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Special Education - Inclusion the Transition Term Paper

… Special Education - Inclusion

The transition from a middle school setting to a high school setting can be daunting for the best of students, but this transition may be particularly problematic for many special needs students that are transitioning from a program of instruction specifically designed for them to a more inclusive regular classroom setting. Unfortunately, there is a growing recognition among educators and policymakers alike that students with special needs are not receiving the level of educational services they need to succeed academically and professionally. Complicating the administration of special needs programs at the outset is a constellation of federal mandates that guide how individualized education programs must be provided for public school students with disabilities today. Advocates of full inclusion programs maintain that…. [read more]


Learning Styles and Student Achievement Term Paper

… Learning Styles and Student Achievement

According to William Watson Purkey and John M. Novak, in order to teach a student, you have to be able to reach the student. They do not mean 'reach' in the physical sense, as in touching the student, but rather making a mental or emotional connection between the teacher and the student (Purkey, 1984).

Opening up to students is very important for teachers. While it is obviously not appropriate for a teacher to confide intimate personal details to the class, or gossip about others to try to be more accepted, there are ways that a teacher can seem more 'real' to the students. For example, crying over something very sad or letting the students know when the teacher is getting…. [read more]


Students With Visual Impairments Inclusion or Traditional School for the Blind Term Paper

… Students With Visual Impairment

The words "inclusion," "full inclusion" and "inclusive education" narrowly defined by educators of students with severe disabilities to adopt the philosophy that all students with disabilities, regardless of the nature or the severity of their disability shall receive their total education within the regular classroom setting (AFB, 2005).

According to Smelter, Rasch and Yudewitz (1996), inclusion is placing special education students in regular education classrooms and bringing the support services to the child, rather than bringing the child to the support services. This means that instead of drawing the child away from normal or regular students, inclusion keeps special students learn in the same environment as the regular ones.

A consensus among educators about the benefits of inclusive placement for learners…. [read more]


Learning Environment of Schools at Present Are Heavily Biased Toward Uniformity Over Diversity Thesis

… Learning Environment of Schools at Present Are Heavily Biased Toward Uniformity Over Diversity

Over the last 50 years, the overall style of teaching has remained the same. Where, the approach has been to teach in the same universal standards for everyone. This is despite the fact that over 50 years ago several leading educational scholars disputed the model of using a one size fits all approach to teach. Instead, these leading thinkers advocated an approach of allowing each person to learn according to their own individual learning style. An example of this can been with Nathaniel Cantor who said, "The public elementary, high schools, and colleges, generally project what they consider to be the proper way of learning which is uniform for all students." (Guild,…. [read more]


Effects Impact of Technology in Learning of Elementary School Special ED Students Thesis

… ¶ … technology in learning of elementary school special ed. Students

Action Research Paper:

Effects and Impact of Technology in Learning of Elementary School Special Education Students

The use of technologies to assist in the teaching of special education elementary school children presents unique challenges and illustrates how the creative use of Web-based learning systems can accelerate and support the long-term retention of concepts with these specific students. It is the intent of this Action Research paper to illustrate how this is specifically can be accomplished through the use of a variety of teaching techniques. Despite the potential benefits of using technology-based training there is however there is a lack of adoption of Web-based training materials, websites, and strategies specifically focused on individualized learning plans…. [read more]


School Culture on School Safety Term Paper

… According to the National School Safety Center (1995) creating safe schools is about commitment. That does not mean only commitment from the principal, or from the teachers, or from the students. Accomplishing such a goal requires families, schools, and community leaders to talk about the quality of the educational environment they want to provide for youth and together develop the strategies that will produce the desired results.

This type of cohesive commitment is the only real way that schools can be made safer, as one person cannot do it alone, and communities must express the desire to make schools safer and therefore give the students a better school life and more hope for the future. The Center also suggests that achieving these goals requires leaders…. [read more]


Pedagogic Model: Teaching Technology in Special Education Dissertation

… " (Dougiamas, 1998) Such trivial constructivism, though, is the bedrock from which Glaserfelds more radical constructivism springs. He continues to state that because knowledge is constructed by the learner, and because no two learners are the same, knowledge itself is not absolute. There is a degree to which knowledge is an illusion, and every individual constructs their own conception of reality which (while susceptible to the demands of "real" or normal reality) does not necessarily align with the normal paradigm. Constructivism does embrace this relativistic and existential approach to reality, but it also holds as a primary value the idea of constraint which enables the thinkers to participate in social interaction and mainstream reality. (Glasersfeld)



One interesting area of constructionist theory is…. [read more]


Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete Dissertation

… ¶ … Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete High School

Richard Wieringo

This case study explores the experiences of students with disabilities who have dropped out of high school, so as to identify related factors that led to their decisions. Participants will include both males and females who were designated as students with disabilities at Ridgeville High School (pseudonym for a Virginia high school) and who dropped out between their third and fourth years of high school, during the 2009 to 2012 academic school years. All participants will be between the ages of 18 and 21. The proposed research design is a phenomenological study to be conducted through the use of semi-structured interviews, journaling, and observation of the sample population, with the aim of…. [read more]


Technology to Improve Behavior Research Proposal

… In addition, computers enhance children's self-concept, and children demonstrate increasing levels of spoken communication and cooperation. Children share leadership roles more frequently and develop positive attitudes toward learning." However Haugland suggest that in order for most effective use of the computers "they must provide concrete experiences, children have free access and control the learning experience, children and teachers learn together, teachers encourage peer tutoring, and teachers use computers to teach powerful ideas."

MEHTOD

The proposed study will be conducted in one second grade class. Second grade is chosen because it is felt that the first -graders may not be quite ready for technology in the classroom, and it is better to introduce the computers early, rather than wait until the students are in the third…. [read more]


Best Practices of Reading Instruction for Special Education Research Paper

… Special Education

Best Practices of Reading Instruction for Special Education

There are several things to consider when looking for special education resources in the area of reading. They include the students, their background, program, best practices in reading instruction, analysis of the material for reading and fluency oral and reading. A basic structure for how to best teach reading to these students is vital. There are many reading programs available online and at the local library. Special education teachers also have access to key information and materials, as do schools and businesses that focus in reading training (Special Education Resources for Reading, n.d.).

Reading is the pivotal skill that allows children to achieve at high levels and become reflective, lifelong learners. Becoming a fluent reader…. [read more]


Teacher Certification Impact on Student Achievement Literature Review

… By raising requirements for teaching, the legislation would presumably end the employment of non-certified or under-qualified teachers in public schools.

Nonetheless, the legislation mainly emphasized subject matter knowledge and introduced constraints in teacher certification (Townsend, 2014). This was one of the major shortcomings of the legislation. By emphasizing subject matter knowledge, the NCLB gave little attention to pedagogy and curriculum. This resulted in a narrower view of teaching accountability in which teaching effectiveness was measured by the ability to pass tests as opposed to more meaningful aspects such as teacher characteristics. Schuster (2012) also criticizes NCLB’s attention to content knowledge, pre-service tests, and experience, contending that such measures are not necessarily useful indicators of teaching quality. Another shortcoming of the NCLB stemmed from the…. [read more]


Elementary Principal and Job Stress Term Paper

… ¶ … Elementary School Principals and Job Stress

Certainly, any type of jobs carries with it some level of stress, but it would seem that elementary school principals in particular are prone to stressful conditions simply by virtue of the unique exigencies of their positions. Irate and incensed parents, changing boards of education, politicians with personal agendas, teachers, support staff - and the students themselves of course - all combine to present the typical elementary school principal with enough stressful situations to challenge anyone's ability to cope, but cope they must. Unfortunately, things appear to be getting even worse in many regions of the country where a paucity of qualified elementary school principals combined with rising elementary school enrollments has caused increasing concern among educators…. [read more]


Grant Proposal for Computers and Software Term Paper

… ¶ … Reading Comprehension Among Middle School Students (Grades K6-K8) in Title I Programs - Grant Proposal

Project Summary/Introduction

The purpose of this project is to increase reading comprehension among middle school students (grades K6-K8) in Title I programs at XYZ SCHOOL by providing high quality, engaging content through a mini classroom lab using interactive software from Plato Learning. These Title I students face challenges in developing vocabulary, locating and recalling information and reading for meaning and critical analysis.

Many research reviews have found evidence of a positive association between use of discrete educational software (DES) products and student achievement in reading (Murphy, Penuel, Means, Korbak & Whaley, 2001; Kulik & Kulik, 1991; Kulik, 1994; Fletcher-Flinn & Gravatt, 1995; Ryan, 1991). These findings reveal that…. [read more]


Size/Cooperative Learning and IT's Effects Term Paper

… African-American students seem to profit more from the SAGE experience than white students when compared with non-SAGE students. The achievement gap between African-Americans and white students widens each year (Smith, et.al. 2003).

It has been noted that class size initiatives have enjoyed wide spread support from parents, teachers, and the general public. People will still believe that smaller class sizes are a good idea and teachers report experiencing lower levels of stress and job dissatisfaction with smaller classes. This is primarily because they are better engaged with each student, and therefore, student motivation increases and discipline problems decrease. Parents believe that a teacher's individualized instruction leads to improvements in a child's academic performance. This is apparent because teachers with smaller classes have more time to…. [read more]


Decisions by School Superintendents Improper Term Paper

… Members of the faculty are also exhorted to recognize that students are individuals and are entitled to an atmosphere conducive to learning and to even-handed treatment in all respects of the teacher-student relationship.

Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct

It is no use to preach to children if you do not act decently yourself - Theodore Roosevelt in a speech to Holy Name Society, Oyster Bay, August 16, 1903.

Most educational institutions develop a set of rules governing teacher behavior that reflect the district policy. They summarily ban the obvious: harassment and sexual contact with students.

Improper attitude or unprofessional conduct. Conduct that bases a person's employment, enrollment as a student, or participation in scholastic activities on that person's age, color, disability, sex, national or ethnic…. [read more]


Special Education Has Changed Term Paper

… Fold paper or draw lines on paper to assist the student with spacing. This is particularly useful in math.

Use different color chalks and felt pens to emphasize different points, and to make it easier for the student to find his place on the board or paper.

Use highly contrasting colors.

Enlarge the print.

Glue steps of a math operation inside the front cover of the students math book for easy reference.

Provide a print copy of the math text so that the examples can be done on the sheet. Often errors occur when the students copies and much time is used up. The examples can be enlarged if more space is required for the answers. One or two questions can be presented at a…. [read more]


Reading Strategies Impact on ELL ESL Students Capstone Project

… ¶ … Reading Strategies' Impact on ELL Students

Today, more than 2 million students from non-English-speaking backgrounds attend public school in the United States and their numbers are expected to triple by 2020. The research to date confirms that these students require support in their native languages as well as in English to achieve academic proficiency, but far too few English language learners (ELLs) are receiving the level of educational support that is required. In this environment, identifying improved strategies for facilitating English language acquisition represents a timely and valuable enterprise. There are a number of challenges that are involved, but the mandates are clear. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, signed into law January 2002, placed renewed emphasis, urgency, and expectations on all…. [read more]


Student Body Size on School Term Paper

… Where the more graduating seniors that enter college after graduation is a recognized factor of the success of both the individual student and the school from which he or she came. Though college attendance rates have long been a tool used to asses the success of programs supporting or dealing with large numbers of students at risk fro academic failure it is also a good indicator of the general success of a school. (Fashola, & Slavin 1998)

It was recognized twenty years ago that there is not enough evidence to suggest that consolidating schools is a good idea, "There is no strong empirical base to support the assumptions and assertions of school and district consolidation advocates. This article reviews and analyzes this body of evidence…. [read more]


School Choice Program Term Paper

… According to Witte (1996), "The general theory was devoid of any specification of exactly how schools would produce superior results. If competition alone is the impetus for improvement, then the mechanisms need not be spelled out. Market iteration will sort out schools for consumers based on superior production. Curriculum, organization, pedagogy, and governance structures of the superior schools will survive, and presumably become the models for other schools. Friedman's original proposal contained few specifics, which subsequent scholars and policy experts have argued are crucial in defining a viable voucher program and, more important, defining who might benefit from such a program. The design of a program will affect who benefits. A limited and targeted voucher program, such as the MPCP, may have the advantage of…. [read more]


Special Education Director Thesis

… Special Education Director

Leadership styles in K-12 have been studied using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Compare and contrast the underlying assumptions, strengths and weakness, and practical considerations that would lead to a choice of one or the other method to study a special education supervisor's or special education director's leadership style. Locate in the literature or develop one example of each approach to leadership.

Appreciative Inquiry

The work of Mason entitled: "Research Methods for Learning and Teaching: Introduction and Resources" states that research into learning and teaching can be used for the purpose of informing teaching as well as for formal reports and published studies. (2006)

Mason states that in terms of mixing methods that the logic used most commonly is that when researchers…. [read more]


Special Education Referral Processes for Haitian Students Literature Review

… ¶ … R-Questions to build the literature review.

What were the perceptions of teachers regarding the existing identification and referral process for ELLs and learning-disabled students?

What were the perceptions of the existing identification and referral process for ELLs as reported by parents of these students?

What gaps existed between the existing identification and referral process for ELLs and the ideal process?

What were the best practices of ELL identification and referral that prevent misidentification of ELLs as learning-disabled?

What recommendations can be offered to the school to improve assessment and referral processes for the evaluation of language-instruction needs among Haitian students at the schools?

Nadia's current chapter outline:

Review of the Literature

ELLs: Demographic and Academic Trends

Assessment Concerns

Implications

The Prevention of Misidentification…. [read more]


Technology in Education Term Paper

… Technological vs. Traditional Approaches to Education

In the past, it was all about traditional teaching methods, based around the three Rs, and authority and discipline. Children were to be seen and not heard, but that has all changed." ("Youngsters Turn Back the," 2004, p. 12) These words reflect thoughts from Mrs. Liz Manley (head teacher), published in a newspaper article during 2004, as she refers to past times when teachers only used traditional teaching methods to teach students.

Tony Collins, the writer of this newspaper article adds: "Add to that technological changes such as electronic white boards and computers, as well as a brain gym and water to aid learning, and school life in the 50s would be almost unrecognizable today."

As this paper explores…. [read more]


North Miami Beach Senior High School Improvement Plan Essay

… Learners who score below 30 percent will be eligible for the afterschool program that will take place over one week from 8th to 12 March, with another taking place after six months to give management sufficient time to evaluate outcomes.
The team envisions that this strategy would be impactful in helping the students improve ELA reading proficiency. Evidence-based research has shown that students reported better fluency and phonics from engaging in similar afterschool programs (Mitchell, 2020). The importance of reading for students in middle-grade is undeniable as it helps to enhance their vocabulary and comprehension skills for difficult texts in later grades and also expands their exposure to different texts (Marchessault & Larwin, 2014).
Strategy Three
The third improvement strategy was meant to enhance students'…. [read more]


Mathematics Z-Model Framework in Middle School Thesis

… This unique framework has 4 domains, and while this study investigates the Z-model's use in the mathematics curriculum, this framework is focused on improving and enhancing students' achievement in any course of study.



The four domains involved in the Z-model create a comprehensive educational understanding and framework for use in improving educational progress. They are:


  1. Brain development, and efforts in the classroom which can enhance/promote brain development.

  2. How project-based learning can be utilized in order to fully engage the student in the learning community.

  3. Data-Driven instruction (the second half of the breadth - vs. - depth debate). The students must be held accountable to learn a specific knowledge base of facts, figures, and formulae. Without objective measurement of the educational progress,…. [read more]


Static Learning Research Proposal

… Static Learning in the 21st Century

The Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test, mandated by Senate Bill 103 during the 76th Texas Legislative Session, assesses students in grades 3, through 11. Two of the tests are benchmarks for passing to the next level. The state of Texas requires students who do not pass the third grade, standardized test, to repeat that grade level and students in the eleventh grade must pass all tests in order to graduate (TEA, 2007). Test scores have come to dominate discussion about schools and their accomplishments. Amrein and Berliner (2002) found that educators at state and national levels use test scores to evaluate programs and allocate educational resources. A school, whose math test scores have dropped, might allocate…. [read more]


How to Motivate the Unmotivated Student Thesis

… ¶ … Motivation

"Motivating the Seemingly Unmotivated Student"

Approximately 25% of students in the late 1980's were living at or below the nationally established poverty level. Children from these poor families were identified as having higher rates of needing special instruction vs. other same age students from more advantaged homes (Young & Melnick, 1996). Today, the numbers of "at risk" students has grown exponentially and compounded for students who are recent immigrants, represent an ethnic or racial minority, and are poor (Barber, et al., 1988). As more than 90% of urban middle school enrollment, these youth attend schools with weak curriculums, limited access to more challenging academic instruction, and proven alternatives to instructional strategies (Russ, 1993).

Students who come to school facing challenges in the…. [read more]


Improving the High School Dropout Rate in Bermuda Thesis

… Reduction of the High School Dropout Rate in Bermuda

The value of a high school education over the course of an individual's lifetime has been well documented, but many high school students continue to drop out of school prior to graduation for various reasons. Of the $798 million that taxpayers paid last year to keep the wheels of Government in motion, $132 million or 16%, went towards public education. Among government ministries, education was the second biggest spender. Despite this and the millions of dollars already spent on the construction of Bermuda's two public high schools, CedarBridge Academy and the Berkeley Institute, public confidence in the Government school system remains low. The purpose of this thesis is to make the readers aware of this issue…. [read more]


Shortage of Special Education Teachers Essay

… Chronic Shortage of Special Education Teachers

"If teachers are well-prepared in both content and pedagogy, 'it makes an enormous difference not only to their effectiveness in the classroom but also whether they're likely to enter and stay in teaching'… [and] it is 'more expensive to under-prepare people, and let them spin out again, than it is to prepare people more effectively and keep them in the profession…'"

(Billingsley, 2004, p. 39)

The shortage of special education teachers has been a problem for schools and administrators for many years. The literature available indicates that the shortage is not only severe, it is threatening to reduce schools' effectiveness in bringing a quality education to those students with special needs. This paper provides current research into the shortage…. [read more]


Mathematics Learning Essay

… " (p. 1) The teacher as an instructor has the intended outcome for students of "skills mastery with correct performance." (Ernest, 1991. p. 1) Whereas the role of the teacher as an explainer has the intended outcome of "conceptual understanding with unified knowledge." (Ernest,, p. 1) Finally, the teacher as a facilitator has the intended outcome of "confident problem posing and solving." (Ernest, 1991, p. 1) Swan (2006) speaks of the traditional method of teaching mathematics and states that when it is reversed it is "builds on the knowledge that students already have" and additionally "exposes and discusses common misconceptions" and "uses higher-order questions." (p. 169) Swan additionally reports that traditionally teaching utilizes small group work and encourages "reasoning rather than 'answer getting' and uses…. [read more]


NCLB the Impact of No Child Left Term Paper

… NCLB

The Impact of No Child Left Behind on Teachers, Students, and Parents

The federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, which was implemented by President George Bush, aims to bring all students up to the proficient level on state tests by 2014, and to hold states and schools completely accountable for results. NCLB requires all districts and schools that receive Title I funds to meet state "adequate yearly progress" (AYP) goals for their entire student populations and for specified demographic subgroups, including major ethnic and racial groups; students from low-income families; limited English proficient (LEP) students, and students with disabilities. If these schools do not meet AYP goals for two or more years, they are considered schools "in need of improvement" and…. [read more]

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