more minor things and this is a study in futility. Again, the Asia Pacific region is certainly better than the bottom third of countries in terms of crime and culturally-accepted depravity. Further, even the United States has a modicum of forced servitude up to and including sweatshops and sex trafficking venues. However, it is not nearly as "above board" as it used to be and it is shut down immediately when it is spotted. Even so, the border and visa systems of the United States quite porous and they are feeling the effects of that allowance…. [read more]

Health Care Practice Term Paper

… Health Care

The Black Plague killed an estimated forty percent of the population of Europe between 1347 and 1427; with some cities and villages experiencing seventy or eighty percent mortality (Herlihy 2, 43). Out of its ashes rose a new understanding of medical science, the European renaissance, as well as a powerful respect for disease. Over five hundred years later Western scientists, armed with post World War II technology, seemed prepared to rid the world of any disease that could threaten humanity. Yet, despite the new weaponry on the side of humans and the heightened optimism of the time, new plagues seemed ready to meet the challenge -- medical science was the real underdog. During the twentieth century western medicine has gone through several phases,…. [read more]

Spread? Classification of the Influenza Term Paper

… As the resistance increases, so does the pressure on the virus to develop a new variant strain, which, in other words, is referred to as the 'antigenic drift'. If all these newly formed and slightly different viruses have the capability of entering a living creature as a virus infection, then they end up being the cause of endlessly repeating epidemics. However, when this happens, the result is that the resistance to these viruses increases, and at the end of, for example, ten years, an entire population becomes immune to the virus and can resist the onset of the virus. What happens now is that 'antigenic shift' or genetic reassortment happens and an entirely different and new form of the original virus is ready to spread.…. [read more]

Bioterrorism Attack in U.S Term Paper

… ¶ … commencement of the Attack

On the 1st of December 2003, from the shores of Nigeria, 3 people boarded a plane for Hawaii. Ismaile, Tariq and Hussein had been knowingly carrying the deadly disease of the Ebola virus, which the Nigerian authorities had failed to detect at the airport. Ismaile, Tariq and Hussein, soon became friendly and made quick acquaintances with everyone on the plane.

After the 7-hour flight, the three Nigerians, like all other passengers went through the same health procedure, this time the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Quarantine Station in Honolulu warned the passengers about a possible Ebola affected passenger on the plane, however, due to the negligence of the authorities, none of the passengers had been apprehended for a formal…. [read more]

Goal of Their Ethical Calling Term Paper

… Quite often, the courts declined to apply this law to a physician's refusal to treat, such as in Bragdon v Abbott in 1998 when the Supreme Court decided that asymptomatic HIV was a disability. In the case, the dentist refused to fill a cavity because the patient has HIV but without symptoms. The patient sued the dentist under the ADA and the Supreme Court ruled that health care providers had the legal obligation to treat (even) HIV infected patients because HIV was considered a disability (Katz and Paul). The American Medical Association issued a similar position.

Both ethical and legal opinions and inclinations went against a physician's intentionally and unilaterally discontinuing or refusing a patient relationship, unless the physician could provide the patient reasonable notice…. [read more]

Governmental Agency, CDC, Regulates Governs Essay

… The activities of the agency are organized into functional units or locations comprising of workers well versed in such segments. Health committees are a common strategy in addressing the various activities of the agency hence the constant alignment of the activities into such important programs. The committees normally draw representation from several support areas both from the employees and their supervisors. While recognizing the need for employee participation in decision making, the agency fosters strong commitment and support of its activities from its employees. In the same vein, the amount of influence the employees command in the agency is normally a function of their authority and expertise in their respective roles. Specialization is therefore a core concern in the management of CDC. In the countries…. [read more]

History of Quarantine in the United States Research Paper

… History Of Quarantine in the United States

In 1966, during the summer season the U.S.A. congress closed the debate and passed an approval of construction of a laboratory that would be used to confine the astronauts and their baggage that they shall have brought back from the moon. The congress approved the NASA's budget in 1966 and the laboratory was completed in 1967 September. This was a major step forward in the history of USA quarantine system. The center was named Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) located at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; this project came up as a result of fear of back-contamination from the astronauts and the material they carried from the moon.

The process was quite simple, after they were recovered from the…. [read more]

Biological Warfare How Disease or Infection Could Spread Through Population Centers From Urban Entry Point Thesis

… Biological Warfare

Dramatic technological advances in molecular biology over recent decades have significantly increased the possibility of illicit weaponization of biological agents, leading to the increased danger of clandestine and terrorist biological warfare (Ryan & Glarum; Fidler & Gostin; Linden; Petsko). The development of technical innovations allows facile manipulation of bacteria and viruses such that individuals with an undergraduate education in biology-related fields may be capable of engaging in biological weaponization given a sufficiently-equipped laboratory and resources (Lindler, Lebeda, & Korch; Ryan & Glarum; Linden; Petsko). Biological terrorism also need not require any alteration or molecular manipulation of biological agents; rather, certain agents, like smallpox, or toxins derived from biological agents, could simply be released in populated areas (Petsko; Lindler, Lebeda, & Korch; Zilinskas; Fidler…. [read more]

Department of Health and Human Services Thesis

… Department of Health and Human Services: A department of controversy

Ideally, medical science and health policy should be objective disciplines. They should attempt, in the words of the mission statement articulated on the website of the Department of Health and Human Services to improve the health, safety, and well-being of Americans everywhere. However, health policy has been rife with controversy, as it touches upon some of the most intimate aspects of human life, from diet, to drug use, to sexuality. But as the HHS department functions as a cabinet-level office with a secretary chosen by the sitting U.S. President, HHS has often found itself embroiled in controversy. The history of this bureaucratic department highlights how politics and health can never be severed. Although theoretically less…. [read more]

National and International Terrorism Research Paper

… Chemical and Biological Terrorism

Types of weaponry

Geopolitical Change

Domestic Terrorism

Increased proliferation of CBRN

Technological Advances

The Doctrine of Escalation

Definition and use

Chemical Weaponry




Overview- the United States has one of the world's most powerful and technological advanced armed forces ever fielded. Yet, in the modern world of terrorism, military superiority alone is no longer sufficient to ensure the safety of the nation. Most scholars and military planners believe that any terrorist group would favor attacks using chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons (CBRN) (Stimson Research, 2009). Chemical and biological weapons, for instance, share a characteristic distinct from nuclear weapons: fairly easily acquired raw materials (for most pathogens or chemicals) that either have legitimate uses or occur naturally. For example:…. [read more]

Emergent Human Diseases Essay

… Generally, if henipah viruses evolve to be transmitted eagerly through casual contact, there are concerns that it could spread even rapidly and widely even throughout the world.

As noted in the past four decades, any emergent human disease and ecological infectious disease is usually caused by demographical changes and encroachment into wild lands. The failure to take care of the natural world can generally contribute to breakdown of the ecosystems that in turn result in emerging and ecological infectious diseases. The developing model of infectious diseases like SARS and Ebola that have taken place in the past several decades is because of the things people do to nature. Therefore, as it turns out, disease can largely be regarded as an environmental issue since 60% of…. [read more]

Public Health Betrayals a Fascinating Essay

… The show 60 Minutes and its online postings did what it always does to dramatically make its own point about death and dying with the development of The Cost of Dying: End of Life Care. They share with us in raw numbers just how expensive our system is, and why it contributes to the belief that government doesn't work efficiently. A particular quote is poignant:

Last year, Medicare paid $55 billion just for doctor and hospital bills during the last two months of patients' lives. That's more than the budget for the Department of Homeland Security, or the Department of Education. And it has been estimated that 20 to 30% of these medical expenses may have had no meaningful impact. Most of the bills are…. [read more]

Media Influence in the Bu Essay

… In another part of her article O'Brien presents the following statement about BSL-4 labs, "Furthermore, research sometimes focuses on engineering weaponized organisms, making them even more deadly. These facilities test diseases known to cause epidemics and kill thousands." Although it is true that during part of her article she does touch upon some of the safety procedures and regulations involved during testing, she fails to report on the very low level accidents that have actually occurred in BSL-4 during several decades of testing. Using phrases like the ones above tend to scare people, and when people are scared views and perceptions become skewed.

Reporters try to inform people on current events while at the same time providing a service that is invaluable to some. They…. [read more]

NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.