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Economics When the U.S. Economy Plunged Term Paper

… Economics

When the U.S. economy plunged into recession in the second half of 2008, there was considerable concern north of the border in Canada about the prospects for that nation's economy. The two countries are the largest trading partners in the world, and it has long been viewed that the Canadian economy depended on exports to the United States. Indeed, this relationship has driven Canadian monetary policy for decades, with the CAD being kept at low levels to facilitate the export industries. Last summer, the CAD was at highs not seen in many years, which combined with the impending U.S. recession was cause for significant worry.

The impacts of the recession, however, have not been felt as strongly in Canada as they have in the…. [read more]


War and Death Research Paper

… War and Death

When considering the causes and outcomes of war, oftentimes it can be helpful to compare and contrast seemingly disparate cases, because this comparison can often reveal underlying processes, strategies, and assumptions that would have remained hidden otherwise. This is why, for example, one may consider the United States' more recent occupations of Iraq and Afghanistan alongside its actions in the Korean War; though these cases are separated by a substantial expanse of time, examining the causes behind these conflicts as well as the effects reveals that the conception of warfare as a means of statecraft has not changed substantially in the intervening time. This leads one inevitably to reconsider the state of South and North Korea's relationship today, because these two actors…. [read more]


Disrupting America's Economic System Term Paper

… The U.S. Treasury, led by Andrew Shaw, subsidized these gold flows by offering to temporarily place public deposits in banks if they imported gold from abroad.

The policy lowered the gold import point by offsetting the interest lost while gold was in transit. Goodhart [1969], however, notes that the gold import point was often low enough to have justified specie inflows without the subsidy. In the fixed exchange rate world of 1906, such large gold outflows were a significant threat to a country's ability to maintain the par value of its currency, which, for the pound sterling, was $4.867.

Faced with its lowest ratio of reserves to deposits since the 1893 crisis, the Bank of England nearly doubled its discount rate, from 3 1/2% on…. [read more]


U.S. Sanctions Economic Term Paper

… (Hufbauer, 1997)

To supplement family incomes, children in sanctioned countries often leave school to seek employment, increasing school drop-out rates. Meanwhile women burdened with greatly increased household responsibilities face increasing difficulties in providing care for themselves and their families. Women's reproductive health and pre-natal care also suffers from the general decline in health services due to sanctions ill-effects. In Iraq, the proportion of babies born with low-birth-weight more than quadrupled (to 22%) between 1990 and 1995. In Haiti contraceptives, not considered essential drugs until 1993, were in short supply during the sanctioned period. (Hufbauer, 1997)

In summary, sanctions can seriously compromise the survival of all civilians, particularly children. Despite humanitarian exemptions, recent examples from Haiti, Iraq and Yugoslavia demonstrate the damaging effects of sanctions. If…. [read more]


Role of Private Investment on Economic Development in Iraq Literature Review

… Role of Private Investment on Economic Development in Iraq

Private investment in developing countries

An overview on early Empirical studies

In 1980s, the developing countries encountered some increment in their development behaviours with debt crisis, which affected the formation of capital. Concurrently, the affected countries were transforming from the post-era to a structural reform efforts. In mid 1980s, the developing countries adopted the reform programs within the new paradigms (Serven&Salimano, 1993) & (Jaspersen, Aylward&Sumlinski, 1970). Consequently, this led to the formation of environmental private sector that highly relied on the existing market. The formation and implementation of the new policies affected the availability of response to the private investments. The debt crisis lowered the private investments within the developing countries and this disheartened them. The…. [read more]


Social Impact of Cold War Essay

… Innocent civilians are often at extreme risk in the battles for gathering information or in the battles run by remote. In an interesting way, it might also be seen that this kind of distance campaign strategy is like the way some see the U.S. As contributing to the near collapse of the world economy. The U.S.'s lax financial rules and regulations pulled in other countries and set them up for many of the challenges they now face -- many of which are bringing about social and cultural unrest. It clearly would not be difficult for terrorists or even other nations to see this as an extension of the type of attitude that America picked up when it did its victory dance after the melting of…. [read more]


Economic Impact of the War in Iraq Term Paper

… Economic Impact of the War in Iraq

Because the war in Iraq continues, determining the effect of the war on the United States economy is somewhat difficult. In addition, there are several complicating factors, such as the war in Afghanistan, domestic unease with the President that is not solely linked to war-time issues, and the fact that the U.S. is still struggling to recover financially and emotionally from a devastating terrorist attack, which make it difficult to isolate the war's impact on the economy. Even more complicating is the fact that the United States has a history of economic stimulation during wars, which makes it easy for people to falsely attribute unrelated economic upswings to wartime activity. Therefore, any examination of the impact of the…. [read more]


Iraq War- Why America Term Paper

… If anyone had ever paid a visit to Iraq, he could see how poor the country was and how it lacked basic amenities. America could have sent humanitarian help to the country if it was sincere in its desire to help the people there. Instead what it did was attack the poor country and Iraqi civilians simply to prove a point i.e. America can attack any region anytime it pleases and doesn't even need to give a reason for its attack.

The pictures released last week have created given rise to extreme fury and passionate debates around the world regarding America's double standards when it comes to human rights violations. If Saddam was hurting his own people, America wanted him out of the country- captured…. [read more]


Economic Strategies in the Middle East What Emerging Strategy Is Winning Term Paper

… Economic Strategies in the Middle East: What Emerging Strategy Is Winning?

This paper analyzes the drivers of economic growth in five Middle Eastern countries: Israel, Qatar, Dubai, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Despite the disparate nature of their economic and political strategies, all five countries are enjoying significant growth.

The strategies for growth are analyzed according to a set of indicators which indicate the future trajectory of these countries' growth rates, and the sources for this economic growth.

The paper concludes that four of the five countries will continue to enjoy significant growth rates. Saudi Arabia, however, will continue to struggle despite high demand and high prices for its primary extractive resources.

As knowledge-based industries and political stability grow in the other four countries, they should…. [read more]


Was Operation Iraqi Freedom a Legitimate and Just War? Research Paper

… Iraqi War

Operation Iraqi Freedom: A legitimate and just war?

The United States of America invaded Iraq in 2003 under the direction of President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Tony Blair of the United Kingdom (Gordon 2006). The foundational information that is said to have precipitated the action was the idea that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction which purportedly threatened the security of regions held by allies of the United States and the United Kingdom (Gordon 2006). The United Nations Security Council in 2002 passes Resolution 1441 which required Iraq to adhere to the rules of the United Nations and determine that they were not in possession of cruise missiles or other weapons of mass destruction. There was no evidence found that truly…. [read more]


Globalized World in the Modern Term Paper

… Globalized World

In the modern world, advances in shipping, travel and information have all brought about a certain type of global community. However, the development of globalization has not necessarily created a world that is safer, more equal, or more stable than the world it replaced. Globalization has, in fact, increased the divide between the richest and poorest portions of the world. Developing nations - sometimes referred to as third world nations - are at a severe disadvantage when it comes to global trade, diplomacy, and power. Yet as the planet begins to reach its carrying capacity of human beings, and precious world resources become scarce, the significance of third world nations in foreign policy will exponentially grow. The globalized world of the immediate future…. [read more]


Cold War a Critical Debate Term Paper

… This policy certainly helped in increased production but it did not cause desirable progression in the industrial sector for two main reasons. The first reason was that managers of projects could not deliver. The greed and self-interest prevailed over the interest of state and secondly the state preferred the production of military hardware which was not a good economic choice for the growth and sustenance of large industrial sector. (Stearns)

The comparison of above two models reveals that consumerism promised rapid growth of economy as well as the public welfare, but on the other hand, productionism led to stagnant economy and no public welfare. In the long run United States benefitted immensely whereas it had devastating effects on USSR.

Deprivations of Third World Countries. In…. [read more]


Cuban Trade Embargo Term Paper

… After all, with the void left by the powerhouse that was the Soviet Union, Cuba is forced to attempt an entry into the global economy without the benefit of trade (either way) with the nation that many consider to be the force that drives the emerging globalized economy itself -- the United States. Not only does this place Cuba in the position of having to resort to unnatural trade (in defiance of free global trade) with higher cost imports, but the United States must lose opportunities to import and export goods and services to Cuba. Indeed, many have described the Cuban embargo as "porous," allowing other nations to benefit from the desperation of the Cubans. Not only does this fly in the face of the…. [read more]


War and Business Term Paper

… War and Business

Talking about war might seem to be a very general attempt: wars have animated the history and have contributed to the development of civilizations; wars have led to the appearance and delimitation of countries and have woken the national conscience in people's minds. At a first glance, when mentioning all these steps which have been followed in the flow of history, wars seem to be a necessary evil; but history itself is the one which can prove the contrary as well: millions of people killed, huge spendings, disappearance of civilizations and many undesired events.

In my opinion, wars should not be studied and I have the possibility to bring two arguments in favor of my statement: first of all, the war is…. [read more]


War in Iraq the Conflict Term Paper

… War in Iraq

The conflict between Iraq and a coalition of thirty-four nations led by the United States of America is generally referred to as the 'Persian Gulf War', the 'Gulf War', the 'War in the Gulf', the 'Iraq Kuwaiti Conflict', the UN Iraq Conflict', the Desert Storm', the '1990 Gulf War', and so on. The war started when Iraq invaded Kuwait during the month of August 1990. When this happened, the immediate result was that of the passing of various economic sanctions on the part of the UN, or the United Nations, against Iraq. By the month of January 1991, hostilities had commenced in full swing, and what resulted was a complete victory for the coalition forces, which in turn forced Iraq out of…. [read more]


War on Terrorism Research Paper

… War on Terrorism:

Though it has been used since the beginning of recorded history, it is relatively hard to define terrorism. However, terrorism is a planned use of illegitimate violence to instill fear, targeted to intimidate government or societies in the hunt of goals that are generally political or religiously motivated by sub-national groups or undercover agents. Terrorism can also be defined as planned violence that is politically motivated aimed against non-battalion targets by national groups with an intention of causing psychological impacts on a large audience.

This kind of violence tends to function in small units and make the most use of home-based bombs, car bombs and other arsenals uncharacteristic of military workforce like in the case of the September 11, 2001 attack. As…. [read more]


War on Terror the Conflict in Afghanistan Thesis

… War on Terror

The conflict in Afghanistan has fundamental and historical origins that have been eclipsed in importance and interest by the larger and more controversial war in Iraq. One of the most fundamental issues at hand in Afghanistan and a large reason why conflict is still so fierce there is that the U.S. supported regime a tribal coalition of "mujahidin" or "Islamic warriors" had been successful in forcing the Soviet Union to withdraw after a lengthy war but had been unable to hold the nation together, which resulted in the takeover of the nation by the Taliban has largely been reinstated into positions of power in the nation. (Jalali, 2006, p. 4) the "mujahidin" though popular proved better fighters than rulers. Accusations of mismanagement…. [read more]


Consequences of Imperialism for Four Term Paper

… European Imperialism brought about considerable changes in the regions of both Africa and Asia. In the beginning, the Europeans had restricted themselves to trading both goods and slaves. But with the passage of time, Africa was broken up into regions without the consent of its people. After the end of the French Colonial rule, Africa had occupied an integral position in the French foreign policy.

The unique status of Africa in French foreign policy can to a large extent be explained by the fact that Paris thinks it has a special global mission, a so-called mission civilisatrice which stresses the promotion of French culture and French language overseas. Africa has had a special position in this context, as the region has been one of the…. [read more]


Economic Instability and Ethnic and Religious Unrest Term Paper

… economic instability and ethnic & religious unrest in Turkey

Despite its glorious past and the individual strengths of the different peoples who have been brought together in the modern nation of Turkey, the country is currently faced with a number of problems. Among the most important and daunting challenges currently facing the country are growing ethnic strife, religious discord that - in the wake of the events of last September seem all the more terrible - and substantial economic structural weaknesses. This paper focuses on the last of these three problems - while recognizing that economic instability and ethnic and religious unrest are of course in fact intimately related to each other. In particular, this paper examines recent economic conditions in Turkey, how the particular…. [read more]


Economic Development and Trade Term Paper

… (Justin Lin, 1998)(i)

To further the economic development and trade the developed countries can also be of significant help to the developing countries. The international institutions and agencies can facilitate the process of power and wealth diffusion. The development efforts made by the International institutions should be focused on helping the start up and small businesses, of the developing countries, finance themselves so they may gain power in comparison to the discriminatory governments of these countries and not support such governments which try to centralize power and wealth in the hands of a limited group. For most of the businesses in the developing countries as well as the international institutions any such move will be difficult because usually it is usually a legal requirement that…. [read more]


Economic Consequences of War in Iraq Research Proposal

… ¶ … Consequences of the Iraq War

Military action has not only aggravated a humanitarian crisis, but also had major economic, legal, political, strategic and military repercussions in Iraq. This paper will summarize the economic reasons and consequences of the war. Pre-war speculation that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction, that he would set fire to Iraq's oil fields or attack Israel with rockets have never proven true, but the resultant fighting in Iraq has had serious economic results in both the U.S. And in Iraq, leading to a generally weakened world economy.

Oil production in Iraq has always been a source of conflict since the day it was discovered, igniting arguments within and without the country. Since Iraq was invaded and occupied in…. [read more]


U.S. Invaded Iraq in 2003 Essay

… These are some of the basic reasons that Bush advocated for and intended the U.S. To take stern action against the state of Iraq under the leadership of Saddam Hussein.

Moreover, the occurrence of the incursion was aimed at changing regime to fit the U.S. neocons, and promoting American interests in a rich country, but wars are fought for balance of power and not for idealistic reasons. In addition to that, the U.S. being the sole superpower thought that by invading Iraq, Iran and other unfriendly countries seeking nuclear weapons would stop their attempts. Other motives of the invasion were to secure the Israeli position in the Middle East.

The 2003 incursion in Iraq occurred between mid March and late April. This started a reign…. [read more]


U.S. Invasion of Iraq- Reasons Essay

… 1. Economic Reason

The economic factors played a pivotal role in compelling United States to invade Iraq. It is believed by many intellectuals that the motives of war announced by the U.S. government had nothing to do with the invasion of Iraq. The only factor that compelled Iraq's invasion by America was to get hold on its oil reserves. Many people believe that the invasion of Iraq has benefitted only those rich people involved in oil industry sector who supported President Bush (The Debate 2002).

Many intellectuals have even concluded that invasion of Iraq was just for the benefit of American oil companies (Zunes 2004). At the start of the 20th century, America was experiencing a rise in its import reliance in an ever-tense oil…. [read more]


Military War or Campaign Research Paper

… State interests come in several ways. For instance, Americans need stability of economy, absence of threats and invasions, together with peaceful coexistence with other nations. When all these were put in front with the looming of the Gulf War, it was hard for the nation and citizens to decide on how towards establishing an equitable procedure and action to be taken. All these and many other aspects of war made the U.S. employ a paradoxical love-hate relationship with the Gulf War.

How this relationship influences American warfare

When the Gulf War broke, the United States of America had to seek ways of coping with every negative effect that were to be exemplified. Most Americans had no courage and intention of participating in the war. Nonetheless,…. [read more]


International Political Economics the Impact of UN Peacekeeper Corruption Term Paper

… International Political Economics: The Impacts of UN Peacekeeper Corruption

International political economy tries to understand global and international problems through a diverse interdisciplinary arrangement of theoretical perspectives and analytical tools. International political economy focuses on the constant breakdown of disciplinary boundaries amid politics and economics. it's not easy to image a world devoid of international political economy since the mutual interaction of international economics and international relations is prevalent. The political activities of nations apparently influence international business and the flow of money, which consequently affects the environment in which nations make political preferences, and entrepreneurs make economic preferences.

It appears impracticable to put into consideration significant questions regarding international economics or international politics in devoid of taking into consideration their mutual effects and influences.…. [read more]


Persian Gulf War Effects Term Paper

… S. economy greater extent than a stochastic growth model (which assumes a perfectly competitive product market).

Finn (2000) shows that perfectly competitive model can also explain the effect of oil price shocks. He uses the concept of utilization rates for productive capital. The main idea of his model comes from the relationship between energy usage and capital services. Specifically, energy is essential to obtain the service flow from capital. Capital utilization rates are determined by energy use. Due to the oil price shocks, the decline of energy use reduces output and labour's marginal product, leading to a decline in wages and labour supplied. According to him, an oil price shock is like an adverse technology shock in inducing a contraction in economic activity.

Kling (1985)…. [read more]


Battlefield Contractors Essay

… 4).

Adding to his distaste for the huge number of mercenary private security forces the Pentagon has hired is evidence that some of those security forces have violent histories. For example, a former British Army soldier was working for the coalition forces in Iraq, but why had he been kicked out of the British Army? He had been jailed for "…cooperating with Irish terrorists" (Singer, p. 5). Another private contractor admitted to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa that he had "…firebombed the houses of thirteen political activists"; apparently he hired on as a mercenary soldier "…so that he wouldn't be prosecuted for the planned murder of a number of political activists to which he had confessed" (Singer, p. 5).

In terms of…. [read more]


Iraq the War Term Paper

… For instance, Bennis notes that the Bush administration had planned early on to occupy the sovereign nation in an overt take-over. Bennis cites the obvious economic benefits to the United States of such a take-over, such as access to or control over oil reserves and their related profits throughout "Understanding the U.S.-Iraq Crisis." Most critics of the U.S. war in Iraq suggest that at least part of the motives for the invasion was to secure financial gain. The Bush administration cleverly clouded its intentions by claiming to deliver a message of freedom and liberty, to purport protecting the Iraqi people from terrorist regimes, and to promote peace. Such assertions seem laughable today in light of the current conditions in Iraq, and few can comfortably say…. [read more]


War Versus Pollution Research Proposal

… ¶ … War on Pollution of the Environment

INTRODUCTION & STUDY OBJECTIVE

War with all that is entailed in such conflicts has a powerful environmental impact due to the pollution generated during war. These impacts include environmental pollution on land, in the sea, and in the air. The objective of this work is to examine the impact that war has on pollution of the environment.

GULF WAR POLLUTION

It is reported in a Greenpeace Briefing of February 2003 that the impacts to the environment of the Gulf War "were tremendous." During that Gulf War there were a reported six to eight million barrels of oil "deliberately poured into the Persian Gulf, causing the world's largest oil spill." (Greenpeace, 2003) More than 600 Kuwait oil wells…. [read more]

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