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Environment and Islamic Architecture Research Paper

… Environment and Islamic Architecture

As the term implies, "Islamic architecture" is an architectural style that is characterized by functional elements and forms that are inspired by the Islamic religion, and which serves as a framework in which Islamic tenets can be implemented, celebrated and sustained over time. Graceful arabesques, Romanesque horseshoe arches and domes all typify many Islamic architectural styles, but the range and types of buildings that have been included under the umbrella term Islamic architecture in recent years also includes some nontraditional and neo-Islamic architecture as well. Beyond these trends, there has also been a move towards incorporating environmentally friendly elements into Islamic architecture in recent years as well, making a review of these issues a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end,…. [read more]

Architecture Modernism Dissertation

… Architecture

Modernism in architecture came about in the 20th century as it introduced completely innovative ways of thinking. The way that "designers, architects and engineers conceptualized, fabricated, and evaluated these environments has been the subject of very intense debate" (Doordan 2003, p x). The maxim created by Louis Sullivan, "form follows function," was one of the most central points of debate and will be contemplated in Chapter One of this paper.

Form follows function is often credited as the main principle of modern architecture; however, there are a slew of modern architects who would disagree with this tenet, one of those architects was Frank Lloyd Wright, a former assistant of Sullivan. Adolf Loos is another important designer of the 20th century who spoke passionately about…. [read more]

Architecture Through the Ages Mesopotamia Literature Review

… The Erechtheum and the small temple of Athena on the Acropolis are Ionic however. The Ionic order became dominant in the Hellenistic period, since its more decorative style suited the aesthetic of the period better than the more restrained Doric. Records show that the evolution of the Ionic order was resisted by many Greek States, as they claimed it represented the dominance of Athens. Some of the best surviving Hellenistic buildings, such as the Library of Celsus, can be seen in Turkey at cities such as Ephesus and Pergamum. But in the greatest of Hellenistic cities, Alexandria in Egypt, almost nothing survives, so Greek art and architecture was at its apex during this time.

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was a revolutionary period due to…. [read more]

Architecture H-Conclusion History of the Renaissance Metaphorically Essay

… Architecture


History of the Renaissance

Metaphorically speaking, the term Renaissance has been associated with rebirth and images of freedom, light, openness and creativity. These connotations stem from the historical origins of the Renaissance which took place approximately from the mid 15th to early 17th centuries and was a foundational period in European history. This period saw the emergence of a different intellectual as well as artistic view of life and reality. The creative sources of the classical era were revivified and there was a resurgence of a more interrogative and questioning attitude towards life and reality.

It should be pointed out that the Renaissance should not be understood in an historical sense as a sudden, radical break or a change for the Dark Ages…. [read more]

Islamic Monument Comparison Between the Dome Essay

… Islamic Monument

Comparison between the Dome of the Rock and the Khirbat al-Mafjar, Jordan

The Islamic faith is one which has always blurred the line between secular and sacred life. For the observant Muslim, there are few aspects of one's daily life which are viewed as being necessarily separate from the tenets, practices and community rites of the faith. Therefore, a discussion on the distinctions between secular and sacred spaces in the Islamic faith is somewhat inherently cloudy. Even as spaces are designed for secular uses, the proclivities of the community will often see this space become a pat of the religious life as well. Indeed, worship and adherence are two characteristics of Islamic faith that are permeating and consequential even in irreligious pursuits such…. [read more]

Life and Work of Women in Early Islamic Era Research Paper

… ¶ … art forms of Islam include architecture, literature, arabesque and calligraphy. These art forms became prominent throughout the Islamic world due in large part to religious restrictions on the depiction of idols which precluded artistic expression in sculpture or paintings, for example, and the efforts of Islamic artists were focused on refining the art forms that were available to them. As a result, calligraphy assumed a prominent place in the Islamic world, with skilled practitioners being held in high esteem and even becoming important governmental officials as the result of their calligraphic talents. Although there is a growing body of knowledge concerning the origins and development of Islamic calligraphy in general, there is less known concerning the role of women calligraphers in the early…. [read more]

Contemporary Crafts Essay

… ¶ … people define themselves in many expressive and artistic ways. By their songs and their poetry. By their food and their clothing. By their literature and by their buildings. Each one of these cultural forms is the creation of a particular moment in time and place, for everything changes and is transformed. Even a society that as fundamentally traditional in many ways as is Saudi Arabia, change is a constant. And even in an art form as seemingly stable and untransformable as architecture, there is always artistic growth. Artists in all media are conduits for their culture and history (as well as reifiers of these). The architects of Saudi Arabia have, over time, reflected the changing nuances of Saudi culture as well as the…. [read more]

Jewish, Christian Islamic Belief? Essay

… "The major surviving examples are mural and ceiling paintings in the catacombs of Rome and marble sarcophagi depicting Old and New Testament stories" (Kleiner 145).

The New Testament reflects early Christian feelings and when compared with the Old Testament demonstrates the ideas that Christians did not appreciate concerning Judaism. The Canonic Gospels are written by Jesus' apostles and are meant to depict his life and his teachings with the purpose of presenting Christians with more information regarding the attitudes that the religion promotes and the general character of Jesus Christ. Epistles were used as communication channels between Christians and between Apostles and various groups that they wanted to reach out to.

Islam is the youngest religion mentioned in this document and in spite of its…. [read more]

Contemporary Crafts Literature Review

… ¶ … Crafts

A review of literature on traditional and contemporary architectural elements reveals core concepts related to the interface between form and function. Design parallels social, cultural, and geo-climactic conditions. The architecture becomes the most basic manifestation of social norms, beliefs, and practices. Moreover, a mystical and spiritual dimension is often revealed in the traditional architectures of Saudi Arabia, but is embedded and concealed rather than being overt. For example, Abu-Ghazzeh notes that the mensuration of traditional buildings in Al-Alkhalaf is based on the ratios of measurement in the human body. The ratios can be viewed as a practical means of determining architectural and decorative elements as well as testimony to the spiritual connections between human being, home, and environment. Moreover, there is a…. [read more]

History of the Modern Era in Summary Essay

… History Of the Modern Era

In summary, the four historical periods of the modern Western history all played their part in the development of the areas of project management expertise and their application to building project activities. The development of knowledge and commerce during the span of the modern era, helped to facilitate the scientific and economic development that was crucial to the supporting society, its projects, and its project leaders. This chapter has provided a basic showcase of the relationships between cultural, religious and humanity themes that dominated from the Renaissance to the Machine Age.

Many of the antecedents of the contemporary age of architecture can be traced back to the Renaissance. This period of history shaped and expanded the European worldview and had…. [read more]

Ancient Buildings With Modern Los Angeles Research Paper

… Karim Snoussi

Christoph Korner

Roman Visions

Take a drive around the always-crowded streets of Los Angeles and you'll notice scores of buildings whose architects drew their inspiration at least in part from the ancient world -- from Babylon and Mesopotamia as well (more commonly) Greece and Rome. Such heavy stylistic borrowing from the cities of Greece and Rome should not be surprising given how many American cities have buildings with Classical and Neoclassical elements. Americans, whose country was born during the Enlightenment's celebration of the Classical world, are inclined to borrow from Greece and Rome in part because of those societies' historical values. This paper examines a number of buildings in Los Angeles that have been influenced by Roman architectural styles. These buildings have thus…. [read more]

History of Project Management at the Dawn Essay

… History of project management at the dawn of civilization can be looked at from two different civilisations -- Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. In this section both of these civilsations will be looked at from the perspective of cconstruction technology, architectural design, culture, science, economics, labour, and management, which all led to the creation of the master builder. The first ancient societies arose in Mesopotamia and Egypt in the Middle East. These civilisations had certain features in common. They built cities, invented forms of writing, learned to make pottery and use metals, domesticated animals, and created fairly complex social structures that included class systems.

It is possible to say that the concept of project management has been around since the beginning of history. It has enabled…. [read more]

Contemporary Craft Essay

… ¶ … Art of Building Construction in Al-Alkhalaf Village

Saudi Arabia

Understanding the difference between Vernacular and Modern architecture

Vernacular architecture is architecture which is representative of the anthropological and historical community in which it exists.

Modern architecture is architecture more representative of an increasingly global and technologically aware world view

Positives of Vernacular architecture

Provides a direct link with the contextual history of a given place, a view of the various changes and developments which a specific community has experienced

More environmentally aware, previous to this dependence on technology, architects had to use local materials as well as work with the natural geography of an area as opposed to reshaping nature to fit man's aesthetics

Effects of Modernization

a. Architects in order to conform…. [read more]

Communication Islamic Countries Freedom Essay

… This could have dire effects for foreign businesses attempting to enter the country.

Another case in point is the violence in Papua (Human Rights Watch, 2012). This violence, not directly related to press freedom, has not been covered adequately or indeed accurately by the general press as a result of the very tradition of violence that also translates to direct violence against journalists. In other words, a sense of fear has been cultivated among members of the press, discouraging either honesty or accuracy in reporting, especially where culturally or socially sensitive material such as political violence is concerned.

The same is true for the UAE, where the government itself has played an active role in cultivating a fear campaign against journalists (El-Baltaji, 2009). The same…. [read more]

Environmental Issues, Business Ethics Research Paper

… In addition, Lebanon lacks analogous regulatory elements that uphold ethics programs. Companies in the region focus on their initiatives that contribute towards the long-term sustainability of the company.

Corporate integrity and ethics can also fall on this focus, but they hardly focused on it. The type of business here aims in moneymaking. The initiatives include good governance within the company and corporate responsibility including some ethic programs. Their main aim is to improve the country's operations, and ignoring the ethical needs. The companies forget about the workforce as being a powerful asset (Herde, 2005).


For example, Dubai aspires in being an international business spot. Corporate responsibility has happened in Dubai for over three years, and at this point, there are no developed best business…. [read more]

Power, Interdependence, and Nonstate Actors Research Paper

… Power, Interdependence, And Nonstate Actors in World Politics

Power, Interdependence, and Non-state Actors in World Politics

In the late 1970s, new approaches emerged concerning international relations. Although the constituents of the new approaches appear in numerous literatures, several political scholars combined the themes in the various literatures to develop a competitor to realism, which later led to the formulation of neo-realism. This model was first discussed in Power and Interdependence; however, this approach is currently popular and referred to as neo-liberal institutionalism. After three decades since Power and Interdependence, numerous studies suggest that this new model has gained significant international relations. On the other hand, After Hegemony, which is core to the neo-liberal model, provided the most compelling theoretical support for the existences and role…. [read more]

Assessing the Physical and Educational Differences of Harvard and Salem State University Research Paper

… ¶ … Physical Educational Differences of Harvard and Salem State University

Harvard University and Salem State University have one thing in common and that is that they shared the same state. Harvard University is considered to be an American private Ivy League research university that happens to be in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts. However, Salem State University is not considered a private school but it is a four-year public University with its location in Salem, Massachusetts. Harvard is considered to be the oldest organization of higher learning in all of the United States and Salem is not. Harvard's history, impact, and prosperity turned it into one of the most respected universities in the world. Salem University is far from being prestigious and not the…. [read more]

About Saudi Arabia Term Paper

… Saudi Arabia

The official name of Saudi Arabia is Al-Mamlaka al-Arabiya as-Saudiya or the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SAMIRAD 2008). It is located in the Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen. Its land area of more than 2 million square kilometers consists of deserts, plateaus and mountains, the highest point of which is Jabal Sawda. Most recent statistics say it has close to 25 million people, 72% of whom are Saudi citizens. The official language is Arabic and the official religion is Islam. Its flag is the Green Banner of Islam with the inscription: "there is no God but God and Muhammad is his Messenger." A sword was added to this flag in 1906, which symbolizes Islamic victories…. [read more]

Bible Role & Characteristics of God's Angels Essay

Angels of the Lord

Chapter 3: Angels

Angels have been used by God to accomplish his purposes and to assist his people throughout history both recorded and unrecorded history. Angels are mentioned 273 times in the scripture and in 33 of the 66 books of the Bible. (Fruchtenbaum, nd) Angels are mentioned in the Gospels and for instance in the book of Matthew 16:27 where it states as follows:

"For the Son of Man shall come in the glory of his Father with His angels, and then he shall reward each one according to his works."

The Book of Acts in chapter 7: 52-53 states as follows:

"Which of the prophets did your fathers not persecute? And they killed…. [read more]

Internet Governance by U.S. Government Research Paper

… These governmental agencies are charged with defining the limits of Internet privacy and security for consumers -- and then working to establish regulations that are balanced and fair to both consumers and enterprises. But representatives of these agencies admit that they are years behind where they would like to be -- and where consumers think they should be. There has been some movement in the privacy arena as companies doing business on the Web voluntarily participate in programs that give consumers opportunity to opt out of tracking. Categorically speaking, Internet privacy is quite a different animal from freedom of expression on the Internet. Nevertheless, the point is taken that the temporal gap between praxis and regulation is a consistent source of difficulty and a drain…. [read more]

Poetic of Divine Light Term Paper

… ¶ … Poetic of Divine Light

Divine Light

The concept of "divine light" can be regarded in terms of many areas of life. Particularly in these modern times, the concept of the divine has stretched and evolved to include a variety of principles, religions, and lifestyles. This makes "divine light" itself a difficult concept to define or focus. To shed some light on the topic, one might investigate for example the origin of the concept and how it integrated with social values and ideals of the time.

According to Robert Pasnau, the "divine light," or divine illumination, is perceived as a particularly Christian, concept, and distinctly Augustinian. This idea is based upon Christian medieval philosophy, and the prominent role the concept played in Augustine's theory…. [read more]

Banking in the 1899 Case Essay

… For example, offering the loyal customers higher interest-rates, service on a certain transactions at reduced or at zero service charges etc. Another strategy that can be employed by traditional banks in terms of retail, that is core banking services. Consumer banking is the fortification of the core banking services that it provides. Core Banking services are basically the services provided by a network of bank branches. A customer can conduct transactions from any of these branches or access their funds from any of the branches even though their account is not primarily in that branch

(Infosys).This offers the customer a lot more flexibility and convenience. Thus, Core Banking

systems that connect these branches with one another is a technology that traditional banks should consider necessary…. [read more]

Public Space: "The Living Room Research Paper

… Public Space: "The Living Room of the City"

The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). defines public space as "the living room of the city - the place where people come together to enjoy the city and each other." Modernity has encroached on the concept of public space by confining the most mundane aspects of daily life to the enclave of the private home. For example, the collection of water, access to washing facilities, and the production of food is collectivized in traditional village communities but not in modern metropolises. Public space in the modern city has therefore been carefully planned, to ensure quality of life and create cities that are pleasant, walkable, and convenient.

Public space is one of the keynotes of architectural design in…. [read more]

Firm Australia Business Philippine Essay

… S. And Spain, it will be quite easy for the company to manage to breakthrough in the Philippines which is somewhat a mash-up of Spanish and American cultures. Therefore, this is a low risk item Rodell, 2002()

Economic issues

The economy of the Philippines is the 45th largest economy in the whole wide world. The country has an estimated GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of 216 billion U.S. dollars. The major exports of the country are electronic products such as semiconductors, microchips, etc. Mercer, 1996.

Other exports include garments, transport equipment, copper products, coconut oil, petroleum products and fruits. The major trading partners of the country are the U.S., China, Japan, Singaporre, Hong Kong, Netherlands, South Korea, Taiwan, Germany and Thailand. The currency unit that is…. [read more]

Adjustment for Iraqi and Cuban Research Paper

… Surface traits are useful in situational adjustment, thereby required in their adjustment to work environment. The career counseling in this theory focuses on identifying, assessing, and developing surface and source traits and matching them with work skill requirements.

Lastly, in the theory of work adjustment, career counseling for Iraqi and Cuban immigrants will identify and label process variables. This implies the definition of work behavior, to describe the quickness of the immigrant worker's initiative in interacting with the work environment. The goal of the process is to denote the level of an immigrant's effort in expanding their interaction with the work environment and workplace culture. This also involves the identification of the pace, or the pattern of interaction between immigrant and the work environment (McMahon…. [read more]

Globalization and the Demand for Energy in the 21st Century Term Paper

… Globalization and Energy Demands in the 21st Century

According to a May 2004 report from Deloitte Research, supplying enough energy on a reliable basis at prices that will not cripple the global economic growth has become a challenge with consequences that are difficult to predict (Globalization pp). Although this will provide new opportunities for oil and gas companies, pipelines, generators, utilities and others in the energy business, it also carries serious risks (Globalization pp). The demand for energy is growing, not only in the developed economies of Europe, Japan and North American, but in developing countries as well (Globalization pp). In fact, the fastest demand growth is in China and other emerging markets, thus from one side of the globe to the other, societies are…. [read more]

Cultural and Construction History of the Romanesque Period Essay

… Cultural and Construction History Of Romanesque Period

Cultural Environment

The term Romanesque is an architectural category that refers to the art and architecture of the Mid -- Late Medieval Period in Europe (1000 to 1240 AD). It was coined in the nineteenth century to delineate features of the post-Roman Empire style. The Romanesque period saw the decline and downfall of the Roman Empire, a vacuum that was filled by the Roman Catholic Church. During this time, cathedrals and castles connected with the church and the Crusades sprang up in stone. Their Romanesque elements comprise round-headed arches, barrel vaults, apses, and decorations, and in southern Europe are often blended with Byzantine elements (Atrisgerinko). Additionally, the Romanesque style developed to reflect a rebirth of art, science, and…. [read more]

Evolution of Project Management Research Paper



"Archetypically, Apollo manifests as an image of the modern project manager-one who works well within the interior of her or his organization, moving effortlessly across and between horizontal boundaries, but does not adopt the necessities of power in order to move vertically"

(Henderson, Interpretation and Discussion Section ¶ 11).

History Confirms Project Management's Value

Professions like architecture, engineering, medicine, economic, technology, astronomy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, etc. all have their own well-documented history. As a professional architect, the researcher asserts that project management also deserves a relevant recount of its history. Since ancient times, people throughout the world have been building projects that enrich one's cultural heritage and have contributed to project management's remarkable, relevant evolution. The pyramids of Egypt and…. [read more]

Project Management History Essay

… Project Management

History of Project Management Prior to Classical Antiquity

The current definition of project management is the very deliberate orchestration of people, resources, money and time to complete a specific project. The first step is the development of a project plan, which includes a task breakdown, a list of resources needed, a budget and a timeline. The planning phase is then followed by the implementation phase, the actual organization and use of resources to accomplish the specified goal.

Project management has evolved over the ages; as culture, knowledge, and construction skills, tool and techniques evolved so did the purpose and construction of buildings. This essay looks at the societal, the managerial, and the scientific changes, which took place prior to classical antiquity. The impact…. [read more]

Western Civilization From Prehistory Term Paper

… The British, French, and other empires spread across the globe. And although neither country was in the strict sense "ruled by a monarch," the idea behind the concept remained the same. Territorial expansion was a means toward achieving glory and immortality.

Of course, things have changed in the more than two thousand years since Alexander's time. In recent centuries, the way of the warrior has lost something of its old luster, and would-be conquerors have found it increasingly essential to justify their ambitions by other means. So, in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries we have the concept of the White Man's burden, and the idea of the Western Powers bringing enlightenment and civilization to the benighted races of the Earth. Still more recently, however, even…. [read more]

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