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Renal Artery Stenosis Term Paper

… Renal Artery Stenosis

Rather than a single condition, renal artery stenosis refers to a group of diseases which are primarily characterized by the narrowing of the main renal artery as well as the branches of the artery. The narrowing of the artery secondary to atherosclerotic disease is most commonly seen in the 5th decade of life although prevalence is unknown since there is no recommended or cost effective screening mechanism. There is no gender difference in prevalence, although RAS is seen more frequently in patients with high cholesterol, smoking cigarettes, high blood pressure and diabetes, previous history of coronary artery disease, obesity, and peripheral vascular disease and those patients with a family history of RAS (although this is more commonly seen in those patients who…. [read more]

End Stage Renal Disease Term Paper

… End Stage Renal Disease

End-Stage Renal Disease


This study addresses a patient named 'George White', born 7/15/1950. He is married to Donna White, born 1/5/65, and has two children: Jamal (male), born 9/25/92, and Rasheeda (female), born 7/11/97. Mr. White has a 2nd daughter and two grandchildren. His oldest child Kia, from prior relationship, was born 10/23/70, and she has 2 children: Kijay, born 6/18/90, and Quadir, born 8/14/96.

Summary of health problems/disease:

Medical history of patient George White: (a) Diabetes Type 2; (b) Hypertension; (c) Congestive heart failure; (d) Chronic hepatitis C; (e) end-stage renal disease (analysis topic); and (f) patient has been on Hemodialysis treatment since June, 2011.

Medical history of Patient

diabetes type 2


congestive heart failure

chronic hepatitis C…. [read more]

Acute Renal Failure Essay

… Patients who have experienced trauma to the kidneys, patients in the ICU, patients that have had heart or intestinal surgery or a bone marrow transplant are also statistically more likely to have kidney failure (Epstein 1997).

As well as determining whether acute renal failure has occurred, a through diagnosis also demands determining the type of renal failure that the patient is suffering. "Prerenal acute renal failure is characterized by diminished renal blood flow (60 to 70% of cases). In intrinsic acute renal failure, there is damage to the renal parenchyma (25 to 40% of cases). Postrenal acute renal failure occurs because of urinary tract obstruction (5 to 10% of cases)" (Agrawal & Swartz 2000).

In prerenal acute renal failure, impaired renal blood flow "as a…. [read more]

Diabetic Vascular Disease State Caused Term Paper

… When they can cast light on the particularities of the national marketplace, informations about market dynamics and policies which are specific to countries and cultural issues are also enhanced. ("Diabetes in France")

Diabetes is thus not just one disease but it is at least two diseases grouped as type1 and type2. Though there are many other types, the vast mainstream can be divided into these two types. In type1 diabetes the body destroys the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin and thus insulin is required for survival. In type2 diabetes, which affects Hispanics, Blacks, Asians and American Indians more often, one must have some amount of insulin as well as a resistance to the effects of the insulin. Hence more insulin is demanded. Control…. [read more]

Chronic Kidney Disease Term Paper

… ¶ … Department of Health and Human Services with respect to the issue of chronic kidney disease suggests that this condition has the potential to have considerable health ramifications for specific groups as well as overall public health. At a time when other chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease are being reduced, the incidence of chronic kidney disease is increasing. Further, the data demonstrates the individuals over the age of 75 are more susceptible to this condition. Given that almost one-third of the American population is poised to turn 65 chronic kidney disease represents an emerging health threat that must be addressed.

In an effort to improve health outcomes in this area, Department of Health and Human Services has developed its Healthy People (HP) 2010…. [read more]

Economics of End Stage Renal Disease Essay

… Economics of End-Stage Renal Disease

Health Care Economics

There is a variety of reimbursement mechanisms that exist within the case study entitled the Economics of End Stage Renal Disease. One of the most eminent of these is government remuneration policies, which are virtually unchanged since the early part of the 1970s. The government has assisted in the reimbursement of individuals over the age of 65 who need help with ESRD. In order to do so, and in order to cope with costs that have steadily increased during the last 40 years, it has engaged in a practice known as cost shifting, which is defined as eroding "the payment structure through inflation and continuously revising and delaying the ESRD coverage for patients not previously of Medicare…. [read more]

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Renal Calculus Essay

… ¶ … PCOS, Kidney Stones)

DuRant and Leslie provide a basic overview of all known facts concerning the condition known as polycystic ovary syndrome. While this is the most widespread endocrine condition to affect young women (estimates place its incidence at between 5 and 10% of the young female population) it is frequently not diagnosed. The basic diagnostic criteria are indeed somewhat contentious, and presently a diagnosis hinges upon the presence of two of the following three symptoms: irregularities in ovulation (either failure to ovulate or irregular or lengthened menstrual cycle, i.e., oligoovulation), a raised level of male hormones with no other cause, and polycystic ovaries with no other cause. Each of these individual symptoms can, of course, be caused by other conditions, but the…. [read more]

Would Blood Work? Research Paper

… CKDIntervention

There are a number of interventions that are effective in treating (not curing) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Many of the interventions, however, are based solely on how far along the CKD has progressed in specific patients. This is how it should be, of course, but such a scenario causes one to wonder exactly what particular intervention to use in order to lower the incidence of CKD overall. That's what this paper is searching for; a possible intervention that will be successful in lowering the overall rate of CKD in the United States. In order to achieve that objective, the different stages of CKD and the most prevalent interventions currently in use should be examined and understood.

The stages aren't necessarily named but are designated…. [read more]

Vater Syndrome Term Paper

… VATER or VACTERL is referred to as an association of birth defects. This is not a syndrome or a disease. Simply because there is no specificity to the number of birth defects from which an infant might suffer in VATER. More than one birth defect might manifest with VATER disease. This is clearly a genetic condition. There is some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that since some of the symptoms of VATER are similar to Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome (congenital absence of uterus and vagina), that the X chromosome defects might have a role to play (Guerrier, Mouchel, Pasquier, & Pellerin, 2006). But the gene that specifically causes this condition has not been identified. Some believe that there is internal variance within a system-this is also called mosaicism. This…. [read more]

Ace Inhibitors vs. Tight Glycemic Research Paper

… Other clinician-associated barriers would include the lack of financial incentives, practice inertia, and resistance to prescribing multiple drugs for patients. Of all the barriers to implementing combination therapy with an HbA1c target below 7.0%, probably the most significant is a lack of consensus. Without agreement between the government and non-profit stakeholders the implementation of combination therapy based on tight glycemic control to prevent or control DN will not be feasible.


The evidence supporting the efficacy of tight glycemic control for controlling and preventing DN is growing with each passing year. The current state of research suggests that the primary benefit of tight glycemic control, with an HbA1c target below 7.0%, may not be realized until years later. While this finding is indeed promising, current…. [read more]

End-Of-Life Health Care Imagine Essay

… Honoring the patient's wishes, withdrawing care, withholding care, or choosing long-term care facilities are all decisions with difficult ethical implications. Someone who is elderly or terminally ill can make these decisions easier for his or her loved ones by creating an advance directive, also known as a living will, that specifies what he or she wants.

To prevent conflicts between families and health care providers at the end of a person's life, families should discuss their issues and create an advance directive, also known as a living will. Once the advance directive is completed, the patient should discuss his or her wishes with the family and primary physician to let them know that the document exists and what it includes. Advance directives inform family members…. [read more]

Syphilis Holistic Approach Thesis

… Health

Syphilis -- viewed from the perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine as a Public Health Issue

Syphilis is an infection due to the bacteria Treponema pallidum. Syphilis is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease. The bacteria causes it spread through broken skin or mucous membranes. Syphilis is widespread in the United States and mainly affects sexually active adults ages 20 to 29 (Syphilis, 2010).

Syphilis is a bacterium caused sexually transmitted disease. It contaminates the genital area, lips, mouth, or anus of both men and women. One usually gets syphilis from sexual contact with someone who has it. It can also be passed during pregnancy from mother to baby (Syphilis, 2010). The main symptoms are hard chancre and nearby lymphadenectasis. This occurs about 2-4 weeks after sexual…. [read more]

Malaria Medical Information Description of Malaria Classification Research Paper

… Malaria

Medical Information

Description of malaria

Classification of malaria

Etiology of malaria

Prognosis of malaria 1 B. Natural History



Diagnostic Procedures

Physical examination

Laboratory Test




Descriptive Epidemiology




Geographic Distribution


Regional (within U.S.)

Rural vs. Urban

Risk Factors

Known malaria risk factors

Distribution of risk factors among subpopulations

Prevention and Control

Disease Prevention




Public Health Intervention

Policy Development

Intervention Program

Fig1.1. The spread of malaria against the age groups in South africa

Current Research




Centre for Disease Control


World Health Organization


Office of Rare Diseases


National Institute of Health






Fetal Growth Restriction


Roll Back Malaria


Long Lasting Insecticide Impregnated…. [read more]

Bacteria Virus Eukaryote Term Paper

… Statistics and Part Maintenance

L. Jones

Infectious Bacteria, Viruses, Eukaryotes:

When one considers the possibilities of human disease, be it originating from a virus, bacteria, or even eukarote, it is important to first consider possible ports of entry. Most disease causing organisms prefer specific entry points to gain access to their hosts. These entry points are known as "ports of entry" that are particularly vulnerable to the offending organism. This means that whereas a particular virus, bacteria or parasite may be relatively harmless if it comes in contact with the skin, for example, may be extremely infectious should it gain entry into the mouth.

Indeed, the specialized preferences of many organisms with regard to ports of entry are so consistent that it is often taken…. [read more]

Quality of Life Among Tawau Research Paper

… In a study that was conducted under the PraxArt project, it was found that OA has a negative effect on the quality of life of patients. The study also reveals that when a patient-centered intervention that allows for longer follow-up is not applied, the quality of life of patients which is measured by their satisfaction, presence of comorbidities and levels of stress and depression deteriorates Rosemann et al., 2005: 77



Jinks et al. (2007: 59)

also provide amodel for examining the quality of life of patients suffering from knee pain that may be associated with OA. Their study used a multi-method approach over a 12-month period and found that knee OA results to difficulties in conducting normal activities such…. [read more]

Diabetes (Harvard Citation) Studies Case Study

… (Walser 2004, Chapter 5)

Question # 3

Ali was diagnosed with hypertension fifteen years ago yet still continued to drink heavily and smoke. He has not performed the necessary reformation of his lifestyle in order to minimize the negative effects on his health. He is now 67 years old and has recently been short of breath, has periods of nausea and vomiting, and is generally lethargic. While Ali has not been taking care of himself, his body has continued to steadily deteriorate causing the failure of his kidneys.

When Ali visited the doctor, his doctor conducted a number of tests to determine how well his kidneys were functioning. One way to determine kidney function is to test the patients Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). The GFR…. [read more]

Teaching on the Cognitive Learning of Adult Term Paper

… ¶ … Teaching on the Cognitive Learning of Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of individual and group teaching on the cognitive learning of adult kidney transplant recipients on an inpatient transplant unit.

Kidney transplant recipients have an abundance of learning needs after receiving their transplants. Patient education is a crucial aspect of the transplant nurse's role. Transplant recipients must learn follow-up instructions, signs of rejection and infection, medications and their side effects, urine testing procedures, and dietary and lifestyle modifications in order to ensure transplant viability and increased quality of life. It is important that the most effective method is used to teach this critical information. Patient education is widely documented in the literature, however little…. [read more]

Nephrotic Syndrome Term Paper

… Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the scarring of the glomeruli in random scattered patterns or in specific areas. Biopsies, which are typically suggested to determine diseased kidneys, are difficult as a diagnostic tool in the case of FSGS. Repeated biopsies become necessary in the hope of retrieving scarred renal tissue, since it is non-uniformly dispersed. This is one condition that is idiopathic in nature. There is no known associated disease (or causes as described above) for FSGS. Nephrotic syndrome is diagnosed through proteinuria.

While diabetic nephropathy is the commonest cause of Nephrotic Syndrome, membranous glomerulopathy (nephropathy) is the second highest cause of nephrotic syndrome. As in FSGS, more than seventy five percent of patients that present MG have no associate causes.

The rest show MG…. [read more]

Dialysis Renal Failure Term Paper

… Dialysis/Renal Failure


Management and Implications of Renal Failure

Kidneys are fist-sized, bean-shaped organs, which are located at th lowest part of the rib cage and the sides of the spine (National Kidney Foundation, Inc. 2003). Their major function is to remove waste products and excess fluids from the body in the form of urine. The production of urine consists of excretion and re-absorption, necessary to maintain a stable chemical balance. The kidneys also regulate the salt, potassium and acid content of the body. They produce many hormones, which affect other important organ functions. One of these hormones, for example, stimulates the production of red blood cells. Others help regulate blood pressure and the processing of calcium. The kidneys likewise eliminate chemicals,…. [read more]

Economics of End Stage Renal Disease Term Paper

… Economics of End-Stage Renal Disease

Major Reimbursement Mechanisms

health care delivery system has made vast changes throughout the history of its system of managed care. The majority of reimbursement spending is facilitated by the federal government and by the states via Medicare and Medicaid. These programs provide for some of the Long-Term Care services received by the geriatric population. The government programs of Medicare and Medicaid cover approximately 60% of LTC spending with private out-of-pocket payment providing approximately 33% (no reimbursement), and private health insurance coverage < 5% of LTC spending (Kovner, Knickman, Jonas).

In 2005, state operated Medicaid programs provided coverage for 44% of all nursing home expenditures (Catlin, Cowan, Heffler, Washington & National Expenditure Accounts Team, 2007). (Kovner, Knickman, Jonas) Individuals may qualify…. [read more]

Diabetic Nephropathy Prevention Clinical Approach and Treatment Term Paper

… Nephropathy

Recent searches for information in diabetic nephropathy yielded a limited amount of information concerning the disease, its diagnosis and its treatment. What was evident was the fact that it is another concern for those individuals who have been diagnosed with diabetes, and further, that proper (and early) treatment can do much to stop the disease's progression and in many cases will prevent the disease.

Diabetic nephropathy presents itself in individuals with diabetes but it is closely related to nephrolithiasis which is a common condition that affects "nearly five percent of U.S. men and women during their lifetimes" FN1. Nephrolithiasis includes a number of different nephropathy diseases. "Nephrolithiasis specifically refers to calculi in the kidneys (including) both renal calculi ureteral calculi (ureterolithiasis)" FN2 Ureteral calculi…. [read more]

Interrelatedness of Diseases Thesis

… Interrelatedness of Diseases


Type-2 Diabetes

Also called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, this is a chronic condition in the body's metabolism of sugar or glucose (Mayo Clinic Staff 2009). The body resists the effects or insulin or does not produce enough of it to maintain a normal glucose level. Glucose is the body's main source of fuel or energy. The consequences can be fatal if the condition remains untreated (Mayo Clinic Staff).

Symptoms -- These can develop very slowly for years and some may not even know it (Mayo Clinic Staff 2009). Main symptoms are increased thirst and frequent urination, increased hunger, weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision, slow healing of sores or frequent infections and darkened skin. (Mayo Clinic Staff).

Causes and…. [read more]

Preventing Kidney Failure Diabetes and Hypertension Dialysis Capstone Project

… Kidney Failure



Kidney Failure: Prevention When There Is No Cure

Kidney Failure: Prevention When There Is No Cure

As of 2007, an estimated 11% of Americans over the age of 20 have kidney disease (National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, 2011). Kidney disease can lead to kidney failure if left untreated. Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys can no longer perform the blood-filtering role that they are intended for; therefore the toxins that would normally be removed from the blood accumulate in the body, causing downstream problems including further organ failure (Jacobs, 2009). Dialysis is a common treatment for people with kidney failure, yet of patients receiving dialysis, the morality rate is still approximately 50%…. [read more]

Diabetes Evidence-Based Practice Essay

… At the same time, EBM has garnered critiques, particularly from social scientists, who question its underlying assumptions, impact on professional practice, and broad reinforcement of medical authority. Little empirical work has been done, however, to explore these concerns (Gabbay, 1999).

The term "evidence-based medicine" was formalized at McMaster University in the 1980s as part of a new approach to problem-based learning in medical education (Gabbay, 1999). Its philosophical roots, however, can be traced to the mid-nineteenth century when medicine began aggressively to position itself as a science. The concept has spread widely beyond medicine and is often referred to as evidence-based practice to encourage its adoption by diverse health disciplines such as nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, psychology, and dietetics (Bogdan-Lovis and Sousa, 2006).

The founders of…. [read more]

Mold Spore Trapping Current Scientific Term Paper

… Allergies are probably the most common reaction to contact with molds. Atopic individuals (i.e., those experiencing allergic reactions that are hereditary) who are exposed to mold, mold spores, or mold byproducts may manifest allergic reactions once they become sensitized to the particular strain of toxic mold.

The reactions can run the spectrum, from very mild and temporary reactions to acute, chronic, and end-system illness.

According to The Institute of Medicine:

in 5 Americans suffer from allergic rhinitis - the most common chronic disease in human beings in 9 Americans suffer from allergen-related sinusitis in 10 Americans have allergen-related asthma in 11 Americans suffer from allergic dermatitis

Approximately 1 in 100 Americans suffer from serious chronic allergic diseases

Current-Day Understanding

The biological system's response and effects…. [read more]

Scleroderma, a Chronic, Systemic Disease That Effects Term Paper

… ¶ … scleroderma, a chronic, systemic disease that effects the lungs, skin, heart, gastrointestinal tract, kidney and musculoskeletal system. The article is a case report on a specific case dealing with achalasia due to scleroderma and multiple left lung hydatid cysts which the practicioners performed a thoracic epidural blockade in combination with general anesthesia with air-oxygen and sevoflurane without neuromuscular blockade and without intravenous opioids.

The surgical procedure involved using an epidural catheter prior to inducting anesthesia. After the surgery, the anesthesia was discontinued and twenty minutes later that patient began spontaneous breathing, responding to painful stimuli and to buck on the tube.

In general, it is found that scleroderma is a connective tissue disease and an autoimmune disorder which causes vascular damage, especially in…. [read more]

Xyy Syndrome Essay

… The disease prevalence rate in penal institutions, however, remains an issue under contention. There is controversy surrounding both the behavioral and phenotypic expression of the XYY syndrome. However, there is a general consensus that as compared to the XXY syndrome, both the 46 XY and 47, XYY syndromes are associated with fewer numbers of phenotypic and behavioral abnormalities Theilgaard, 1984()

In another study conducted on 471 males who were not in any institution and had a height greater than 6 feet. They found that the incidence rate of the XYY syndrome is higher than that of normal males. Another study was done on 1,868 criminals who were mentally ill and it was found that the incidence rate of XYY syndrome was higher in the taller…. [read more]

Hispanic Aggregate Term Paper

… Community Advocacy

One major challenge medical professionals today are facing is the growing incidence of kidney disease, not only in the general population, but especially among Hispanics. This population is one of the fastest-growing racial groups in the country. This group is also twice as likely to develop kidney failure as other racial groups. For a community nurse, this is of particular concern, especially in terms of strategies to help this population prevent the prevalence of kidney failure and its causes.

The disease among this population is of particular interest, since the researcher has worked in this area for a considerable period of time. During the initial stages of the project, in-depth research must therefore be conducted in order to determine the exact nature and…. [read more]

Hemodialysis on End Stage Renal Term Paper

… With this positive result of integrative care study, the combination between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatments, nurses need to be aware of what best option is for the patients, knowing the symptoms that possibly occur, along with the different time given for each treatment.

Whether the patients are aware or not about their condition, it is advisable that the nurses give enough information about the option they have, along with each consequence related to the taken action. Patients then may take which option they prefer based on their condition, working schedule and daily activities. Also they will need to make option based on their financial constraints, although the government helps in some parts to pay for the expense.

However, in contrary to the research that…. [read more]

Medical Futility in Oncology Settings a Conceptual Analysis Research Proposal

… Medical Futility in Oncology Settings: A conceptual analysis

This study will present a conceptual analysis of medical futility in renal care and cancer. It will do so by first analyzing how the funding for medical treatments affects choices to go for certain medical treatments that contribute to the success or failure of medical successes. Then this paper will present numerous other studies that have aimed to lucidly explain the concepts of renal care and cancer support.

"Decision making in terminal care is a demanding and stressful duty for all involved. Frequently, moreover, the situation is ethically complex, and the decisions have been shown to depend not only on patients' preferences or clinical circumstances but also on the personal characteristics of the physician" (Hinkka, 2002). Medical…. [read more]

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