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French Revolution: Down With Monarchy Annotated Bibliography

… French Revolution: Down With Monarchy

The French revolution was a historical time period that was filled political and radical social upheaval in France. The revolution made a lasting impact to the French history, and it began in 1789. The French as was known during this historical period underwent an epic transformation, as religious, feudal, and aristocratic privileges evaporated. The transformation was caused by sustained assault from the left-wing radical political groups, peasants, and masses on the streets. This topic is important as it shows how common people get offended when there is incompetency with their leaders. There was resentment towards King Louis XVI, and added to the radical sentiments prevailing during his time the revolution began.

The main sources are Napoleon's correspondence, the Law passed…. [read more]

French Revolution and Its Enlightenment Essay

… During this era, women also began to demand the same rights as men, which was perhaps the most radical idea of all by the standards of the 18th and 19th Centuries, but the demand that women have equal voting, citizenship and educational rights slowly gained momentum in the century after the Revolution (Hunt: 17).

German philosophers like Hegel admired the French Revolution for creating a modern nation state, although Germany was not united by liberal or democratic methods but the 'blood and iron' policies of Otto von Bismarck. For Hegel, though, no isolated individuals existed in the abstract sense, since they were always part of a family, community and nation, sharing in a common culture (Smith 224). He did seek a united Germany led by…. [read more]

French Revolution an Analysis Essay

… All of these things were essentially accomplished in the time period known as the Reign of Terror (September 1793-July 1794).

The Reign of Terror played an integral part in fomenting the Revolution beyond its previous moderate expanse, and Maximilien Robespierre played a central role in the Reign when he passionately made such declarations as, "The tyrants of this earth have made their plans. The defenders of the Republic are to be their sacrifices. Very well…we shall save freedom by the severest measures, we shall not consent to be murdered one by one" (51). Severest measures turned out to be the murder of others, whose heads were lost at the guillotine.

The character of the Reign of Terror was given by Robespierre, "for he believed that…. [read more]

French Revolution for Many People Term Paper

… 224).

The European nobility and monarchs watched in horror, the alternations taking place in France. They feared the same fate in their own respective states. Some radicals were watchful to expand their radical ideals all over Europe. Consequently, some countries took immediate action. Prussia and Austria requested France to retain Louis to his previous position as the monarch. In April 1792, the Legislative assembly decided to declare war. The war was discomforting for France. In the 1792's summer, Prussian forces had been pushing towards Paris. A threat was made to destruct Paris from existence, if revolutionaries made a move on the royal family. The Parisians were revolted. During August, at least 20,000 people attacked Tuileries, which was the humble abode of the royal family. The…. [read more]

French Revolution Many People Believe Term Paper

… French Revolution

Many people believe that the French Revolution in 1789 was a "class" revolution, that is, the workers rising up against those in power to overthrow them and establish a more equitable government. Perhaps because Communism is so strongly tied to ideas of revolution, social explanations for the events that led to the French Revolution are common (Censer, 2003). However, accounts of the Revolution lack the slogans common to Communism, such as "Workers arise!" While the Revolution might be described in terms of class, since the Royalty were over thrown by everyone else, hostility to the "divine right of kings" (Barker, 1993) is a rather incomplete defense for calling this event any kind of class struggle except for the obvious one that the Royals…. [read more]

French Revolution - All Classes of Society Term Paper

… French Revolution - All Classes of Society against the Old System of Government?

Without a doubt, the French Revolution was not a revolution in which all the classes went against the old, established form of government, being a monarchy under the rule of King Louis XVI. For the most part, the classes that were heavily involved in the revolution were the lower and middle classes, especially those that lived under conditions of extreme poverty while Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette enjoyed the pleasures and riches at the palace of Versailles.

Generally speaking, the French Revolution was started by a number of revolutionary liberals who wanted to do away with the outmoded and corrupted government controlled by the French aristocracy, especially the monarchy of…. [read more]

French Revolution the Classical Era -1800) Research Paper

… French Revolution

The Classical Era (1750-1800)

The Classical Era, lasting from 1750-1800, recaptured the aesthetic ideals of ancient Greece and Rome.

It is defined by the emergence of the enlightened ideas of philosophers that favored reason, clarity, and breaking down class barriers.

On the rise were composers such as Bach, Haydn, and Mozart, each of whose music can help define this time.

Vienna was the musical center of Europe, yet it was far from the only place creating a buzz. Around the world at this time, life changing discoveries and inventions were occurring as well as events that would shape history.

In the early part of this era, inventions were changing the way people lived their lives. In 1751, Benjamin Franklin discovered the electrical properties…. [read more]

Enlightenment and Its Effects on the French Revolution Thesis

… ¶ … Enlightenment and the French Revolution

The Enlightenment represents a period of intellectual advancement characterized by a burgeoning espousal of secularism, humanity, and freedom from the late sixteenth century to the advent of the French Revolution (Gay; Outram; Cassirer). While there is no clear consensus with regard to when the Enlightenment began, its culmination was unequivocally as an impetus for the French Revolution, which advanced fundamental changes in individuals' personal freedoms and liberties as a result of the principles of Enlightenment philosophy (Gay; Outram; Lefebvre; Rude). Among the influential philosophers of the Enlightenment period were John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Francois-Marie Arouet, Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brede et de Montesquieu, Thomas Hobbes and Denis Diderot (Outram; Gay; Cassirer). Immanuel Kant, the Prussian eighteen…. [read more]

Enlightenment and the French Revolution Essay

… Then something went horribly wrong.

While the new French Assembly was transforming French society, they failed to deal with the fiscal crisis which the old King had originally called them together to deal with. The economy collapsed, lawlessness ruled in the countryside, famine spread, and those in power were too busy transforming society to deal with the problems of everyday life. In response to this seemingly lack of concern, the people revolted again, only this time it was against those who had overthrown the King. By Sept. Of 1792 the radicals, led by Robespierre, Danton, Marat, and the Duke of Orleans, seized control of the government and created the "Committee of Public Safety," an organization which gave themselves dictatorial powers. (Kennedy 1989, 299) These radicals…. [read more]

French Revolution: Giving and Taking Freedom Term Paper

… ¶ … French Revolution: Giving and Taking Freedom

The French Revolution occurred during a time when Europe was experiencing a number of social, economic, political and philosophical changes (Troyansky, Cismaru, Andrews, Jr., 1991) Historians David G. Troyansky, Alfred Cismaru, Norwood Andrews Jr.; write that there was an old and new mindset at work, and that the new ideas of the Enlightenment, which also carried remnants of Renaissance thinking (Troyansky, Cismaru, Andrews, Jr., 1991). The authors clarifying, stating that, "As Condorcet argues in his Esquisse, generations tend to retain the prejudices of youth and, as the language of eighteenth-century biology puts it, harden as they age (p. 21)." This means that the youth, the product of the Enlightenment, were coming of age in conflict with the…. [read more]

English American and French Revolution Essay

… Enlightenment and Revolution

Democratizing institutional trends almost always follow their endorsement by philosophical reasoning. This was true with the governments of ancient Athens and the more modern United States; it was also apparent in many of the Reformation movements that took place within and around the Catholic Church. But arguably the most direct link between individualistic and humanistic trends in philosophy and the establishment of a democratic -- or at least more democratic -- government occurred in the transition of the Enlightenment thinking of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and its lead up to the French Revolution and Napoleon's republican government.

Much of this Enlightenment thinking actually took place across the Channel in England. During the civil war there, Thomas Hobbes wrote his seminal Leviathan,…. [read more]

Was the French Revolution a Class War? Term Paper

… French Revolution

Was it a War of the Classes?

The purpose of this work is to research the French Revolution and answer the question as to whether the revolution was a class war.

The French Revolution began in the year of 1789 and lasted approximately a decade until the year 1799. During that decade the transformation of France took place and the political and social restructuring of the country occurred. It has been suggested that the war was one between the classes in France while there are implications, which lead one to believe that the war was based on religious differences. The French Revolution has been stated to provide the "most influential model of popular insurrection until the Russian Revolution of 1917." (MSN Encarta Encyclopedia,…. [read more]

French Revolution Revisited No Moment Term Paper

… As the war progressed, it was unfortunately necessary to put aside some of the last trappings of democracy in favor of a sufficiently powerful leader that could save the country. This was Napoleon. While his pride and military willingness to go beyond mere defense certainly made the war last far longer than it otherwise might have, it is important to remember that Napoleon did not actually start the war between France and the rest of Europe. Nonetheless, his rise to power and the wars that followed all stemmed from the Revolution in one way or another.

The social changes wrought by Napoleon are difficult to separate from the social changes created by the Revolution; what is certain is that before the Revolution France was feudalistic…. [read more]

French Revolution: Taking a Macro Book Review

… ¶ … French Revolution:

Taking a macro vs. A micro view of the conflicts

Generally speaking, there are two approaches to analyzing historical narratives. One approach is to take a broad, far-reaching view of historical events with a generalist's perspective. Another is to take a micro-view of events and to focus in on a specific aspect of history in great detail, only to later show how it is emblematic of a larger event. In Origins of the French Revolution, historian William Doyle takes the former approach while in Religion and Revolution in France: 1780-1804, Nigel Aston takes the latter.

According to Doyle, previous histories of the French Revolution have tended to fall into three categories: the first, earliest interpretation, heavily influenced by Marxism, proclaimed that…. [read more]

Enlightenment on the French Revolution Term Paper

… Later, in 1748, Montesquieu published a book called Spirit of Laws, which presented a "comparative political analysis of the conditions most favorable to liberty," according to LEF:EFR's research.

Yet another major 17th Century contributor to what was later to be called The Enlightenment was Rene Descartes, who made famous the phrase, "I think, therefore I am." Descartes, however, while he attempted to use reason in defense of Christianity, "committed so many logical faults that his successors over the centuries were to slowly disintegrate his gains," Brians asserts.

Enlightenment Heavyweights: Voltaire vs. Rousseau

And as the 17th Century evolved into the 18th Century, philosophers like Voltaire emerged; while taking the position that tyranny and dogma were bad for civilization, and that educated and sophisticated people could…. [read more]

French Revolution Was the Consequence Term Paper

… S. Constitution and stories of the new democracy. French philosophers criticism of the monarchy actually influenced the wording of the U.S. Constitution. This was a period of enlightenment, a period when astute political philosophers abounded and freedom fighters were timely and triumphant. Peasants began to advance concepts such as self-determination and revolution. It is right to fight tyranny. No taxation without representation. Men should have liberal freedoms. A republic is superior to a monarchy.

Voltaire was extremely critical of the Church. He denounced religious persecution, torture, and unfair taxes, each prohibited by the U.S. Constitution. Montesquieu advocated checks and balances in government with separate legislature, judiciary and executive. This was also apart of the U.S. Constitution. Rousseau championed direct democracy rather than representational democracy, which…. [read more]

Religion French Revolution Term Paper

… Religion

French Revolution

The French Revolution and the resulting Reign of Terror were an attempt to create a government based on ideals from the enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers were scientific, rather than romantic or metaphysical, and they believed everyone should be equal, and no one was above law or reproach. Many did not believe in God, but believed in scientific explanations for the creation of the universe and subsequent events. The attempt to create a democratic French government followed closely on the heels of the American Revolution, which many people felt was a great triumph of Enlightenment's ideals and values. The framers of the French Revolution were fighting the tyranny of a monarchy and for personal participation in government and lawmaking.

The French Revolution was an…. [read more]

Origins of the French Revolution Term Paper

… ¶ … origins of the French revolution

According to historian Steven Kreis, "the causes of the French Revolution are complicated, so complicated that a debate still rages among historians regarding origins, causes and results. In general, the real causes of the Revolution must be located in the rigid social structure of French society during the ancien regime" (Kreis 2000). However, to merely attribute the revolution to the feudal structure of French society, known as the ancien regime that subdivided French society into three estates, or social classes, that of the clergy, nobility, and 'commoners' is not enough of an explanation to truly understand why the revolution occurred. Historians give different weight to the role of the bourgeois, the extent to which tensions between and within…. [read more]

Atlantic Revolutions Essay

… " (Klooster, 2009, p.115) The Creoles are reported to have held the elite status in peninsulares of Spanish-born officeholders, merchants, and military officers whose career had brought them to the Americas and whose children were frequently creoles." (Klooster, 2009, p.115) At the top of the hierarchy was the monarch's seat stated "universally seen as a benevolent ruler and the source of all justice, whose role it was to arbitrate disputes." (Klooster, 2009, p.115) The noble, commoner, Creole or peninsular, all whites are reported to have "found themselves at the apex of societies that were organized according to racial hierarchies." (Klooster, 2009, p.115) At the start there was separation between Indian communities and Spanish towns even though the Spaniards and mestizos "began to settle in highland…. [read more]

Russian/French Revolution the Nature Term Paper

… Russian/French Revolution

The nature of Revolution is both social and political. What begins as a social movement in order to give the masses or the lower economic classes a better chance in life can turn to a political movement because of the seizure of power in order to affect change. The French Revolution of 1789 and the Russian Revolution of 1917 have similar causes. In both cases, a long-established monarchy fell, and the repressed working classes hoped and believed they would have a better life as a result. Sadly, both revolutions are most notable for what happened after the official fighting ended. In France, the resulting rise of Napoleon and the Napoleonic wars seriously diminished the glorious mood of the revolution. In Russia, the rise…. [read more]

Middle Ages to the French Revolution Essay

… Middle Ages to the French Revolution and Beyond

Middle Ages

Culture wars during the Middle Ages to the French Revolution and beyond:

Five issues or challenges between the Middle Ages and the French Revolution that will shed light on a contemporary problem faced by society today

Much has been said about the so-called 'culture war,' or divide between red and blue states America. Conventional wisdom suggests that there is a growing chasm between conservative and liberal individuals within the American nation. These culture wars regarding the role of religion, the individual, the role of the state in curtailing the abuses of capitalism, the role of women, and the role of nationalism are not new. Rather, such issues can be traced far back in history, back…. [read more]

Revolution by Edmund Burke and Marie Jean Essay

… ¶ … revolution by Edmund Burke and Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, the Marquis de Condorcet. Burke disapproves of the French Revolution, and makes that very clear in his writing. He believes that religion and government are intertwined and that atheism is "against reason" (Burke 107) and it cannot succeed. He believes the revolutionaries are rioters and they are seeking something they should not seek. He believes that democracy cannot be perfect and that it is brazen, and that the revolutionaries are not consistent and their demands are only temporary and fleeting. He defines his own concept of the rights of man, and it says that men have certain rights in society, but those rights do not include all things for every person. He defines…. [read more]

Revolutions the History of Modern Term Paper

… Had the French Revolution not occurred, similar impulses elsewhere (especially in North America) would likely have occurred, nevertheless.

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution radically changed the lives of millions of people throughout the 19th century. Previously, the vast majority of people across Europe never traveled more than a few miles from their homes during their entire lives and received little timely information about what was happening elsewhere in the world (Riley, Gerome, Myers, et al., 2005). The introduction of the telegraph, telephone, and modern printing processes allowed ordinary people to become aware of important national and international events for the first time (Riley, Gerome, Myers, et al., 2005).

Likewise, the development of railroads and powered oceanic vessels tremendously increased the opportunities of ordinary people…. [read more]

Third Estate and the French Essay

… This led to manufacturing depression where, there was a serious food shortage, prices of food and other goods rose up steeply, with high unemployment rates in the cities. The situation was dire for the high number of poor in the population, who comprised a third of the population (Spielvogel 402). This number reached a crisis proportion on the eve of the French revolution. However, it was the grievances of the middle class third estate, which led to the call for the Estates-General, the French parliament meeting by King Louis XVI.

Still split over the elimination of the traditional privileges, the Estate-General meetings and the grievances presented to the parliament were the main ideals of the third estate on the eve of the revolution. However, the…. [read more]

French Enlightenment the Failure Term Paper

… Looking at the country's history of the enlightenment, an observer can say that French society embodied the new, modern society, a model that should have been the picture of an industrialized society.

However, society tells us that the opposite scenario happened in the case of France: while England and the rest of Europe began modernizing and industrializing their societies, France remained far behind, unable to recover from the political and economic downfall that came with the emergence of the French Revolution.

The French Revolution is the result of the enlightenment's philosophies and ideologies, a demonstration of the power of the French society to induce social reform in their country. However, there have been mixed reactions and opinions across Europe regarding this French political event of…. [read more]

Enlightenment Movement Term Paper

… Enlightenment

The Declaration of the Rights of Women" versus "The Declaration of the Rights of Man"

Enlightenment thought posited that the human animal, defined as the male animal in "The Declaration of the Rights of Man" of 1789, was inherently free in its natural state. However, social laws and customs hemmed most of humanity in, and limited the freedom of the human potential for goodness. Limitations upon freedom were occasionally necessary, for the common good, but more often limitations by law were placed upon persons to enrich the ruling classes for the profit of the minority. Thus, "The Declaration of the Rights of Man" held in Article 6: "All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and…. [read more]

Enlightenment Essay

… What Babcock defines as a typical Enlightenment-era Rousseau-inspired notion -- to "think government is the institution that is going to tinker with these bad institutions and [make] things better" -- has been a profound influence on both the rationale for, and the results of, the American Revolution.

But why put a symbol of the Enlightenment on the American dollar bill? Economics as a science is an invention of the Enlightenment, and it is worth noting that the central assumption of most economic theory -- that man is a rational being that makes rational choices -- is precisely what Babcock points to as intellectual overreach in the Enlightenment, where "the modern materialist…believes in the unifying power of human reason" (Babcock 223). Although Babcock suggests that the…. [read more]

Enlightenment in the Late 17th Thesis

… And this also applied to human endeavors, such as society. Therefore, the acceptance that humans are part of the natural world led to the understanding that humans were subject to natural laws.

This understanding led to the second element of the Enlightenment, application of knowledge to the world around. This led to advances in agriculture, medicine, machinery, science, religion, politics, and society in general. For instance, some took the rapidly expanding knowledge of nature and used it to develop the modern sciences, the classification of species, a better knowledge of geography, and the development of machinery which resulted in the Industrial Revolution. But others, like John Locke, applied the knowledge of the natural world to human government and developed the idea that governments exist for…. [read more]

American Revolution and Outbreak of French Research Paper

… ¶ … American Revolution contribute to the outbreak of the French revolution?

The American and the French revolutions are two important moments in the history of Western civilization. They are part of a wider movement which characterized the 19th century worldwide. However, it can be said that the French revolution, as opposed to the American one, was the emerging element for the development of revolutionary strives around the world. Even so, it is important to consider the two important moments in history, the American and the French revolutions by comparison and interconnectivity.

The thesis of the research paper focuses on these two particular moments in time. More precisely, the thesis revolves around the question concerning the extent to which the U.S. revolution influenced the French…. [read more]

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