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Economic Growth Between U.S Case Study

… S., which was also among the pioneers for the money system and the banking industry. This paved way to the development of the modern banking in both U.S. As well as England as people who began to exchange credits for goods and services, the banks were establish in order to stabilize the money sources. It also lead to the development of almost five hundred towns since the people of United States heavily rely on trading and business as source of their livelihood. The middle class economy also grew as feudalism system declined and on the other hand, money came to be viewed as a source of power, this was later to be known as the foundation of modern day capitalism.

Economists have argued that international…. [read more]


China and the World Trade Capstone Project

… However, during the late 1990's, Chinese companies sought listings and raised billions of dollars on overseas equity markets (Lardy, 2001).

Large Chinese companies, including China Mobile, PetroChina, Unicom, and Sinopec collectively raised more than $15 billion through equity sales in New York and Hong Kong in 2000.

Still, this was not enough. China was still not fully integrated into the world economy. High tariffs and various nontariff barriers kept the Chinese economy from being fully involved in international competition.

At this time, China controlled imports by placing limits on the "type and number of companies authorized to carry out international transactions; imposing onerous inspection and safety licensing requirements on imports; developing technical standards designed in part to protect domestic industries; discriminating against foreign goods in…. [read more]


China's Improving Economy Suspected Problems Term Paper

… China's government invested contracts are expected to increase and multiply at an incredible rate this year.

CHINA'S MOST SURPRISING TURN

The most surprising investment China is participating in is the telecommunications market. Advanced telecommunications, such as cell phones, computers, (DSL, internet), and satellite dishes are extensions of highly developed communities, and considered to be luxuries. For a nation with an extreme low level of development, investment in such advanced technologies and telecommunications is a major step forward. Participation in the telecomm industry is probably the most beneficial investment, making the biggest contribution to China's economic productivity. (Xinha News, 2002)

Although, in America, certain aspects of telecommunication products are considered luxuries, these advanced technologies enhances the productivity and the speed of financial economic growth. Banks funds…. [read more]


Relationship Between Population Growth and Economic Development Term Paper

… Economics

Relationship Between Population Growth

And Economic Development

This report aims to discuss some of the relationships between population growth and economic development. Economic growth is an objective of every nation in this highly globalized economy. Every African, Asian and European nation would love to mimic the United States and China in the sense of economic production. As each nation attempts to grow their own Gross Domestic Product, one would think that each and every citizen of those growing nations would directly benefit in direct proportion to growth. The Gross Domestic Product has most often been used as one of the world's economic growth and well-being indicators. The Gross Domestic Product is used because it represents a total value of all products and services bought…. [read more]


Economic Development Is a Key Term Paper

… System of incentivizing workers to increase productivity was also introduced.

(Chenery) in a comparative framework for assessing performance of China in comparison to other developing countries says that China has achieved the adequate industrial structure and investment structure of a middle-income country. The author says, "In the case of China, industrialization has proceeded much further than is typical for countries of its income level." The author also attributes slow population growth in the country as a factor to achieve economic growth. Moreover he gives credit to the autarkic policies followed over three decades in China for its industrial growth.

China now has a per capita gross national income of about U.S.$4,260 (World Bank). It stands in the queue of upper middle-income countries. Now the country…. [read more]


China's Economic Reform an Examination Term Paper

… The problem is not small either; in fact, between 100 to 150 million surplus rural workers remain unemployed or underemployed, with many of them subsisting only through part-time and low-paying jobs (China Economy 4). China's accession to the World Trade Organization, though, better positioned the country to take advantage of its existing competitive advantage but some observers caution that this initiative will add further fuel to the social fires that are already burning throughout the country (China Economy 5). In fact, Li (2003) suggests that the long-term costs of delaying badly needed constitutional reforms may ultimately outweigh the short-term gains in the country's economic performance.

Conclusion

The research showed that China in general, and regions such as Guangdong in particular, have reaped the benefits of…. [read more]


Economics of International Trade China Essay

… There are a number of reasons for keeping the value of the yuan low. One reason is that the yuan remains competitive in the market, ensuring for cheaper production practices and greater power in the export market. To continue to grow this competitive position, China has also gone to invest in the dollar. China is one of the United States' biggest creditors, and has invested trillions in foreign reserves of American currency. According to the research, the "Chinese must ensure that these dollars are not eventually sold on the foreign exchange markets because that would drive down the relative price of the U.S. currency, making American goods more competitive in Chinese and global markets -- the one thing our 'trading partner' never wants to happen"…. [read more]


China and Globalization Three Research Essay

… All of these activities come under the classification of bribery for purposes of lubrication. Extortion is the demand for bribes from government officials as a cost of establishing or continuing a business, and both of these are illegal under U.S. law (FCPA 1977). In Chinese culture, the art of building connections or relationships (guanxi) may not necessarily follow the same ethical and legal standards as the West. Obtaining favoritism through lubrication means making payments or giving gifts requesting that "a person perform a task faster or more efficiently, whereas subornation is an act of asking officials to neglect their duties or do something illegal," which is a crime in China (Wang and Leung, 2001, p. 105). Of course, making payments of giving gifts in return…. [read more]


China Largest Country in World Essay

… 5% GDP growth during 2009 (the heart of the recession). As a result, this is an indication that the economy is moving towards privatization and improving economic development. ("Columbia," 2011)

The two Asian countries that we will be examining include Japan and South Korea. As far as Japan is concerned, they have: an inflation rate of -.7%, interest rates of .3% and an exchange rate of 87.78. When you compare this to the U.S., both countries are considered to be mixed economies. The high levels of trade between the two have meant that Japan was affected by slowing demand in the U.S. This caused their economy to experience a contraction of -6.3% during 2009. As a result, both nations are moving towards increased private ownership.…. [read more]


Economic Crisis Policies US Current Research Paper

… S. money market back to its operations by assuming that U.S. financial system had enough liquidity to expand the market operations. Fed Reserve accepted the less credit worthy securities as collateral and held safe U.S. treasuries to keep the money supply constant. These were later termed as "toxic waste removal" policies.

Fed Reserve introduces another set of program by taking over multinational insurance company American International Group (AIG) on September 2008. This program was implemented through option of purchasing asset backed commercial paper from money market mutual funds. This policy was termed as Quantitative easing by Bernake.

Discussion

First the U.S. economic crisis was only of real estate and later on it developed into global financial crisis. If it is to be judged that Fed…. [read more]


Economic Integration of GCC Countries: Latest Developments Since 2010 Essay

… This indicator is inopportune when focusing on other indicators.

There is also a dangerous debt in non-oil producing countries. They have no choice but to implement the policies. Countries like Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Oman are facing pressing challenges when it comes to labor. In these countries, national workforce has been rendered inopportune to deliver since foreign labor (with better services at cheaper rates) especially from India and Africa have recently flocked the labor market. Therefore, GCC is currently pursuing policies, which will seek to replace foreign workers with local workers. To accomplish this, GCC is advising member states to pursue a combination of mandatory of market-based and as well, policies which will seek to promote non-oil economic growth.

Although the population of the GCC…. [read more]


Economic Systems Term Paper

… Resource allocation issues in market or free enterprise economic system are addressed without any governmental intervention and determined by demand, supply, and competition ("Economic Systems" p.1). Furthermore these issues are handled by the unfettered interaction of individuals and firms in the marketplace that determine resource allocation and distribution of goods. While governmental intervention is minimal in this economic system, the government plays certain roles such as enacting appropriate laws, issuing money, and providing certain services.

Mixed Economic System:

This economic system can be described as an economy with a combination of command and market economic systems to provide goods and services for the benefit of all individuals. Therefore, a mixed economic system is an economy with a mixture of private and government ownership. The main…. [read more]


Economics the Keynesian Economic Theorists Term Paper

… The economic policies imply that the U.S. is ready to reduce trade deficit, find new markets for locally produced goods, increase industry, and manufacturing, increase foreign exchange, increase income through job creation, and reduce unemployment. This leads to a trickle-down effect as a reduction in budget deficit implies a reduction in trade deficit, which in turn will reduce and end currency manipulation by other major currencies like Chinese Yen. The changes in economic policies imply the U.S. will increase regulation and stringent policies on trade, public budgets, jobs, and investment with the aim of ending currency manipulation that is the cause of the decline and near death of American manufacturing.

6)

Protectionists theory on trade policies argue that international trade contributes to the increase of…. [read more]


China and the Economy Chinese Research Paper

… A pro-consumer policy can go a long way to alleviate this dependency. It will allow growth internally in regards to wealth and GDP. Instead of being reliant on foreign consumers, China can instead rely on its internal citizenry. In order to effectively accomplish this task, private enterprise must be allowed to flourish. In addition, through being a more consumer-based country, China is not subject to political and economic unrest within a particular country it exports to.

There are however, complications to this approach. For one, Chinese consumers are more apt to work for SOEs. Through friendship Chinese employees can rise to better positions faster as oppose to their smaller private enterprise counterparts. In addition, consumers believe that SOEs provide a better work environment as they…. [read more]


Economy of China Term Paper

… When there are many SOEs, the government prevents competition. It is through competition that quality in products are improved and it also helps in price control as opposed to when subjected to monopolistic situation where the state is the sole producer of certain commodities or enjoys a bigger market share. Too much SOEs prevent growth and start ups of small enterprises to improve the economy and create more employment opportunities and also denying the government a source of revenue. It further weeds out the entrepreneurial culture among the citizens and put more pressure on the government to be the sole creator of jobs which cannot be realized in a country that has the highest population and a high percentage of the unemployed. This situation subjects…. [read more]


In What Ways Does the Rise of China Affect Australia's National Interest Essay

… China's Growth And Its Effect On Australia

China has gained its stature as one of the economic giants of the 21st century and is spearheading the recovery of the ailing global economy with its steady growth. China and Australia have developed a growing friendship, as complimentary economies with improving bilateral relationships. There is no question of doubt that the growing stature of China is good news for Australia as evinced by the growth in the national income and positive reinvestment climate. However, the changes in the geopolitical climate resulting from a growing China would require some delicate balancing in Australia's relationship with China and its Western allies.

The transformation in global economic scene over the last few years is clearly obvious. China and India are…. [read more]


Economic Conditions and General Dynamics Term Paper

… Since the 1980s, they have risen and moved further away from normal ratios. The female illiteracy rate has been consistently higher than that of men. About 70% of China's 140 million estimated illiterates are women, concentrated in the economically underdeveloped rural regions.

Conclusion:

World growth is forecast to begin recovering from the recession in 2002, with the world GDP will rise by 2.5% in real terms, purchasing power parity rates, before growing by 4.1% in 2003. The U.S. economy has passed its low point and will recover later in 2002. The OECD economies, which are key destinations for China's merchandise exports, are expected to lead the world economic upturn. World trade growth will accelerate from just 0.9% in 2002 to 7% in 2003. Global inflation…. [read more]


Economic Systems of South Korea Term Paper

… The government also fostered development by allowing South Korea to be a destination of several global manufacturers. The government also provided impulses for foreign and local investors through expansion of its network of free trade agreements. This brought change to the country and allowed the economy to grow.

Though South Korea can be seen to rely greatly on exports it makes to emerging countries, the country also reduced its reliance on exports to Japan. This can be seen in the decline of exports to Japan from 11% in the year 2000 to just about 6% in the year 2010. South Korea also decreased its reliance on imports from Japan though they still stood at roughly over 15% in the year 2010 which indicate that Japan…. [read more]


Process of Economic Development Essay

… Economic Development

Role of Geography and institutions in economic development

Over the years, there have been debates on the role that geography of a nation or continent plays in contribution to the economy of a region. On one hand, there are scholars who argue that the geography of a location is central and plays a big role in determining the economy of a region and yet on the other hand, there are those scholars who argue that the economy of a region is mostly determined by the institutions that are within the population and how they are managed by the people in the management positions. Each side of the arguments have been quick to point out a few facts that are in support of their…. [read more]


China and India Economy During the 1950's 1980 Essay

… China and India economy during the 1950's-1980.

Chinese and Indian economy

Development patterns in India and China between 1950 and 1980

India and China are among the leading economic players in the modern day global society. They have constantly played an important role within the society due to their rich cultures, yet in recent years, they have also become international economic powers. In attaining this position however, they have undergone numerous change processes. A notable period to assess the economic developments of the two countries is represented by the decades between 1950 and 1980.

India has historically been a peaceful country, having built a strong economy through work, efforts and fair trade. During the eighteenth century however, it was colonized by Great Britain, which weakened…. [read more]


China's Authoritarian Capitalism Success or Failure Thesis

… China Capitalism

China's Opportunistic Capitalist Evolution

With great certainty, the process of globalization is revealing that there are considerable opportunities to be realized in China, whose economy has displayed a serious robustness and growth rate to be positively compared with any western boom. Thus, the capacity for economic expansion is significant even as the challenges to sound practice are heightened. To the point, an approach to economic capitalism which has been adapted to comply with cultural and political realities in China is evident and increasingly dominant on the front of statewide development. That seems to be the overarching finding yielded by the literature review which ultimately formulates a discussion on the prospects shortcomings of realizing this type of capitalist openness within the Chinese consumer, corporate…. [read more]


China Since the Beginning of the 1980s Term Paper

… China

Since the beginning of the 1980s, with Deng Xiaoping's reforms that reduced state participation in the economy, encouraging private initiative and the development of private businesses, the Chinese economy has grown at staggering annual rates, often reaching 10% GDP growth annually. While at the beginning this could have been justifiable with the low GDP that China was starting from, as a consequence of the Communist experiments that took place under Mao (the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution), the growth rates in the last years have remained unchanged. This shows more of an economy basing its growth of solid instruments and policies rather than just a one time wonder.

In the 1st quarter of 2007, the Chinese economy grew at an estimated rate…. [read more]


Economics Evaluate Explanations Offered Essay

… (Gwartney, Stroup, Sobel, & MacPherson, 2008 )

One of the main reasons as to why China is a tough place to do business in is the fact that there are no set laws on counterfeiting and piracy is rampant in the absence of regulatory checks. This means that businesses looking to set up there will have to face the pressure from sub-standard fake products that can eat into its revenues as well as tarnish its image in the consumer's mind, a consumer who unknowingly buys these counterfeit versions.

Another factor is that Chinese government is oppressive in that any voices that rise to challenge the government are oppressed and are punished severely. Especially so in cases of media reporting where people looking to express themselves…. [read more]


China's Transformation to Free Market Economy Research Proposal

… ¶ … transformation of China to a market economy -- to call it "free" would be putting the cart far before the horse -- is a critical issue for our time. For me personally, the issue resonates because my background and the community from which I come. The issue also has great significance for our generation as a whole. The impact that China's emergence as a market economy will have on generations to come is substantial and will have a profound impact on all of us.

The Chinese economy has been undergoing a process of opening up to the market system since the late 1970s. With low labor costs, decent education, low land costs and an artificially cheap currency, China has been able to enjoy…. [read more]


China's Economic Policy Professional Writing

… China's Economic Policy

The People's Republic of China has seen a number of different economic policies in its history. The PRC began with a Communist ideology, something that was reflected in early policies, which were laid out in grand, nation-wide plans. The first major plan came in the form of the Great Leap Forward. This period saw China attempt to move from a primarily agricultural economy to a more industrial one. Initiated in 1957, the Great Leap Forward saw a number of reforms. The first was the collectivization of agriculture, in line with Communist economic philosophy. The second component of the Great Leap Forward was extensive government spending on the development of heavy industry. This spending rose from 38% in 1956 to 56% in 1958.…. [read more]


China Essay

… Still, the government recognizes the necessity of addressing this problem as soon as possible. In this spirit, a number of solutions are being worked on. One of these, according to The New Agriculturist (2004), is a water diversion scheme, which would link the south, where there is a large amount of water, to the north, where there is a shortage. This involves canals, which will also bring water form the Yangtze River to the Yellow River, which is slowly but surely drying up.

China's current policy is a recognition that Yuan will have to rise against the dollar in order to remain a sustainable player in the global market (Barr, 2010). The country has shown itself willing to enter into negotiations to find common grounds…. [read more]


China's Trade Policy on Agriculture and Manufactured Products Research Paper

… China's Trade Policy

China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001 after a fifteen-year struggle in which major trading partners worked with Chinese officials to open that country's economy to greater international competition. Domestically, the Chinese government hoped to ensure that its market reforms would continue to flourish (BBC, 2001).

China's progress on agricultural duties has been fairly strong. According to the WTO (2009), China carries an average duty on agricultural products of 15.8%, with 5.8% of products being duty free and with 1087 total tariff lines. This compares favorably with most developing nations. China's duties are agricultural products are higher than in some developed nations such as the United States, but they are in line with those of the European Union, which sits at…. [read more]


China F/X Essay

… China has always felt that improving the economy was a pressing domestic issue. Officials have long been wary of the risks associated with having such a large population of poor, up to the possibility of rebellion. This driving fear encourages officials to pursue economic development as a means of prolonging their power, and most Chinese policy is focused on the economy as a result. There have been some concerns about the environment lately, in particular as it has to do with the long-term sustainability of the country's drive to improve its economy. Water is the key environmental issue. The country also makes a fuss about corruption.

Internationally, China can't help but get involved regionally, rattling sabers with Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Vietnam in particular. China…. [read more]


China Corporation Chinese Firms Essay

… China Corporation

Chinese firms have traditionally been reticent to invest overseas. There has traditionally been resistance to such activities, and Chinese managers knew little about competitive markets. Moreover, Chinese firms have long had fantastic opportunities for both growth an M&A in their own country. The merger between Lenovo and IBM in 2004 marked the beginning of a new era in Chinese external direct investment. This paper examines the issue, with respect to both the opportunities and the challenges in Chinese direct investment abroad.

When Chinese computer maker Lenovo acquired IBM's personal computer business in 2004, the transaction sent shockwaves through the West (Hamm, 2005). It had long been identified that Chinese firms had competitive advantages in the production of electronics, being able to combine modern…. [read more]


China Mobile Case Study

… China Mobile

Why did China Mobile feel it was necessary to issue equity in markets outside of its home base in Hong Kong? What are the advantages of such a move?

China Mobile moved quickly in order to build its presence within the Chinese mainland and purchased $32.8 billion in assets from its parent company.

In order to complete the transaction China Mobile needed to raise funds to finance the transaction. There were strong fears amongst China Mobile's investors about the company issuing more shares and creating an overhang in the market. The company needed to appease these investor concerns so that it can move forward with raising the necessary capital to acquire more networks in China. The Hong Kong capital markets would not be…. [read more]

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